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AP Physics B Equations 1

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for uniformly-accelerated motion that is missing the variable: x (displacement) v = v₀ + atm/s v = final velocitym/s v₀ = initial velocitym/s a = accelerationm/s 2 t = times 2

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for uniformly-accelerated motion that is missing the variable: v (final velocity) x = x₀ + v₀t + ½at²m x = final displacementm x₀ = initial displacementm v₀ = initial velocitym/s a = accelerationm/s 2 t = timem 3

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for uniformly-accelerated motion that is missing the variable: t (time) v² = v₀² + 2a(x – x 0 )(m/s) 2 v = final velocitym/s v 0 = initial velocitym/s a = accelerationm/s 2 x = final displacementm x 0 = initial displacementm 4

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for net force – Newton’s 2 nd Law ΣF = F net = maN F = forceN m = mass kg a = accelerationm/s 2 5

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for the force of friction F fric ≤ μNN F = forceN μ = coefficient of frictionnone N = normal forceN 6

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for centripetal acceleration a c = v 2 /rm/s 2 a = accelerationm/s 2 v = velocitym/s r = radius or distancem 7

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for torque τ = rF sin ΘNm τ = torqueNm r = radius or distancem F = forceN Θ = angledegrees 8

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for momentum p = mvkg m/s p = momentumkg m/s m = masskg v = velocitym/s 9

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for impulse J = F ∆t = ∆pkg m/s J = impulsekg m/s F = forceN t = times p = momentumkg m/s 10

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for kinetic energy K = ½ mv 2 J = kg m 2 /s 2 K = kinetic energyJ m = masskg v = velocitym/s 11

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for gravitational potential energy ∆U g = mghJ = kg m/s 2 m U = potential energyJ m = masskg g = gravitational accelerationm/s 2 h = heightm 12

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for work done on a system W = F ∆r cos ΘJ = N m W = work done on a systemJ F = forceN r = radius or distancem Θ = angledegrees 13

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for average power P avg = W/∆tWatt = N / s P = powerWatt W = work done on a systemN t = times 14

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for instantaneous power P = Fv cos ΘWatt = N/s P = powerW v = velocitym/s Θ = angledegrees 15

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for Hooke’s Law F s = -kxN F = forceN k = spring constantN/m x = radius or distancem 16

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for potential energy of a spring U s = ½ kx 2 N/m m 2 U = potential energyN/m m 2 k = spring constantN/m x = radius or distancem 17

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for period of a spring T s = 2π(m/k) 1/2 s T = periods m = masskg k = spring constantN/m 18

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for period of a pendulum T p = 2π(l/g) 1/2 s T = periods l = lengthm g = gravitational accelerationm/s 2 19

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for period and frequency T = 1/fs T = periods f = frequencycycles = Hertz = cycles/s 20

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for gravitational force – Law of Universal Gravitation F g = - (Gm 1 m 2 )/r 2 N F = forceN G = gravitational constantNm 2 /kg 2 m = masskg r = radius or distancem 21

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for gravitational potential energy U g = - (Gm 1 m 2 )/rJ F = forceN G = gravitational constant Nm 2 /kg 2 m = masskg r = radius or distancem 22

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DIVIDING INTEGERS 1. IF THE SIGNS ARE THE SAME THE ANSWER IS POSITIVE 2. IF THE SIGNS ARE DIFFERENT THE ANSWER IS NEGATIVE.

DIVIDING INTEGERS 1. IF THE SIGNS ARE THE SAME THE ANSWER IS POSITIVE 2. IF THE SIGNS ARE DIFFERENT THE ANSWER IS NEGATIVE.

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