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Pain Management C. Calzolari 2014. What is Pain?

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Presentation on theme: "Pain Management C. Calzolari 2014. What is Pain?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pain Management C. Calzolari 2014

2 What is Pain?

3 Why Do We Experience Pain? It is protective. How? It is a signal. What?

4 Cause of Pain Nociceptive pain(pain receptors) – most common. Respond to stimulation. Visceral – organs, linings of cavities Somatic – Skin, muscles, bones, connective tissue Neuropathic pain – complex and often chronic.

5 Classification of Pain Acute Can Identify Cause Temporary Activates SNS - BP, HR, RR, more blood to brain, dilates pupils

6 Classification of Pain Chronic Longer Duration – lasts beyond healing phase Interferes with ADLs Remissions & exacerbations Stimulates PNS - or normal Vital Signs Affective Responses

7 Classification of Pain Intractable Chronic Resistant to pain relief Multi-Disciplinary Approach

8 Descriptions of Pain Based on site, cause, duration and quality.

9 Site of Pain Cutaneous or superficial pain Visceral pain Deep somatic pain Radiating pain Referred pain Phantom pain Psychogenic pain

10 Duration of Pain Acute Chronic Intractable

11 Take the Vocabulary Quiz

12 Application How would you classify the pain that the following patients are experiencing? ● A patient with metastatic cancer

13 A patient with back pain that was the result of an automobile injury a year ago

14 A patient with a broken leg

15 Quality of Pain Only the patient can describe the quality of their pain. They may use words such as: Sharp Dull Throbbing Stabbing Burning Ripping Tingling Intermittent Constant Mild Intense Severe

16 Factors Which Influence Pain Emotions Developmental Stage Communication Impairments Pain Threshold Culture

17 Factors Which Influence Pain Emotions: Anxiety Fear Guilt Anger Helplessness Exhaustion Irritability Depression

18 Factors Which Influence Pain Developmental Stage: Infants and children Adults Older Adults

19 Factors Which Influence Pain Communication Impairment: Those who have had a CVA, speak another language or are cognitively impaired. You will need to observe nonverbal cues for pain. Facial expressions Vocalizations Changes in physical activity Change in vital signs Change in routines Mental status changes

20 Factors Which Influence Pain Culture: Involves the patient’s expression of pain, the family’s response to the situation and the nurse’s attitude. William & Hopper: Box 10.2 – page

21 Factors Which Influence Pain Pain Threshold: The point at which the receptors in the frontal cortex recognizes and defines a stimulus as pain. Varies from person to person. Pain Tolerance: The duration or intensity of pain that a person is willing to endure.

22 Pharmacological Pain Relief Measures Analgesics Nonopioids – acetaminophen, salicylates, NSAIDS and COX -2 inhibitors Opioids - morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, methadone, meperdine, oxycodone, sublimaze patch

23 Analgesics

24 Routes of Administration Oral – preferred route Nasal Transdermal Rectal Subcutaneous Intramuscular – least preferred Intravenous PCA – patient controlled analgesia Intraspinal analgesics

25 Adverse Affects of Pain Medications Nonopioids – GIB, inhibition of platelet aggregation, renal insufficiency, hypersensitive reactions in persons with asthma, liver necrosis with OD of Tylenol. Opioids – respiratory depression, hypotension, drowsiness, constipation, nausea, vomiting, constricted pupils.

26 Analgesic Adjuvants These medications may potentiate the effects of opioids or nonopioids. Examples: steroids, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Able to use less opioid doses when used with these adjuvants.

