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**Permutations and Combinations**

Solve Counting Problems Using Multiplication Principle Solve Counting Problems Using Permutations Solve Counting Problems Using Combinations Solve Counting Problems Using Permutations involving non distinct objects

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**Multiplication Principle of Counting**

If a task consists of a sequence of choices in which there are p selections for the first choice, q selections for the second choice and r selections for the third choice and so on then the task of making these selections can be done in p∙q∙r∙……..

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Question The fixed price dinner at a restaurant provides the following choices Appetizer: Soup or Salad Entrée: Chicken, Beef, Fish or Pork Dessert: Ice Cream or Cheesecake How many different meals can be ordered?

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Permutation A permutation is an ordered arrangement of r objects chosen from n objects

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**Permutations: Distinct objects with repetition**

The number of ordered arrangements of r objects chosen from n objects in which the n objects are distinct and repetition is allowed is equal to nr. The symbol P(n,r) represents the number of ordered arrangements of r objects chosen from n distinct objects where r≤ n and repetition is not allowed.

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**Permutations of r objects chosen from n distinct objects without repetition**

The number of arrangements of n objects using r ≤ n of them in which The n objects are distinct Once an object is used it can not be used again Order is important Is given by the formula

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Example The International Airline Transportation Association assigns three letter codes to represent airport locations. For example the airport code for Ft Lauderdale, Florida is FLL. Notice that repetition is allowed in forming this code. How many airport codes are possible?

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Example Suppose that we wish to establish a three letter code using any of the 26 uppercase letters of the alphabet, but we require that no letter be used more than once. How many different three letter codes are there?

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Lining up people In how many ways can 5 people be lined up?

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Birthday problem All we know about Shannon, Patrick and Ryan is that they have different birthdays. If we listed all the possible ways this could occur how many would there be? Assume there are 365 days in a year

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Combinations A combination is an arrangement, without regard to order, of r objects selected from n distinct objects without repetition, where r ≤n. The symbol C(n,r) represents the number of combinations of n distinct objects using r of them.

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Forming Committees How many different committees of 3 people can be formed from a pool of 7 people?

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Forming Committees 2 In how many ways can a committee consisting of 2 faculty members and 3 students be formed if 6 faculty members and 10 students are eligible to serve on the committee?

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**Forming different words**

How many different words (real or imaginary) can be formed using all the letters in the word REARRANGE?

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**Number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time**

The number of arrangements of n objects using r≤n of them, in which Th n objects are distinct Once an object is used, it cannot be repeated Order is not important is given by the formula

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**Permutations involving n objects that are not distinct**

The number of permutations of n objects of which n1 are of one kind and n2 are of a second kind…….and nk are of the kth kind is given by

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Question The student relations committee of a college consists of 2 administrators 3 faculty members and 5 students. Four administrators, 8 faculty members, and 20 students are eligible to serve. How many different committees are possible?

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Question How many different 9 letter words (real and imaginary) can be formed from the letters in the word ECONOMICS?

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Question How many different 11 letter words (real or imaginary) can be formed from the letters in the word MATHEMATICS?

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Counting Techniques 0.4.

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