Presentation on theme: "What impact did exploration have on the American Indians?"— Presentation transcript:
1What impact did exploration have on the American Indians? Where did they explore?Spanish – Caribbean, Central and South AmericaEnglish – present day United StatesFrench – present day CanadaWhat impact did exploration have on the American Indians?Spanish – conflict over landEnglish – conflict over landFrench – cooperationIn general – disease, death, loss of territorySOL: VUS.2 & VUS.3Exploration & SettlementUnit I Review SheetNew EnglandMiddleSouthernColonies in RegionMA, RI,CT, NH,NY, NJ, PA,MD, DEVA, NC,SC, GA,Reasons for settlementReligious freedom & economic opportunityEconomic opportunity & religious freedomEconomic opportunityPoliticsCovenant community;town meetingsHouse of BurgessesEconomyShipbuilding, fishing, lumbering,Shipbuilding, small farms, tradingPlantations, cash crops (tobacco),Indentured servantsSocietyPuritans, religious status intolerant of dissentTolerant, middle-class, Quakers, CatholicsCavaliers; land ownership, ties to England, Anglican churchThe English Come to the New WorldWhy was slavery introduced into the colonies?Growth of plantation economy required large, cheap labor supply – indentured servants were replaced by slaves (Middle passage)What impact did slavery have on life in the colonies?Conflict between North and South & eventually lead to Civil War
2American Revolution American Revolution WAR! COLONIES ARE INDEPENDENT! Enlightenment Ideas of John LockeAll people are free, equal and have natural rightsThere is a “social contract” between the people and the government.SOL: VUS.4 – Unit 2 Review SheetSOL: VUS.4 – Unit 2 Review SheetAmerican RevolutionAmerican RevolutionNew Taxes to pay for war and troops to protect the colonies – Stamp Act, Sugar Act, tax on teaProclamation of 1763No settlement west of the Appalachian Mts.French & Indian WarFought between the French and the English for control of the Ohio River valleyBoston Tea PartyProtest against tea monopolyContinental Congress – 1774All colonies send representatives; first time the colonies acted togetherBoston Massacre – troops fire on anti-British demonstratorsCommon SenseThomas Paine, challenged British ruleDifferences among colonistsPatriotsNeutralsLoyalistsWanted independence,Patrick Henry, “Give me Liberty or give me Death” George WashingtonTried to stay uninvolvedRemained loyal to Britain;Believed taxation was justifiedConcord and Lexington – war begins with skirmish between British troops and minutemen.WAR!Declaration of IndependenceWritten by Thomas Jefferson; reflected Paine and Locke’s ideasWhy do the Americans win?Diplomatic Factors Military FactorsBen Franklin & Treaty with France G. Washington; French army and navyCOLONIES ARE INDEPENDENT!
3Constitutional Convention SOL: VUS.5 – Unit 2 ReviewThe ConstitutionThe Articles of ConfederationWhy established? Afraid of strong central government (like Britain)Problems with Articles1. Weak national government2. Congress has no power to tax or regulate commerce3. No common currency4. Each state gets one vote5. One Branch -- legislativeShay’s Rebellion: showed weaknessConstitutional ConventionRatificationFederalistsAnti-federalistsStrong national government that shared power with the statesPolitical factions will check each otherBill of Rights is unnecessaryStates should have most of the powerBill of Rights is necessaryKey issues & ResolutionsStates vs. Federal power:federal law is law of land; states have rights to govern themselvesRepresentation in Congress:Senate = representationHouse of Reps – proportional rep.Slaves as population:3/5 of a white personBranches of government:Legislative, executive and judicial branches with checks and balancesImportant PeopleJames Madison: “Father of the Constitution”, author of Virginia Plan, took notes, lead debateGeorge Washington: chairman of the Convention, lent prestige to proceedingsCreation of the Bill of RightsFirst 10 Amendments; drafted by James Madison; He usedVirginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason)Basic human rights can not be violated by the governmentVirginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson)Outlawed the established Church – no gov’t supportA New Nation
