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VA/US SOL Review of Unit 2: SOLs 5 & 6

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1 VA/US SOL Review of Unit 2: SOLs 5 & 6
Constitution & Territorial Expansion

2 Creating a new government
After the Revolution the major problem in the US, was that people disagreed over how much power the new government should have. America’s pre-Revolutionary relationship with England influenced the structure of the first national government. American political leaders, fearful of a powerful central government like England’s, created the Articles of Confederation which was adopted at the end of the war. It was the first of 2 attempts to establish a workable government based on republican principles.

3 Articles of Confederation (AOC)
Provided for a weak national government Provided a Congress with no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states Provided for no common currency Provided for one vote per state (regardless of size) Provided for no executive or judicial branch

4 AOC  Constitution The AOC wasn’t working so they debated over what to do: amend the AOC or create a new government. Constitutional Convention Met in Philly to make a new government

5 Constitutional Convention Leaders
George Washington President of the Convention Didn’t really participate. Spoke very little. James Madison Father of the Constitution Kept detailed notes VA Plan: proposal for 2 branches of government, representation based on population Later wrote Bill of Rights

6 The Constitution of the US
Made federal law the supreme law of the land when constitutional, but otherwise gave the states lots of leeway. Senate: 2 per state. House of Representatives: based on population 3/5 Compromise: placated southern fears about representation Checks & balances = Prevent any branch from becoming too powerful Limited the powers of the federal government to those identified in the Constitution

7 Did everyone want a new government?
Federalists: Wanted a strong central (federal) government Wanted to ratify the constitution Leaders from VA: George Washington James Madison Anti-Federalists: Wanted a weak central government; strong state government Protect the rights of individuals Demanded a Bill of Rights Leaders from VA: Patrick Henry George Mason

8 Origins of the Bill of Rights
George Mason’s VA Declaration of Rights Basic human rights should not be violated by governments TJ’s VA Statute for Religious Freedom Outlawed a govt. Church Government can’t support one favored Church Madison didn’t think the Bill of Rights was necessary, but knew the Constitution wouldn’t pass without it. So, he wrote the Bill of Rights to get support from Anti-Federalists.

9 Questions What’s in the ???: Other Amendments you should know:
1st Amendment 2nd Amendment 3rd Amendment 4th Amendment 5th Amendment 6th Amendment 7th Amendment 8th Amendment 9th Amendment 10th Amendment Other Amendments you should know: 13th 14th 15th 17th 18th 19th 21st

10 John Marshall & the Supreme Court
He thought the judicial branch should be an equal branch in the government. Marbury v. Madison = Established judicial review McCulloch v. MD = established the doctrine of implied powers Gibbons v. Ogden = allowed federal government to have broad economic power

11 The Start of the 2-Party System
Federalists Led by John Adams and Alexander Hamilton Strong national government Commercial economy and were supported by bankers and business interests in the Northeast. Democratic-Republicans Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Weak national government and an agricultural economy. They were supported by farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South. **The election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800 was the 1st Presidential election where power was peacefully transferred from 1 party to another.

12 Westward Expansion & Growth
Wanted to rule from “sea to shining sea”; from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean Manifest Destiny = belief that America should be able to rule wherever we want to Moving west & manifest destiny brought “the white man” into conflict with Indians. Moved Indians onto reservations.

13 Louisiana Purchase (1803) Why would France want to sell?
Napoleon was desperate for money; he was fighting wars at the time. Acquisition by the US of the French territory of Louisiana in US paid 60 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000). [15 mil] Encompassed portions of 14 current US states and 2 Canadian provinces

14 Louisiana Purchase (1803)…
Cons Negatively effects Native Americans Unconstitutional? Pros Doubles the size of the US Removes France as a threat in North America Builds up prestige and national identity Lewis and Clark sent by Jefferson to explore and survey territory west of the Mississippi River Sacagawea, American Indian, serves as a guide and translator for the expedition Inspired many to explore and settle in the west

15 War of 1812 War of 1812: Madison asked Congress to declare war
first President to do this The American victory over the British in the War of 1812 produced an American claim to the Oregon Territory, and increased migration of American settlers into Florida, which was later acquired by treaty from Spain.

