2Definition of Massive Resistance In Virginia, during the late 1950s, many people were against the idea of having white or African American children go to school together. In many areas of VA, the schools closed rather than integrate. The General Assembly finally ruled that the public schools in VA were integrated by the mid 1960s.
3Massive ResistanceMassive Resistance became Virginia’s policy to prevent school desegregation in the wake of the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in Many of Virginia’s white leaders resisted integration with all of their considerable political and legal means.
4The Story of Massive Resistance The story of massive resistance and of black Virginians’ protests against segregation began in the early 1950s and continues today.
6Senator Harry Flood Byrd elected senator in 1933did not believe in integration and fought against the law that said that segregated schools were illegalTo resist this he helped begin the program called Massive Resistance
10Mills Godwin (where was he from?) Was the leader of the massive resistance movement and opposed school integration in the 1950slater hailed as a progressivereforms included:creation of community college systemthe initiation of the state sales tax and development of a powerful economic development campaign.
11Barbara JohnsShe was 16 years old when she led 450 students at all-black Robert R. Moton High School out their classes in a two-week strike to protest separate and very unequal educational conditions. Prince Edward County.Rather than build a new high school, the school board erected 3 large plywood buildings called “tar paper shacks”1951-strike at Moton High School is seen by some as the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement
14Green v. School Board of New Kent County After the Brown v. Board of Education case, New Kent County continued to be segregated.After the case only 115 black students chose to go to an all white school and no whites went to the black schools.
15Brown v. Board of Education Oliver Brown and the parents of 12 other black children filed a lawsuit against the Topeka Board of Education protesting the city’s segregation of black and white students.The NAACP argued that segregated schooling had a harmful psychological effect on black children, but the suit was dismissed on the grounds that no law had been broken.
16Brown v. Board of Education firm deadlines for compliance”This case also combined the Barbara Johns case from VA along with others.Thurgood Marshall, Oliver Hill, and Henry Marsh were NAACP lawyersTopeka was legally authorized by the state of Kansas to maintain separate schools for white and black students.The court had left implementation up to state and local authorities, setting no
18Oliver Hill & Spottswood Robinson Oliver Hill is best known for his role in the Brown v. Board of EducationHill was one of the trial lawyers in the resulting desegregation lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County1951-Hill & his partner, Robinson received word that students at all-black R.R. Moton High School in Farmville had walked out of the leaky, poorly heated buildings that served as their school.
20Poll TaxPoll tax is a capital tax level equally on every adult in the community.The tax has long been attacked as being unfair burden upon those less able to pay.Has connected voting disenfranchising many blacks as well as poor whites, because payment of the tax was a prerequisite for voting.
21Poll TaxFederal courts became less strict about interpreting the 15th Amendment, which allowed Virginia and other Southern states increasing latitude to disenfranchise black voters.1904-anyone applying to register would face a test of literacy& memorization.Constitution poll tax was of $1.50 a year paid every three years preceding election.