4A New Nation Expansion Political Developments Manifest Destiny: America should stretch from Atlantic to PacificLouisiana Purchase: (1803) President Jefferson purchased from France, doubled the size of the U.S. Lewis and Clark: explore the new territories that lay west of the Mississippi River. Sacajawea served as their guide and translator.Monroe Doctrine: (1823) Europe can not have new colonies in the western hemisphere, America will not interfere in EuropeTexas Annexation: Americans in Texas revolt, battle of the Alamo, Texas joins the Union (1845)Mexican Cession: (1848) United States defeated Mexico, acquired California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico.Political DevelopmentsWashington & AdamsElection of 1800 – won by Thomas Jefferson, first peaceful transfer of power from one party to anotherSOL: VUS.6A New NationUnit 3 ReviewDevelopment of Political PartiesFederalistsDemocratic Republicansled by John Adams and Alexander Hamilton,believed in a strong national government and industrial economysupported by bankers and business interests in the Northeast.led by Thomas Jeffersonbelieved in a weak national government and an agricultural economy.supported by farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South.Age of JacksonExpansion of democracy – don’t need to own property to vote; more men can voteAristocrat/Aristocracy: government in which power is given to those believed to be best qualifiedElection of 1828 – first election with nominating conventions, more common people vote; Jackson electedSpoils system : giving gov’t jobs to political supporterspresidential veto: President can stop passage of actsIndian Removal/Trial of Tears: Indians forced to relocate to reservations or across the MississippiBank of the United States – Jackson vetoed the re-charter, thought Bank was a tool of the rich, BUS failedPanic of economic depression after BUS failedSupreme Court Decisions -- Chief Justice John Marshall of VirginiaMarbury v. Madison -- established the power of the federal courts to declare laws unconstitutional (“judicial review”)McCulloch v. Maryland prohibited the states from taxing agencies of the federal government (“the power to tax is the power to destroy”)War of 1812
5First Industrial Revolution Economic Differences Railroads and Canals -- helped the growth of an industrial economy and supported the westward movement of settlers.Eli Whitney – invented cotton gin; led to the spread of the slavery-based “cotton kingdom”Economic DifferencesNORTHSOUTHCotton Kingdomdeveloped an agricultural economyslavery-based system of plantations in the lowlandssmall subsistence farmers in Appalachian Mts.strongly opposed high tariffs,developed an industrial economy based on manufacturingfavored high protective tariffsSlaveryWomen’s SuffrageSeneca Falls Declaration – (1848) All men AND WOMEN are created equal.Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony – worked for women’s rights before and after the Civil WarCompromise and Conflict over SlaveryMissouri Compromise: (1820) Missouri becomes a slave state, all future states north of will be free, those south will be slaveCompromise of 1850: California entered as a free state, new territories acquired from Mexico would decide on their own.Kansas-Nebraska Act: gave people in Kansas and Nebraska the choice whether to allow slavery in their states (“popular sovereignty”). Result = “Bleeding Kansas”Creation of the Republican Party: opposed the spread of slavery.Dred Scott Decision: (1857) Supreme Court overturned efforts to limit the spread of slaveryLincoln – Douglas Debates: (1858) debates over U.S. Senate seat in Illinois; Lincoln opposed the spread of slavery into new states; Douglas stood for “popular sovereignty.”Slave RevoltsNat Turner & Gabriel Prosser -- fed white Southern fears about slave rebellions and led to harsh laws in the South against fugitive slaves.AbolitionistsGrew stronger in the NorthHarriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s CabinWilliam Lloyd Garrison: The Liberator
