Presentation on theme: "VA/US SOL Review of Unit 2: SOL 4 Revolutionary Era."— Presentation transcript:
VA/US SOL Review of Unit 2: SOL 4 Revolutionary Era
Revolutionary Period New ideas about the relationship between the government & the people led to the Declaration of Independence Revolutionary ideas became the basis of our current government Revolutionary ideas included natural rights & who should have political authority.
Revolutionaries Revolution = CHANGE! Leaders were influenced by Enlightenment thinkers – Enlightenment = 1600 – 1700s. New ideas about the rights of people & their relationship to their rulers. – John Locke Ideas of the Enlightenment & the perceived unfairness of British policies provoked debate & resistance by the American colonists.
John Locke Locke really influenced Jefferson All people are free, equal & have “natural rights” of life, liberty and property… All original power resides in the people, and they establish a system of “ordered liberty.” Government’s powers are limited to those the people have consented to give to it. Whenever government becomes a threat to the people’s natural rights, it breaks the social contract and the people have the right to alter or overthrow it.
Locke & Paine Locke’s ideas about sovereignty & rights of the people were radical & challenged the centuries- old practice throughout the world of dictatorial rule by kings, emperors & tribal chieftains. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense, which challenged the rule of the American colonies by the King of England. It was read by many & contributed to a growing sentiment for independence from Great Britain.
TJ & the Dec. of Ind. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unailenable rights, that among these are life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness” “That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.” Whenever government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the people alter or abolish it.
Declaration of Independence Detailed grievances against the King of England listed by Paine in Common Sense – Grievances = complaints Ideals in the DOC contradicted the realities of slavery and the undemocratic nature of political participation in the early decades of the new republic Reflected the ideas of Locke & Paine Dec. of Ind. laid the foundation for our current government
Roadmap for the New Republic Political Participation – Extending the Franchise – Upholding due process of law – Providing free public education Social Participation – Abolishing slavery – Extending civil rights to women and other groups
Roadmap for the New Republic… Economic Participation – Regulating the free enterprise system – Promoting economic opportunity – Protecting property rights
French & Indian War 1754 – 1763 Purpose: Britain wanted to claim all the land in North America & remove the French from the territories (Quebec, St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, etc.) – Also known as the 7 yrs. War Result: British WON! French were driven out of Canada & had to give their land to England Britain took several actions that angered the colonies & led to the American Revolution.
Proclamation Act of 1763 Purpose: British prohibited settlement west of the Appalachians, to avoid Indian attacks. Result: Angered colonists because they couldn’t explore/ settle the land west of the mountains. Thought that they had been owed the land!
Stamp Act- 1765 Purpose: Raise money to cover the huge expense of the French & Indian War Results: Colonists were angry “No Taxation Without Representation!” Protests – Stamp Act Congress – Boycotts – Tar & Feathering
Stamp Act REPEALED - 1766 Purpose: Effort by the British to make the colonists happy & stop the protests – Shut up the colonists by making them happy Results: Colonists were happy & felt that they had won. – Thought they had proved their point over taxation without representation.
Boston Massacre – 1770 Purpose: Colonists protest the British troops that are stationed in Boston – Colonists started fight by throwing stuff at the soldiers Results: 5 people died Blown way out of proportion – Paul Revere British put on trial (aim the blame at them)
Tea Act - 1773 Purpose: British tea profits are low (bankrupt), so to increase profits they cut the colonial middlemen – Made tea cheaper Results: Colonial merchants out of work Boycott Tea Boston Tea Party – Sons of Liberty = Smugglers
Coercive Acts/ Intolerable Acts 1774 Purpose: British wanted to punish Boston for the Tea Party & regain control of the colony. Results: Closed the port of Boston Dissolved local governments Trials in Britain Stationed more troops Forced to pay for tea
First Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies (Not GA) Purpose Meet in Philly to discuss issues & demand changes Results Sent letters to King George III & Parliament -1 st time colonists acted together
Lexington & Concord… Purpose: British attempt to seize the colonial militia’s supplies at Concord Results: “Minutemen” defend Concord & get most supplies out before the British arrive Actual “War” started!
Leading to Rebellion? Several generations passed between the founding of the colonies & the Revolutionary War. Things had slowly started to turn a good chunk of the population against England. Not everyone wanted independence: – Loyalists – Patriots – Neutrals
3 Viewpoints Patriots – Complete independence from England – Locke & Paine influenced Patriots – Patrick Henry “Liberty or Death!” – Troops led by George Washington Loyalists – Loyal to King of England. Felt taxes were justified because of British protection. Neutrals – Tried to stay out of it.
Who should’ve won the War? Started with the “shot heard ‘round the world” at Lexington & Concord On the outset, who looked like they were going to win? Did the colonists think they stood a chance?
British Advantages Clear government rulers Royal Navy Royal Army (Led by General Cornwallis) Unlimited money Internationally known as the “Biggest & Baddest” in the World
Colonial Advantages Individual marksmanship: frontiersmen Morale: defending their own land/ homes Ideals & rhetoric of the revolution: – “Give me Liberty or Give Me Death!” – Locke & Paine French help: Navy & Army helped at Yorktown. – Ben Franklin: Treaty of Alliance with France War did not have popular support in Britain. G.W. = General of the Continental Army – Avoided destruction of army, Leadership skills
Revolutionary War We were able to win what seemed like a nearly impossible victory. The American Revolution lasted from April 1775 until October 1781 with the British defeat at the Battle of Yorktown. War was officially over with the Treaty of Paris, 1783. – US independence was recognized – America controlled all 13 colonies & parts of Canada
Answer these questions: 1. Was the F&I War before or after the Am Revolution? When did it end? 2. Who fought in the F&I War? 3. What did the Proclamation of 1763 prohibit? What was the rationale for the Proclamation? 4. Which of the colonists felt that the taxes levied by the British were justified to help pay for the British protection? 5. Which of the early colonies used town meetings for their political process?
1. The initial French exploration of North America resulted in --- A. economic colonies in Florida B. competition with Spanish settlers C. plantations using slave labor D. cooperation with native groups
2. The Treaty of Alliance of 1778 was signed by the United States and ---- A. Spain B. Portugal C. Russia D. France
3. Which factor contributed to colonial victory in the American Revolution? A. Shortages of British troops B. Disloyalty of British generals C. Lack of British popular support D. Weakness of the British Navy
4. John Locke’s ideas contributed to the Declaration of Independence because he influenced the belief in --- A.Capitalism and free enterprise B.Self-government and natural rights C.A strong federal government and rule of law D.A monarchy and democracy