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DEFINE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND LIST AT LEAST 3 EXAMPLES P. 94.

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Presentation on theme: "DEFINE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND LIST AT LEAST 3 EXAMPLES P. 94."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEFINE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND LIST AT LEAST 3 EXAMPLES P. 94

2 An observable property of matter that can be determined without changing the substance. Ex: color, density, luster, odor, BP, MP

3 HOW IS A PHYSICAL CHANGE DIFFERENT FROM A CHEMICAL CHANGE? P. 94

4 In a physical change, the substance remains chemically identical. In a chemical change, a new substance is formed.

5 DEFINE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. P. 94

6 Properties that require a change in the chemical makeup to observe. Ex: flammability

7 __________ __________, A RUSSIAN CHEMIST PUBLISHED THE FIRST PERIODIC TABLE IN P. 100

8 Dimitry Mendeleev

9 DEFINE PHYSICAL CHANGES AND LIST AT LEAST 3 EXAMPLES. P. 94

10 A change results in the same substance in the end. Ex: ripping paper, changing states of matter

11 IN THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE, ELEMENTS ARE PLACED IN SEQUENCE ACCORDING TO ______________________. P. 102

12 Increasing atomic number

13 DEFINE CHEMICAL CHANGES AND LIST AT LEAST 3 EXAMPLES. P. 94

14 Changes that result in the formation of a new substance with different properties ex: burning a piece of paper, frying an egg, food spoiling

15 DEFINE PERIODS P. 103

16 The horizontal rows in the periodic table. Properties are NOT similar in periods.

17 DEFINE A GROUP (FAMILY) OF ELEMENTS. P. 105

18 Family or group: Same number of electrons in outer (valence) shell Similar chemical properties Period: Same number of energy levels

19 IDENTIFY THE ATOMIC NUMBER AND THE AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS OF THE ELEMENT BELOW P N 14.01

20 Atomic # is 7 Atomic Mass is 14.01

21 STUDY YOUR PERIODIC TABLE – KNOW THE LOCATION OF THE METALS, NON METAL AND METALLOIDS -KNOW THE CHARGES ON THE ELEMENTS IN GROUPS 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A (NOTES)

22 /

23 STUDY YOUR ELEMENT FLASH CARDS FROM 1 ST QUARTER OR THE CHART ON P. 97 IN YOUR BOOK

24

25 DESCRIBE THE PROPERTIES OF A METAL (NOTES)

26 Shiny 'metallic' appearance Solids at room temperature (except mercury) High melting points High densities Malleable Ductile Thermal conductors Electrical conductors Electron losers

27 What are the rules for correctly writing a chemical symbol.

28 All have capital letters, some have a capital and a lowercase letter

29 Describe the properties of a non metal.

30 Poor thermal conductors Poor electrical conductors Brittle solids Little or no metallic luster Gain electrons easily Most are gases at room temperature Vary in color

31 Using your periodic table, predict the formula for the compound formed from a.C and F d. Al and S b.Ca and Br e. Fe +2 and O c.K and CL f. Fe +3 and O

32 CF 4 CaBr 2 KCl Al 2 S 3 FeO Fe 2 O 3

33 Describe the properties of a metalloid.

34 They have some properties of metals, some properties of nonmetals

35 What is the name of a compound formed when A. Fe +2 combines with O B. Fe +3 combines with O P 35

36 Iron(II)Oxide Iron(III)Oxide

37 Cation AnionFormula Mg +2 OH – NH +4 NO 3 - Ca +2 PO 4 -3

38 Cation AnionFormula Mg +2 OH – Mg(OH) 2 NH 4 +1 NO NH 4 NO 3 Ca +2 PO 4 -3 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2

39 How does a balanced equation reflect the Law of Conservation of Matter?

40 The number of individual atoms of elements on the reactant side must equal the number of atoms in the product side Matter can’t be created or destroyed

41 Name the seven diatomic elements and correctly write their symbols.

42 H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2

43 2 H 2 O  ___________ ^ ____________ label the subscript and the coefficient.

44 2 H 2 O Subscript Coefficient

45 CH 4 + 2O 2 ---> CO 2 + 2H 2 O In the above equation, the reactants are found on the _________ side while the products are found on the _________ side of the equation.

46 In the above equation, the reactants are found on the LEFT side while the products are found on the RIGHT side of the equation.