6Compromise of 1877 – Hayes/Tilden election Election of 1860winner: Abraham LincolnSecession several Southern states seceded in protest to Lincoln’s electionFirst ShotsApril 1861 – Fort Sumter, SCOpening confrontation of the warWAR!Civil War andReconstructionSOL: VUS.7 Unit 4 ReviewMajor EventsBattle of Antietam – (1862) early Union victory, which lead to:Emancipation Proclamation– (1863) all slaves in areas in rebellion are freed; end of slavery is a northern aimBattle of Gettysburg – (1863) turning point in the warGettysburg Address – United States is one nation; Civil War is a struggle to restore itKey LeadersAbraham Lincoln – President of the United States during the Civil War, insisted that the Union be held togetherUlysses S. Grant -- Union military commander, won victories over the SouthRobert E. Lee -- Confederate general of the Army of Northern Virginia; opposed secession,Frederick Douglass -- Former slave & abolitionist; urged Lincoln to recruit former slavesAppomatox CourthouseApril 1865 – Lee surrendered to GrantReconstructionLincoln’s Ideas – Southern states had never seceded; reconstruction should be lenientAssassination of Lincoln (April 1865)Congress’s Ideas – Radical Republicans take over; want to punish the South and civil rights for blacksChanges to the Constitution13th Amendment: slavery is abolished14th Amendment: – States were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American.15th Amendment: all male citizens can vote, regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” (former slaves).End of ReconstructionCompromise of 1877 – Hayes/Tilden electionEconomic and Social ImpactNorth and Mid-west: became strong and industrial; lead economic growth of USSouth – development of Jim Crow Laws; devastated by the war. Farms, railroads, cities, and factories destroyed; remained poor, agriculture-based economyWest – transcontinental railroad brings many settlers west of the Mississippi
7IMMIGRATION AND CITY GROWTH The Age of IndustrySOL: VUS.8a,bIMMIGRATION AND CITY GROWTHMany Immigrants come to America looking for better lives.OldPre-1871New1871 to 1921northern & western Europesouthern & eastern Europe and AsiaUnit 5 ReviewINDUSTRIALIZATIONTechnological change spurred growth of industry primarily in northern cities.Immigrants contributed to industrial growthRailroads – ChineseFactories – textile and steel mills,Coal Mining – Slavs, Italians, PolesFactors leading to Industrial growth:Natural ResourcesGovernment PoliciesCheap LaborThe Immigrant ExperienceEllis Island – Statue of Liberty, ethnic neighborhoods“melting pot” – assimilating into American culture, speak English, public schoolsNativism – fear and resentment of immigrants, willing to work for low wages & bad conditionsLimiting ImmigrationChinese Exclusion Act (1882)Immigration Restriction Act of 1921Inventions & InventorsCorporation: limited liabilitySteel – Bessemer processElectricity – Thomas Edison, the light bulb & powerTelephone – Alexander G. BellAirplane – Wright BrothersAssembly line – Henry FordCorporate LeadersLaissez-faire policies & land grants to railroadsCarnegie – steelRockefeller – oilMorgan – bankingVanderbilt – railroadsCity GrowthNew Industrial cities: Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York; manufacturing and transportation centersAdvantages of the cities: jobs; NYC built the 1st subwayProblems of the cities: housing shortages, slums, tenements, sewage, water, public transportationRailroadCowboys: took cattle on the “long drive” to marketFarmers: Homestead Act (1862) – free land; former slaves & Southerners; mechanical reaperNew states enter the unionWESTWARD EXPANSIONIntensified movement of settlers into the region between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean.
