Presentation on theme: "VA/US SOL Review of Unit 1: SOLs 2- 3 Exploration & Colonization."— Presentation transcript:
VA/US SOL Review of Unit 1: SOLs 2- 3 Exploration & Colonization
European Exploration & Colonization Resulted in a redistribution of the world population (voluntarily & involuntarily)
Exploration & Colonization… Initiated worldwide commercial expansion due to Columbian Exchange of agricultural products. Colonization also led to new ideas about representative government & religious tolerance.
America Already populated by Native Americans (Indians) Seen as “Savages” by Europeans
Exploration & Colonization Exploration & settlement of the English in America & the Spanish in the Caribbean, Central & South America, often led to violent conflicts with the Indians. Yet, French exploration in Canada didn’t. – Why not? Indians lost traditional territories & died from diseases.
Different Colonies New England Use of town meetings (like Athens) as a form of direct democracy Southern Colonies Maintained stronger ties w/ England, but had representative colonial legislatures Middle Colonies Incorporated a number of democratic principles that were similar to Englishmen
Slavery/ Indentured Servitude The first Africans were brought against their will in The African slave trade resulted from labor shortages. Slaves were brought over on the Middle Passage Some indentured servants had worked before slaves. Not many more came after slavery became prominent. Slavery eventually led to the Civil War.
13 Original Colonies New England Middle Colonies Southern Colonies
New England Colonies Mainly settled by Puritans seeking religious freedom Also settled by Pilgrims Sought economic opportunities Direct-democracy (town meetings) Covenant Community – God-like – Mayflower Compact & Puritan religious beliefs Intolerant of Non-Puritans
New England Colonies… Economy – Shipbuilding, Fishing, Lumbering, Subsistence farming & (eventually) manufacturing – Valued hard work & thrift Society – Family centered – Religious Standing – Intolerant of dissenters
New England Colonies… Society… – Intolerant Rhode Island: Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson Politics – Church leaders Mix Church & State – Male-dominated – Town Meetings
Middle Colonies Settled mainly by English, Dutch & German- speaking immigrants – NY used to be New Netherlands Wanted religious freedom & economic opportunity Most diverse population
Middle Colonies… Economy – Shipbuilding, Small-scale farming & Trading Skilled artisans NYC & Philly became commercial centers Society – Home to multiple religious groups who believed in religious tolerance Quakers (PA), Huguenots & Jews (NY), Catholics (MD), Presbyterians (NJ) – Flexible social structures – Middle-class of artisans, entrepreneurs & farmers
Middle Colonies… Political – Incorporated a number of democratic principles that reflected the basic rights of Englishmen – Did not mix Church & State/ Tolerant of other religions
Southern Colonies Mainly settled by the English Cavaliers & poorer English & Scots-Irish – Cavaliers = English nobility who received large land grants in eastern VA from the King – Indentured Servants, Debtors, Prisoners – African slaves Wanted economic opportunities – Jamestown was a business venture established by the VA Company of London
Jamestown 1 st Permanent English Settlement, established by the VA Company of London in 1607 In the middle of Powhatan Nation 1 st settlers were mainly Gentlemen – “Don’t Work = Don’t Eat!” was John Smith’s rule Headright System “Starving Time” due to weather John Rolfe planted tobacco & married Pocahontas
Southern Colonies… Economy – Large plantations in the coastal lowlands grew “cash crops:” Indigo, Rice, Tobacco – Western foothills & mountains they had small-scale subsistence farming, hunting & trading Society – Based on family status & ownership of land – Large landowners dominated colonial government – Closer ties to England & the Church of England than other colonies – Western VA had a lot of Scots-Irish & English men
Southern Colonies… Political – Maintained stronger ties with Britain – Large landowners dominated colonial legislatures – VA House of Burgesses 1 st Elected Legislature in the New World Representative Democracy Today it’s known as the VA General Assembly
Indentured Servitude & Slavery Indentured Servant = Someone who works for 4-7 years in exchange for passage over to the New World. – Headright system = promise of land Growth of southern plantation-economy required cheap labor in large numbers. Originally met by indentured servants.
Indentured Servitude & Slavery… Most tobacco plantation needs eventually were filled by importation of Africans. – Some were indentured servants & free – Middle Passage – Slave Codes = laws that limited what slaves could do Development of slavery-based economy eventually led to Civil War.
Question Time!!! Show me what you know
Establishment of Early American Colonies Roanoke Massachusetts / / / / St. Augustine Jamestown 1.Which date on this timeline represents the beginning of a permanent British presence in North America? A.1565 B.1587 C.1607 D.1620
2. Which colony was established as a business venture? A. Connecticut B. Massachusetts C. Georgia D. Virginia
3. The initial French exploration of North America resulted in --- A. economic colonies in Florida B. competition with Spanish settlers C. plantations using slave labor D. cooperation with native groups
4. The Treaty of Alliance of 1778 was signed by the United States and ---- A. Spain B. Portugal C. Russia D. France
5. Which factor contributed to colonial victory in the American Revolution? A. Shortages of British troops B. Disloyalty of British generals C. Lack of British popular support D. Weakness of the British Navy
6. The land area located between 80 0 W & 90 0 W and 25 0 N & 30 0 N represents the acquisition of --- A.Land won through the French & Indian War B.Territories according to the Northwest Ordinance C.Land as a result of the Revolutionary War D.Florida through a treaty with Spain
7. The town meetings held by colonists in buildings such as this one were important because they demonstrated a form of --- A.Religious toleration B.Direct democracy C.Multicultural integration D.Representative government Old South Meeting House, Boston
8. The different types of economies found in the original colonies were primarily a reflection of the --- A.Nationalities of the settlers B.Geography of the areas C.Provisions of the charters D.Religion of the settlers
9. How did the Great Awakening most influence the American Revolutionary movement? A.It supported the practice of slave labor B.It established official state religions C.It challenged the established government order D.It discouraged trade with foreign countries