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Paraphrasing and Plagiarism How to conduct honest research.

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Presentation on theme: "Paraphrasing and Plagiarism How to conduct honest research."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Paraphrasing and Plagiarism How to conduct honest research

3 What is plagiarism? Plagiarism is using another writer’s words and not giving them credit.

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5 Examples of plagiarism Copying text from a source on the internet, pasting it in a Word document, and presenting it as your own Changing the name on a relative or friend’s report and presenting it as your own Copying or purchasing a report found on the internet

6 Plagiarism and Consequences All schools have policies about ethics or academic honesty, and consequences for cheating. Be aware that teachers work in departments and compare student work. Be aware that many schools use plagiarism detection services such as Turn It In. Universities in particular have sophisticated methods of finding plagiarism, and they apply harsh consequences. Practice conducting honest research NOW so that college is easier for you.

7 Plagiarism Some students plagiarize without intending to. It is also considered plagiarism when you try to put another writer’s ideas into your own words, but do not succeed in doing so.

8 Avoid Danger Spots Don’t surf to paper mills. Don’t use the Web to look for “easy’ paper sources. Don’t turn in other students papers as your own.

9 How do I avoid plagiarism? Take notes properly Credit the original author when you use direct quotations Summarize correctly Paraphrase correctly

10 Remember CHoMP when taking notes Print or photocopy your source material Cross out grammatical words (a, an, the, conjunctions, prepositions) Highlight important information Make notes that are NOT in complete sentences Put the notes in your own words Gilmore, Barry. Plagiarism: A How-Not-To Guide for Students. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, Print.

11 CHoMP example Prepare detailed storyboards showing sequence and timing of story development for television production. -make storyboards -show story order + time -TV One of the responsibilities of an art director is making storyboards that show the order of events for a TV show.

12 Getting Started… What is a reference list? –A reference list at the end of a paper provides the full information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. It cites works that specifically support a particular article. –References should be alphabetically listed by author’s last name at the end of the paper or presentation. A bibliography/works cited? –A bibliography cites works for background or for further reading.

13 Getting Started… What is a Citation? –References and citations in text are the formal methods of acknowledging the use of a creator’s work. An In-Text Citation? –Direct citations and quotations are acknowledged in the body of a research assignment. (Right in the sentence or paragraph)

14 Direct Quotations It is acceptable to copy lines from the original source material IF you credit the source in the text of your report, in a parenthetical citation. Use quotations sparingly. They may be used when the original material contains unforgettable language, when a paraphrase would be too complicated or awkward, or when you want to emphasize a very important idea.

15 Direct Quotes If you use someone else’s writing without putting it in quotes, you have blatantly plagiarized. Even if you add the source in your bibliography, it is still plagiarism.

16 Example Quotation There should be plenty of opportunities in the future because “jobs for registered nurses will grow much faster than the average for all occupations through 2018.” (Levine.)

17 To Put It Simple… If you didn’t produce it, you don’t own it. So, if you don’t own it, and you don’t have permission to use it……

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19 Parenthetical Citations When you cite a source, you name or identify it. Parenthetical citations appear in parentheses inside the body of a report.

20 CITATIONS IN TEXT Definition In text citations identify the source of a quotation or a personal communication used in research. Citations within the writing (paragraph) are quick and limited in information. Citations point you to the full information on a back References page. Purpose 1.Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, the source must be credited. 2.In text citations refer the reader to a References page. The reader then knows where the information came from.

21 Parenthetical Citations There should be plenty of opportunities in the future because “jobs for registered nurses will grow much faster than the average for all occupations through 2018.” (Levine.)

22 Summarizing A summary is a shortened, simplified version of a longer piece of source material. To summarize you must put the original ideas in your own words.