8Working conditions for labor SOL: VUS.8c,dUnit 6 ReviewProgressive MovementWhat is it? The Progressive Movement: used government to reform problems created by industrialization.Goal # 2: Guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulationWho is Involved?Theodore Roosevelt: “Square Deal”Woodrow Wilson: “New Freedom”Muckrakers: writing about the problems of industrializationWorking conditions for laborImpact of labor unionsGainsdangerous, long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits, company townsOrganizationsKnights of LaborAmerican Federation of Labor (Gompers)American Railway Union (Debs)International Ladies’ Garment Workers UnionStrikesHaymarket SquareHomestead StrikePullman StrikeLimited work hoursRegulated working conditionsSherman Anti-trust Act (outlaws monopolies)Clayton Anti-trust Act (unions legal)Child laborThe Bitter Cry of the ChildrenChild labor lawsWhat do the Progressives do?Goal # 1: Government controlled by the PeopleLevel of GovernmentProgressive accomplishmentsLocalCity manager & council systemStatereferendum, recall, initiativeElectionsprimary election, secret ballot, direct election of senators (17th )Different IdeasBooker T. WashingtonW.E.B. Du BoisAfrican AmericansJim Crow – laws that set up segregationPlessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court said “Separate but equal” is okIda B. Wells – fought against lynchingGreat Migration – many African-Americans move to Northern citiesGoal # 3: Elimination of Social injusticebelieved in equality through vocational education and economic successaccepted social separationbelieved education was meaningless without equalitysupported political equalityhelped form the NAACPWomen’s suffrage (right to vote)Had strong leaders like Susan B. AnthonyWomen were encouraged to go to work during World War IEventually resulted in 19thAmendment to the Constitution
9Imperialism & World War I SOL: VUS.9a, b Unit 6 ReviewImperialism & World War IUnited States has a new role in the worldInternational MarketsLatin AmericaPacificOpen Door Policy – John Hay; all nations have equal trade rights with ChinaDollar Diplomacy – Taft; invest in Latin America; govt. will protect investmentsSpanish American War (1898)Puerto Rico – US annexedCuba – US can intervenePanama Canal – T. Roosevelt encouraged a revolt, got treaty to build canalHawaii – US settlers overthrew monarch; US annexed HawaiiPhilippines – US annexed after Spanish American WarLeads to involvement1914 – assassination of Franz FerdinandAlliesCentralBritainFranceRussiaGermanyAustria – HungaryUnited States is: neutralVersailles Peace Conference 1919US reaction to the Treaty:disliked League, fear of involvement in future warsSenate did not ratify treatyTreaty of VersaillesFrench & English punish GermanyLeague of Nations createdNew national boundaries & nationsWorld War IFourteen PointsWilson’s plan to eliminate the causes of warself-determinationfreedom of the seasLeague of Nationsmandate systemBut then:Germany’s unrestricted submarine war fareEconomic ties to Great Britain1917 – United States enters the war:Germany loses“To make the world safe for democracy”US sends: soldiers, war materials and food1920s
10The Great Depression & the New Deal SOL: VUS. 9cThe Great Depression & the New DealCauses of the Great Depression:Over speculation on stocks with borrowed moneyFederal Reserve restricted the money supplyHigh tariffs create unbalanced foreign trade (Hawley—Smoot)Impact of the Great Depressionunemployment and homelessnessbank failures and collapse of financial systempolitical unrest (militant labor unions)farm foreclosures and migrationunemployment = one in four workersDepression EconomyUnemployment less money to spendfire workers people buy fewer goodscompanies have less profitNew Deal Programs: Alphabet AgenciesGoalProgramWhat it didRelief – direct payment to people for immediate helpWorks Progress Administration (WPA)Provides jobs and welfare to the unemployedRecovery – bring the nation out of depression over timeAgricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)Raise crop prices by reducing productionReform – correct unsound banking and investment practicesFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)Insure money in banks to prevent bank runs/failuresSocial SecurityOpen up jobs by allowing older worker to retireFranklin Roosevelt becomes president (1933)“We have nothing to fear but fear itself.”Impact of the New DealMade the government more involved in business, the economy, and everyday lifeMore active in solving problems