47 In Chemistry, a _______ is defined as a unit for counting atoms and molecules. P 135

48 MOLE

49 Complete an atom inventory for the Equation below and use it to balance the equation. ___ C 3 H 8 + ___O 2 ---> ____CO 2 + __H 2 O

50 __ C 3 H O 2 ---> 3 CO H 2 O 3 C 3 8 H 8 10 O 6+4=10

51 There are _____ x _____ particles in one mole of any substance (Avogadro’s number.) P 135

52 There are 6.02x particles in one mole of any substance

53 Find the molar mass of : A. N 2 B. C 2 H 22 O 11 C. CuFeS 2

54 N 2 =14 x2= 28.0g/mole C 12 H 22 O 11 = =342g/mole CuFeS 2 = = 183.5g/molr

55 Define renewable resources P 145

56 Resources that are replenished readily by natural processes ex: trees, animals, cotton

57 Determine the % composition of Cu in CuFeS 2. P. 140

58 63.55/ x100%= 34.62% Cu

59 Define nonrenewable resources. P 145

60 Resources that are not easily replenished by nature, or take a long time to replenish ex: crude oil, natural gas, precious metals

61 Describe the composition of a U.S. penny A. Pre B. Post *Review your shrinking it rich lab P 96

62 Pre-1982=all Copper Post-1982= mainly Zinc with a Copper coating

63 Define recycling P 146

64 changing a product’s form to make a new product ex: Al cans, glass

65 Bldg Skills # 5 p.121 Answer questions 1 a, b, c and 2 a, b, c,

66

67 Define reusing P 145

68 Using a product for the same use or another use before it is discarded ex: coffee can as a pencil cup, 2L bottle bird feeder

69 Define reducing P 145

70 Cutting down on the amount of material used ex: reducing thickness of Al cans and car doors, double sided dittos

71 A liquid is a state of matter that has definite ________ but no ______________________. It will take and __________________________.

72 A liquid is a state of matter that has definite volume but no definite shape. It will take on the shape of its container

73 What is a polyatomic ion ? P.33

74 A ion (charged) made up of many atoms

75 Define atom Name the particles that make up an atom and their location in the atom. P 32

76 An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains that element’s properties Proton=+1 charge, in the nucleus Neutron= 0charge, in the nucleus Electron=-1 charge, in the electron cloud around the nucleus

77 Describe a suspension P 25

78 A heterogeneous mixture containing large particles that settle to the bottom of a container. Ex: Italian dressing

79 How is an ion different from an atom?P 32

80 An atom contains equal numbers of protons and electrons. (no overall charge) An ion has lost or gained electrons to become electrically charged. (+ or -)

81 Describe a colloid P 25

82 A heterogeneous mixture that has small particles that don’t settle out of the mixture. It shows the Tyndall effect ex: milk

83 What is a cation? P 33

84 A positively charged ion resulting from a LOSS of electrons

85 Describe a solution P 25

86 A homogeneous mixture that is uniform throughout, and appears as if it were one substance. Ex: salt-water, cool-aid

87 What is an anion? Pg 33

88 A negatively charged ion that results from a GAIN of electrons

89 What is the Tyndall effect and through which type of mixture can you observe it? Pg. 25

90 Tyndall effect is the scattering of light by the particles in a mixture. It determines a colloid

91 In a solution, the __________ is the dissolving agent, and the __________ is the dissolved substance. Pg. 45

92 In a solution, the solvent is the dissolving agent, and the solute is the dissolved substance.

93 Describe a polar molecule. Pg. 51

94 A polar molecule has an uneven distribution of electrons that gives the molecule + and – charged regions

95 Practice making metric conversions. *Remember* King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk.

96

97 Water is a polar substance/solvent. This means that water will dissolve _______. Pg. 59

98 Other polar or ionic substances

99 Substances that do not dissolve in a polar solvent might be considered to be _________. This means that they will dissolve in a __________ solvent. Pg. 59

100 Substances that do not dissolve in a polar solvent might be considered to be NONPOLAR This means that they will dissolve in a NONPOLAR solvent.