27 Antidote Narcan (naloxone)- counteracts the effect of opioids.

28 Interpreting MD Orders Morphine Sulfate 2 mg. IM q 4 hours prn for surgical pain. Percocet one tab po q 6 hours prn for foot pain Duragesic patch 25mcg/hr transdermal q 72 hours at Oxycontin 20 mg. po BID OxyIR 5 mg. po q 6 hours prn for breakthrough pain

29 Evaluation Always re-assess your patient after administering pain medications. At what time interval?

30 Special Considerations The Elderly The Person with Substance Abuse or Addiction Unrelieved Pain

31 Nonpharmacological Pain Relief Measures Cutaneous Stimulation TENS – Trancutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator Acupuncture Acupressure Massage Hot and Cold TX

32 Transelectrical Nerve Stimulation


34 Acupuncture

35 Acupressure Based on the same principles as acupuncture, (but using pressure instead of needles), acupressure works by stimulating specific reflex points located along the lines of energy which run through the body, called meridians.

36 Massage

37 Hot & Cold Therapies

38 Nonpharmacological Pain Relief Measures Surgery Immobilization Splints, slings, braces Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Distraction Relaxation Techniques Guided Imagery Hypnosis Therapeutic Touch Humor

39 Guided Imagery start the day meditation - guided imagery – YouTube start the day meditation - guided imagery – YouTube Guided Imagery - Bubble Release - YouTube Guided Imagery - Bubble Release - YouTube


41 Biofeedback Biofeedback Session Demo – YouTube 7aL2Og 7aL2Og

42 The Nursing Process Lets Start With You, as a student nurse and health care providers.

43 The HCW’s Perception of Pain What are some myths associated with pain management that you have witnessed in the healthcare setting?

44 Nursing Process: Collect Data The fifth vital sign. Accept the patient’s report of pain. Obtain a pain history. Perform a physical assessment. Observe for nonverbal indicators of pain. Use WHAT”S UP format and pain scales.

45 WHAT”S UP? W here is the pain? H ow does the pain feel? A ggravating & alleviating factors. T iming. S everity. U seful other data. P erception.

46 Pain Scales Visual Analog Scale Numerical Rating Scale The Wong-Baker FACES pain Rating Scale

47 Analgesic Administration Use resources to check on purposes and actions of pharmacological agents Reconcile & maintain MAR +/or Patient’s list of medications. Identify patient’s allergies and intervene as appropriate.

48 Identify a contraindication to administration of a prescribed medication. Acetaminophen Caution and Guidance Acetaminophen Caution and Guidance

49 Case Study: Mr. Lewis Answer ONLY these questions for Now:

50 Planning Use data collected to plan action with patient’s input. Teach patient to use pain scales. Set goals for acceptable pain levels. Example: you will ask your patient who is in pain, “What is an acceptable level of pain for you after we have helped you relieve your pain?” “What has helped in the past to relieve your pain?”

51 Drug Calculations

52 Nursing Diagnoses Nursing Diagnosis: Pain, acute or chronic, Impaired Comfort Others: Self-Care Deficit, Impaired Mobility, Sleep Deprivation, Ineffective Airway Clearance, Ineffective Coping.

53 Interventions Apply therapies for comfort. Use alternative/complementary therapies for pain management. Administer pain medication as prescribed. Identify patient expected response to pain medication. Reinforce client teaching on possible effects of medication.

54 Follow rights of medication administration. Maintain medication safety practice. Follow protocol for handling controlled substances. Monitor patient use of medication over time. Maintain pain control devices.

55 Evaluation Monitor and document patient’s response to pharmacological and non – pharmacological interventions. Notify primary healthcare provider of actual/potential adverse effects of pain medications.

56 Explain the protocol for withholding pain medication if patient experiences an adverse reaction. Discuss actions used in the event of adverse reactions with the use of opioids.

57 What Happens When Someone Has Pain? Transduction - Stimuli: mechanical, thermal, chemical Transmission- A-Delta Fibers & C Fibers Pain Perception- Cerebral Cortex & Limbic System Pain Modulation- Endogenous opioids, neurotransmitters

58 Case study: Mr. Lewis Finish the case study with your partner(s)

59 Role Playing & Case Scenarios Utilize your Medication Research cards and The Joint Commission Handout, “SpeakUP” to perform these excercises.

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