16 Stopping Territorial Expansion?
Monroe Doctrine (1823) Named after President James Monroe The American continents should not be considered for future colonization by any European powers. Nations in the Western Hemisphere were inherently different from those of Europe, republics by nature rather than monarchies.

17 Stopping Territorial Expansion?
Monroe Doctrine (1823) The US would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere. The US would not interfere in European affairs. In other words: Stay the heck out of our area & we’ll stay out of yours!!!!

18 Answer the following questions:
What helped the growth of an industrial economy and supported the westward movement of settlers? Hint: Railroads & Canals

19 2. Who’s invention is this?
It’s the cotton gin. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin led to spread of slavery-based “cotton kingdom” in Deep South.

20 Texas, Mexico, the Alamo! US migration into Texas led to armed revolt against Mexican rule & the Alamo, in which a band of Texans fought to the last man against a vastly superior force. 3. What was the result of the Alamo? The Texans’ eventual victory over Mexican forces subsequently brought Texas into the Union.

21 Texas & Mexico 4. The American victory in the Mexican War during the 1840’s led to the acquisition of an enormous territory that included the present-day states of….? California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado & New Mexico.

22 Impact of Expansion on American Indians
“Manifest Destiny” = The belief that it was America’s right to stretch from Atlantic to Pacific provided political support for territorial expansion. During this period of westward migration, the American Indians were repeatedly defeated in violent conflicts with settlers and soldiers and forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands. They were either forced to march far away from their homes (the “Trail of Tears,” when several tribes were relocated from Atlantic Coast states to Oklahoma) or confined to reservations.

23 Trail of Tears

24 War of 1812 & how it changed Politics
Regional self-interests led to a divided nation at war against the British. British interference with American shipping and westward expansion fueled the call for war. Impressment Federalists opposed Madison’s war resolution and threatened to secede from the Union.

25 Political Changes after the War of 1812
Age of the common man Heightened emphasis on voting equality for adult white males Changing style of campaigning Increased voter participation Andrew Jackson personified the “democratic spirit” Used the Spoils system The Federalist Party disappeared & new political parties, the Whigs & the Know-Nothings were organized in opposition to the Democratic Party.

26 Question Time!!! Show me what you know

27 1. Which document directly influenced the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States? A. Mayflower Compact B. Virginia Declaration of Rights C. Articles of Confederation D. Emancipation Proclamation

28 Colonial businesses to support royal taxes
That the foundation of…all free government is, a right in the people to participate in their legislative council;… Declaration of Rights & Grievances, 1774 2. This statement was issued by the Continental Congress because the British government did not allow--- Colonial businesses to support royal taxes Powers of the colonial legislatures to increase Colonists to have representation in Parliament Laws passed by Parliament to govern the colonies

29 3. Which issue led to the development of the first political parties in the United States?
Abolition of slavery Women’s suffrage Expansion of western territories National government’s powers

30 4. Critics of Andrew Jackson’s stand on the Second Bank of the United States (“BUS”) accused him of abusing executive powers by--- Ignoring the contributions of political supporters Using the military against the Cherokee nation Using the presidential veto to overrule Congress Opposing federal funding of internal improvements

31 5. Which group helped Andrew Jackson become President of the United States the first time they could participate in an election? People allowed to vote without paying a poll tax Newly freed slaves from West Africa People allowed to vote without owing property Naturalized immigrants from Eastern Europe

32 6. Which event best completes this sequence?
Events in Texas History Migration of American settlers Battle of the Alamo ______?_________ Entry into the Union 6. Which event best completes this sequence? Confederate attack on Fort Sumter Independence gained from Mexico Purchase of the Louisiana territory Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad

33 7. Which principle is shared by the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of the United States? Judicial review Limited government Separation of powers Checks & Balances

34 8. Which Supreme Court decision includes this quotation?
It is emphatically {unquestionably} the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. -Chief Justice John Marshall 8. Which Supreme Court decision includes this quotation? Marbury v. Madison Cohens v. Virginia Gibbons v. Ogden McCulloch v. Maryland

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