11World War II Actions during War SOL: VUS.10, 11 War in Europe & in AsiaEuropeAsia/PacificSeptember 1, 1939 – Germany invaded PolandSoviets invade Eastern EuropeGermany overran France & western EuropeBattle of Britain1941 – Germany invaded the USSRJapan attacks China and ManchuriaUS Refused to recognize conquests & imposed an embargo on oil and steelJapan attacks the United StatesUnited States is officially neutral & many Americans are isolationistUS begins to send war supplies to Britain:Cash and CarryBases for DestroyersLend-LeaseUnit 7 ReviewResults of the warSoviets: control Eastern Europe; will led to COLD WARGermany: divided in East (controlled by USSR) and West (US, France, Britain)Japan: occupied by US; adopted democracyEurope: in ruins, rebuilt with US Marshall PlanUnited Nations formed to prevent future warsFDR says: it’s like “lending a garden hose to a next-door neighbor whose house is on fire”Nuremberg Trials – war crimes trials of Nazis; emphasized personal responsibilityLed to demand for Jewish Homeland (Israel)Pearl Harbor -- Dec. 7, 1941“a date which will live in infamy”Japan surrendered War ENDEDAtomic Bomb – Hiroshima & Nagasaki; thousands killedTruman hoped to save lives and end the warWar in Europe & in AsiaEurope/North AfricaAsia/PacificAllied Strategy: Defeat Germany firstAxis Strategy: defeat Soviets and Britain quicklyKey BattlesEl Alamein – prevented Germany’s spread into EgyptStalingrad – forced Germany to retreat from the USSRNormandy – began the liberation of Europe; Germany surrenderedAllied Strategy: island hoppingJapan’s strategy: conquer Pacific quickly before US can actMidway: ends Japanese advance/threat to HawaiiIwo Jima/Okinawa: brought US closer to Japan; very costly battlesActions during WarMinority Participation – most units segregated & minority units suffered high casualties and won numerous medals for braveryAfrican Americans: most served in support role, wanted to fight; Tuskegee Airmen;Native Americans: Navajo code-talkers; unbreakable codeMexican Americans: served in integrated unitsJapanese Americans: Nisei Regiments; earned many medalsHolocaust – Hitler’s Final Solution for the Jews (genocide)Who: Jews, Poles, Slavs, gypsies, “undesirablesGeneva Convention – tried to ensure humane treatment of POWsEurope – followed rulesAsia – didn’t follow rules (Bataan Death March); Japanese commit suicide instead of surrender
12Life at Home during World War II Success in the war required the total commitment of the nation’s resources. On the home front, public education and the mass media promoted nationalism.Role of WomenRosie the Riveterworked in factories/government jobs to replace men who joined the armyjoined the military in non-combat rolesOrganizing ResourcesEconomic ResourcesHuman Resourcesbusiness and government worked togetherRationing – limiting the amount of scarce materials people could buyWar bonds & income taxes were used to pay for the warBusinesses changed from peacetime to wartime productionSelective Service – draft provided personnel for the militarymore women and minorities entered the workplaceall citizens contributed to the war effort: victory gardens, scrap drives, war bondsRole of African Americansmigrated to cities to work in war industriesDouble “V” campaign – victory over racism and victory over HitlerVVRole of the Mediagovernment censored news of the warpublic campaigns (propaganda) kept Americans focused on war effortEntertainment industry contributed by producing plays, movies and shows thatboosted morale and support for the warportrayed the enemy in stereotypical waysTreatment of Japanese AmericansJapanese Americans on the West Coast were sent to internment campsWhy? fear of spies; long held racial prejudiceThe Supreme Court upheld the internment in Korematsu v. the United Stateseventually the government apologized and made financial payments to survivors
13Situation after World War II United StatesSoviet Uniondemocratic political institutionsfree market economic systemTotalitarian governmentCommunist (socialist) economic systemTruman Doctrine – containment; keep communism from spreadingFormation of NATO – defensive alliance of US and Western EuropeWarsaw Pact – alliance of Soviets and Eastern EuropeCommunists won the Chinese Civil WarSoviets developed an atomic bomb – new fear of nuclear war194519491950195419611989Vietnam WarCommunist North Vietnam attempted to take over South VietnamUS got involved to contain communismJohn F. Kennedy began troop build-up, after his assassination, Lyndon Johnson increased the number of troopsUS troops won lots of battles, could not win warNation divided over war; lots of opposition (esp. college students)President Nixon tried Vietnamization – turning war over to South VietnamesePolicy failed, South Vietnam could not resist Soviet-backed North; Nixon resigned because of Watergate Scandal1975 – Vietnam united under communismPresident Eisenhower adopted policy of “massive retaliation”Korean WarCommunist North Korean invaded