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BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Chapter 2 – Part 2 CP Biology Paul VI Catholic High School.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Chapter 2 – Part 2 CP Biology Paul VI Catholic High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Chapter 2 – Part 2 CP Biology Paul VI Catholic High School

2 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY C, H, O, & N comprise 96% livingmatter Organic compounds - carbon based compounds Carbon atom - four valence electrons four covalent bonds able to form rings System/rules for naming

3 ORGANIC MOLECULES BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

4 BENZENE

5 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY MACROMOLECULES Formed by polymerization Anabolic reactions (building) Require energy input Dehydration synthesis Degraded by: Catabolic reactions (breaking down) Release energy Hydrolytic reactions (Hydrolysis)

6 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

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8 The Four Groups of Organic Molecules in living things: CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS PROTEINS NUCLEIC ACIDS

9 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY CARBOHYDRATES: Contain C, H, O 1:2:1 Ratio formula C n H 2n O n Isomers: (“alternate” forms) Structural – atoms different arrangement Geometric – shape along a double bond Cis Trans Enantiomers – mirror images

10 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

11 Geometric isomers cis – same side of double bound trans – diagonally bonded across double bond

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13 CARBOHYDRATES: Monosaccharides – single sugars, may form rings Glucose Fructose Galactose Mannose Disaccharides – two monosaccharide rings linked Sucrose Lactose Maltose

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16 CARBOHYDRATES: Polysacchrides – many sugars linked together Glycogen Starch Amylose Cellulose β1,4 glycosidic linkage Chitin

17 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

18 LIPIDS: include fats, oils, waxes all hydrophobic, nonpolar Triglycerides (fats) a Glycerol (3 carbon alcohol) and three Fatty Acids (FA) Fats may be: Saturated Unsaturated

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22 Phospholipids Structure: Glycerol Two Fatty Acid Chains PO 4 Group Polar molecule Amphipathic

23 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

24 Amphipathic Molecule BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

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26 Steroids: always 4 Carbon Rings Examples: Cholesterol Steroid Hormones estrogen testosterone progesterone Adrenocortical Steroids mineralocorticoids glucocorticoids Cholesterol

27 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Terpenes: Long chain Lipids Components of pigments Carotenoids β carotene Essential Oils of plants

28 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Prostaglandins: “Modified” form of fatty acid Mediators of Inflammation Multiple Functions in body Leukotrienes Synthesized from “essential” fatty acids: Linoleic Acid Linolenic Acid Arachidonic Acid

29 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Proteins: Contain C, H, O, and Nitrogen Polymers of AMINO ACIDS: Carboxyl Group (COOH) at one end Amino Group (NH 3 + ) at other end “Essential” Amino Acids linked via Peptide Bonds

30 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

31 Formation of Peptides Bonds

32 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Protein Structure: Four levels of organization: Primary – exact order of amino acids Secondary – regional patterns Tertiary – three dimensional shape of strand Quartenary – 2 or more tertiary structures

33 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Primary Structure of a Protein

34 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Secondary Structure

35 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Secondary Structure

36 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Globular ProteinTertiary Structure

37 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Quartenary Structure Protein

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40 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 1.ENZYMES (Catalysts) Gibb’s Free Energy of Activation Exergonic (exothermic) reactions Endergonic (endothermic) reactions Enzyme-Substrate Complex

41 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY ENZYMES FUNCTION BY: Provide Template for substrate Proper Orientation Induced Fit stresses molecules Lowers thermal energy need Provide conducive micro-environment

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44 ENZYME FUNCTION ALTERED BY: Temperature - Ideal human temp o C pH - Optimal human pH 6-8

45 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY ENZYME INHIBITION Competitive Inhibition Noncompetitive Inhibition Genetic Regulation Activity Regulation Allosteric Regulation Feedback Inhibition Cooperativity

46 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

47 FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS (continued) 1.ENZYMES (Catalysts) 2. DEFENSE Globular Proteins Immune Complex System 3. TRANSPORT Myoglobin/Haemoglobin 4. SUPPORT Fibrous Proteins (Collagen)

48 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY 5. MOTION Muscle Contraction Actin, Myosin 6. REGULATION Hormones Regulatory proteins Genes Enzymes

49 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY NUCLEIC ACIDS: Macromolecules for informational storage Polymers made of nucleotides Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

50 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY DNA Molecule composed of nucleotide sequences

51 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY NUCLEIC ACID STRUCTURE: Nucleotides: Five Carbon Sugar Ribose Deoxyribose Phosphate (PO 4 ) Group Organic N-Containing Base

52 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY Nucleotides are joined by Phosphodiester Bonds

53 BIOLOGIC CHEMISTRY

54 ORGANIC BASES: PURINES: Adenine Guanine PYRIMIDINES: Cytosine Thymine Uracil (RNA only)


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