Presentation on theme: "Notes for B 2.3 Classification systems change as scientists learn more."— Presentation transcript:
Notes for B 2.3 Classification systems change as scientists learn more.
Taxonomy changes as scientists make discoveries. Early scientists described 2 kingdoms: Plants: green and nonmoving Animals: moving organisms
Three Domains Microscopes and other advances in technology show that there are basically 3 different types of cells. Kingdoms are arranged into 3 larger groups called domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Three Domains Bacteria: includes bacteria kingdom » No nucleus » Unicellular » Vary in how they get energy
Archaea Kingdom Archaea No nucleus (prokaryotic) Unicellular Vary in how they obtain energy Distinctive chemistry and live in extreme environments
Eukarya Includes Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia Eukaryotic (have nuclei) Some unicellular, most multicellular Vary in the ways they obtain food See chart on page B 61.
Six Kingdoms Plantae Animalia Protista Fungi Archaea Bacteria See pages 62 and 63 for an overview of all of these kingdoms you studied in seventh grade.
The two most familiar kingdoms are plants and animals. Carolus Linneaus divided all the species he identified into these 2 groups. PlantaeDNA stored in a nucleus Can carry out photosynthesis to make sugars Contain cell walls around their cell membrane Cannot move from place to place Multicellular
Animalia More than 90% of named species are insects. Obtain energy by eating organisms or by eating food made by other organisms Can move around for at least part of their lives Most have mouths and nervous systems Have nuclei (eukaryotic) No cell walls
Other organisms make up four more kingdoms. Linnaeus: called mushrooms, molds, and their relatives plants Archaea, Bacteria, and Protista are mostly microscopic. Most organisms on Earth are classified as bacterial or archaea—prokaryotic, small, and simple.
Protista Most unicellular Large, complex with a true nucleus Some eat other organisms. Some make their own food. Some resemble fungi. Most live in water or sea water Seaweeds Some scientist think this should be divided into different kingdoms.
Fungi Yeasts Molds Downy Mildew Most have cell walls Remain rooted in one place Many act as decomposers
Archaea Resemble bacteria in size and shape Genetic differences Appear to be related to eukaryotes, but do not have nuclei Cell structure differs from bacteria Live in many environs, especially the oceans Some live in extreme environs such as geysers, hot springs, hot vents, salty ponds etc.
Bacteria Live nearly everywhere on Earth Helpful/harmful Unicellular Prokaryotes (no nucleus) Most have cell walls, but not the kind plants have Reproduce quickly by binary fission
Species and environments change. Over a million species named Estimated millions—maybe tens of millions– not yet discovered Species evolve over time as individual organisms and environments change. Changes may result in pressures that affect living space, availability of food or other resources, or from other organisms.
Review Questions for B 2.3 Page 67B
Number 1 Plantae Animalia Protista Fungi Bacteria Archaea
Number 2 Organisms are sorted according to general traits.
Number 3 See pages 62-63.
Number 4 Plants use the sun’s energy and air to make sugars. Fungi take in nutrients from their surroundings.
Number 5 No—does not have a nucleus Yes—the membrane and DNA are like a nucleus
Quiz B 2.3 Fill ins:AnimaliaArchaea speciesProtista BacteriaFungi DomainsPlantae (6 terms used) What are the 3 domains? List 2 traits that are used to classify organisms into each domain.