South KoreaUS joined to contain CommunismChinese joined to protect communismended in a stalemate – South Korea is a separate, non-communist nationSOL: VUS.12Cold WarCold War At HomeFear of Communism and nuclear warDuck and cover drills at school; people build bomb sheltersAlger Hiss, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of spyingSenator Joseph McCarthy falsely accused many people of being communistsForeign policy became a major issue in electionsVirginia benefited from military spendingUnit 8 ReviewResults of World War IISoviets: control Eastern Europe; will led to COLD WARGermany: divided in East (controlled by USSR) and West (US, France, Britain)Japan: occupied by US; adopted democracyEurope: in ruins, rebuilt with US Marshall PlanUnited Nations formed to prevent future warsCuba – Fidel Castro leads communist take-over; many flee to FloridaBay of Pigs – failed invasion by Cubans exiles1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis; Soviet missiles in Cuba; JFK gets them removedSoviet Union dissolved
14Fall of the Soviet Union lead to the end of the Cold War Cold War At HomeFear of Communism and nuclear war1950s/1960s – American schools held Duck and cover drills; the government encouraged people to build bomb sheltersAlger Hiss, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of spying leading increased fears of communism at homeSenator Joseph McCarthy falsely accused many people of being communists – McCarthyismForeign policy became a major issue in presidential electionsVirginia benefited from heavy military spending, esp. Northern Virginia and Hampton RoadsUS Military Forces in Cold WarPresident John Kennedy’s (a WWII veteran) inaugural addresspledged that the United States would “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”Millions of Americans served in the military during the Cold War and their service not always popularVietnam veterans received little supportFall of the Soviet Union lead to the end of the Cold WarInternal ProblemsExternal PressureRising nationalism in Soviet Republicsincreasing military expenditures to compete with USmarket reformseconomic inefficiencyGorbachev’s glasnost (openness) & perestroika (economic restructuring)Ronald Reagan’s challenge to the moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall”increased US military and economic pressures on the Soviet UnionSOL: VUS.12Cold WarUnit 8 Review
15Civil Rights SOL: VUS.13 Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court decision that segregated schools are unconstitutional & must be desegregatedMade up of many cases, including a Virginia caseUnit 9 ReviewNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)challenged segregation in the courtsThurgood Marshall – NAACP Legal Defense TeamOliver Hill – Legal Defense Team in VirginiaVirginia ResponseMassive resistance – closing some public schools to avoid integrationestablishment of private academies that could remain segregated“white flight” from urban school systems1963March on WashingtonMartin Luther King gave his “I have a dream speech”helped influence public opinion to support civil rights legislationdemonstrated the power of non-violent, mass protest1964Civil Rights Actprohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, and genderdesegregated public facilities1965Voting Rights Actoutlawed literacy testssent federal registrars to the South to register votersresulted in more African American votersPresident Lyndon Johnson worked hard to get these two laws passed.
16Changing Patterns of Immigration most new immigrants are from Asia and Latin AmericaReasons for immigrationpolitical freedomeconomic opportunityEffects of ImmigrationBilingual education/English as a Second LanguageChanging public policy (ex: Cuba)Politics/votingContributions of immigrantsEthnic foods, music, artsRole in labor forceChanging Role of Womenmore women in the workplace and working mothersmore women in non-traditional rolesSandra Day O’Connor – first woman on the Supreme CourtSally Ride – first US female astronautcourts helped provide these opportunitiesIssues of working womenneed for affordable day careequitable paypink collar ghetto – low prestige, low paying jobsGlass ceiling – perception that women’s career advancement is not equal to menModern AmericaSpace Program1960s – John F. Kennedy pledged increased support for space programJohn Glenn – first American to orbit the earthNeil Armstrong – first man on the moon (1969)“That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”New TechnologiesCable TV/24-hour News (CNN)Personal computersCellular phonesWorld Wide WebBetter Communication/Access to global informationtelecommutingdistance learninggrowth in white collar careersbreakthroughs in medical research (Dr. Jonas Salk – polio vaccine)