101 Two examples of polar substances that will dissolve in water are ___________ and _____________. Pg. 59

102 Rubbing alcohol and sugar

103 Two examples of non-polar substances are ____________ and gasoline.

104 Oil, kerosene, diesel

105 Likes dissolve __________. Pg. 59

106 Like dissolves like

107 What is the difference between direct and indirect water use?

108 Direct is seen water use. Ex: drinking water, bottles water, washing your dishes Indirect is unseen (behind the scenes) water use. Ex: water to grow plants, water to cool machines in the creation of an egg carton

109 How is the worlds water supply distributed around the planet? Pg. 16

110 Oceans Glaciers Groundwater Lakes Atmosphere Rivers

111 Nature’s water purification system is called the ________ __________. Pg. 70

112 Hydrologic cycle or water cycle

113 Describe the hydrologic cycle. Pg. 71

114 Four steps that repeat: Evaporation Condensation Precipitation Runoff (Bacterial action and f)iltration

115 Review the pH scale on pg. 57

116 pH 1-7 =acidic pH 7= neutral pH 7-14= basic

117 Explain the steps of the water treatment process. Pg

118 Screening-filtering Pre-chlorination-kill bacteria Flocculation-binds to particles Settling-allow particles to settle out Sand filtration-fine filtration Post chlorination-prevent new bacteria

119 What are THM’s and the problem associated with them? Pg. 74

120 Trihalomethanes Formed by excessive chlorine usage when they react with organic carbons They cause cancer

121 Describe hard water. Pg. 76

122 Water that contains Calcium, Iron, and Magnesium

123 What is gray water?

124

125 What is the formula for determining Density?

126 D= mass/volume

127 The density of H 2 0 as a liquid is ________ and as a solid is _________.

128 The density of H 2 0 as a liquid is 1.00g/ml and as a solid is less dense than its liquid

129 Practice reading a solubility curve.

130

131 Air is a mixture of gases. Name the major and minor components of air and the % of these molecules present.

132 Air is a SOLUTION N 2 =78% O 2 = 21% Ar = less than 1% CO 2 =less than 1%

133 Name the 4 layers of the atmosphere from the ground up.

134

135 What are the properties of a gas?

136 Air has mass Air has volume Air exerts pressure in all directions Air pressure goes from high to low

137 Define pressure and show the formula used to determine pressure.

138 Pressure is force per unit of area P= F/A

139 What is a force? What is SI unit for measuring force?

140 Force is a Push or Pull Newtons

141 What values represent standard pressure?

142 760mmHg, 14.7 psi, 1.0atm…

143 Explain the Kinetic Theory of Matter.

144 The motion of a gas is fast and random The motion of molecules and the spacing between molecules determines the state of matter

145 Define temperature.

146 Temp is a measure of molecular motion, when measured in Kelvin

147 What values represent (standard) temperature?

148 0 Celsius or 273 Kelvin

149 What is the SI unit for temperature?

150 273 Kelvin

151 According to Boyles Law, what is the relationship between pressure and volume at a constant temperature?

152 Pressure and volume are INVERSELY related

153 How is Boyles Law stated mathematically?

154 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

155 According to Charles Law, what is the relationship between volume and temperature at a constant pressure?

156 Volume and temperature are DIRECTLY related

157 How is Charles Law stated mathematically?

158 P 1 /V 1 = P 2 /V 2

159 How is energy from the Sun transmitted to the Earth?

160 As Electromagnetic Radiation (EM)

161 Define photons.

162 Bundles of light energy

163 What is a wavelength?

164 Distance between repeating parts of a wave

165 Describe electromagnetic spectrum.

166 A range of waves that carry varying amounts of energy from the sun.

167 Review the order of the electromagnetic spectrum from highest energy to lowest energy.

168 Gamma X-Ray UV Visible IR Microwave Radio

169 Define frequency

170 The number of waves that pass a certain point in a second

171 Name the four layers of the atmosphere.

172

173 Define greenhouse effect.

174 The trapping of IR radiation by the planet, allowing it to be re- radiated after the sun goes down

175 The increases in the % of CO 2 in the Earth’s atmosphere is due to what (two) factors?

176 Deforestation Industrialization Burning of fossil fuels Production of concrete

177 Acid rain is defined as _____________________.

178 Rain with a pH of below 7. Produced through the combination of SO x with rain to make sulfuric acid

179 Acid rain is caused by sulfur oxides (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). What is the greatest producer of A. SO 2 B. NO x

180 Industry is the major cause of each

181 Earth has an ultraviolet shield high in the stratosphere. It is called the ________ layer which consists of gaseous ____________ (O 3 ).

182 Earth has an ultraviolet shield high in the stratosphere. It is called the OZONE layer which consists of gaseous OZONE (O 3 ).


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