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AP Physics B Equations 1

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for uniformly-accelerated motion that is missing the variable: x (displacement) v = v₀ + atm/s v = final velocitym/s v₀ = initial velocitym/s a = accelerationm/s 2 t = times 2

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for uniformly-accelerated motion that is missing the variable: v (final velocity) x = x₀ + v₀t + ½at²m x = final displacementm x₀ = initial displacementm v₀ = initial velocitym/s a = accelerationm/s 2 t = timem 3

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for uniformly-accelerated motion that is missing the variable: t (time) v² = v₀² + 2a(x – x 0 )(m/s) 2 v = final velocitym/s v 0 = initial velocitym/s a = accelerationm/s 2 x = final displacementm x 0 = initial displacementm 4

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for net force – Newton’s 2 nd Law ΣF = F net = maN F = forceN m = mass kg a = accelerationm/s 2 5

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for the force of friction F fric ≤ μNN F = forceN μ = coefficient of frictionnone N = normal forceN 6

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for centripetal acceleration a c = v 2 /rm/s 2 a = accelerationm/s 2 v = velocitym/s r = radius or distancem 7

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for torque τ = rF sin ΘNm τ = torqueNm r = radius or distancem F = forceN Θ = angledegrees 8

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for momentum p = mvkg m/s p = momentumkg m/s m = masskg v = velocitym/s 9

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for impulse J = F ∆t = ∆pkg m/s J = impulsekg m/s F = forceN t = times p = momentumkg m/s 10

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for kinetic energy K = ½ mv 2 J = kg m 2 /s 2 K = kinetic energyJ m = masskg v = velocitym/s 11

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for gravitational potential energy ∆U g = mghJ = kg m/s 2 m U = potential energyJ m = masskg g = gravitational accelerationm/s 2 h = heightm 12

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for work done on a system W = F ∆r cos ΘJ = N m W = work done on a systemJ F = forceN r = radius or distancem Θ = angledegrees 13

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for average power P avg = W/∆tWatt = N / s P = powerWatt W = work done on a systemN t = times 14

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for instantaneous power P = Fv cos ΘWatt = N/s P = powerW v = velocitym/s Θ = angledegrees 15

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for Hooke’s Law F s = -kxN F = forceN k = spring constantN/m x = radius or distancem 16

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for potential energy of a spring U s = ½ kx 2 N/m m 2 U = potential energyN/m m 2 k = spring constantN/m x = radius or distancem 17

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for period of a spring T s = 2π(m/k) 1/2 s T = periods m = masskg k = spring constantN/m 18

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for period of a pendulum T p = 2π(l/g) 1/2 s T = periods l = lengthm g = gravitational accelerationm/s 2 19

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for period and frequency T = 1/fs T = periods f = frequencycycles = Hertz = cycles/s 20

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for gravitational force – Law of Universal Gravitation F g = - (Gm 1 m 2 )/r 2 N F = forceN G = gravitational constantNm 2 /kg 2 m = masskg r = radius or distancem 21

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Newtonian Mechanics Equation for gravitational potential energy U g = - (Gm 1 m 2 )/rJ F = forceN G = gravitational constant Nm 2 /kg 2 m = masskg r = radius or distancem 22

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