23 Example Summary ORIGINAL SOURCE Most electricians start by becoming apprentices. As apprentices, they learn on the job by watching and listening to experienced workers. They also take classes about electricity. They get paid while they learn. After 3 to 5 years, they are fully trained and can work on their own. Apprentices start with easy tasks like drilling holes. Later, they learn to connect wires and draw electrical diagrams. After they finish an apprenticeship, many electricians take more classes. They might learn more about telephone lines, computer lines, and other kinds of special wiring. Most electricians also need a license from the county where they work. To become an apprentice, most people need a high school diploma or a G.E.D. They also need to pass a skills test about math and science. To get ready for the test, it helps to take high school classes in science, shop, and technical drawing. Math classes, like algebra, are also very important. After high school, people can get training in technical schools, community colleges, and the U.S. Armed Forces. SUMMARY If you want to be an electrician you need to have a high school diploma and pass a skills test. You should make sure to work especially hard in your math and science classes. Electricians get most of their training as apprentices, by watching and imitating electricians who have been on the job already for many years. They also take classes to learn special skills at community colleges or technical schools. (Levine.)

24 Paraphrasing A paraphrase is a restatement of a short passage or line of original source material. To paraphrase you must put the original ideas in your own words.

25 Example Paraphrase ORIGINAL The rest of the flight can be fairly easy if the weather is good because planes have computers and other gauges to tell pilots if their trip is going according to plan. PARAPHRASE When there are no storms or strong winds, pilots have easy flights because of all the computers and gauges in modern airplanes.

26 Putting it in your own words A true paraphrase only reuses a few key words from the original source. Your goal should be to only reuse 3-5 words from the original. Use synonyms to change all the other words. Changing word order may be helpful. Combining ideas from more than one sentence may be helpful.

27 In other words…. Cite your sources!

28 Using synonyms ORIGINAL The rest of the flight can be fairly easy if the weather is good because planes have computers and other gauges to tell pilots if their trip is going according to plan. weather = conditions, sun, rain, storms, wind

29 Changing word order ORIGINAL The rest of the flight can be fairly easy if the weather is good because planes have computers and other gauges to tell pilots if their trip is going according to plan. PARAPHRASE When there are no storms or strong winds, pilots have easy flights because of all the computers and gauges in modern airplanes.

30 Combining ideas ORIGINAL Takeoff and landing are often challenging and require a great deal of piloting skill. As a result, pilots must be especially careful during those times. The rest of the flight can be fairly easy if the weather is good because planes have computers and other gauges to tell pilots if their trip is going according to plan. PARAPHRASE While takeoff and landing demand a lot of talent, being in the air is less difficult because of the computers in modern planes.

31 Source:

32 Works Cited This is a listing of the resources you used in your research, (encyclopedias, magazines or journals, web sites, interviews, etc.) Information goes in a VERY strict format so that anyone could find your original sources. Use the first word of your Works Cited entries for your parenthetical citations. EXAMPLE Levine, Chester. BLS Career Information. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 28 Apr

33 For Better or For Worse – Lynn Johnston Source:

34 Source: H:\\samcgowan\Plagiarism&Citations.ppt

35 So how can I use it? You may rephrase anything that your read. In other words, put it into your own words. Do NOT copy anything word for word. Unless… You are quoting someone. You may use direct quotes if you put it in quotation marks, and site your source in the content. You may legally use parts of a copyrighted work, but you must always give the author the credit for his/her hard work. Note: This includes pictures, graphics, music and software too!!!

36 Examples of Plagiarism… Copying and pasting text from online encyclopedias Copying and pasting text from any web site Using photographs, video or audio without permission or acknowledgement Using another student’s or your parents’ work and claiming it as your own even with permission Using your own work without properly citing it! From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation

37 Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism Always put quotes from text in quotations. Never forget to do this as this is the easiest way to get accused of plagiarism.

38 What is Copyright? “The exclusive right to produce or reproduce (copy), to perform in public, or to publish an original literary or artistic work.” Duhaime's Law Dictionary Almost everything created privately and originally after March 1, 1989 is copyrighted and protected whether it has a notice or not.


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