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PH Scale: a standard measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H + ) in a solution (0-14)  Neutral solutions: pH of 7 (H 2 O)  Acidic solutions:

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Presentation on theme: "PH Scale: a standard measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H + ) in a solution (0-14)  Neutral solutions: pH of 7 (H 2 O)  Acidic solutions:"— Presentation transcript:

1 pH Scale: a standard measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H + ) in a solution (0-14)  Neutral solutions: pH of 7 (H 2 O)  Acidic solutions: pH less than 7  Basic solutions: pH more than 7  Difference of 10X between each pH number Acid:  Sour; High #of H + ;Low # of OH - Base:  Bitter; slippery; High # of OH - ; Low # of H + Litmus Paper : an indicator for the determination of an acid or base  Qualitative test Red: acid Blue: base Acid + Base Salt + H 2 O (neutralization)

2 Physical Change: appearance changes slightly; still recognizable Chemical Change: rearrangement of atoms; appearance totally changed Chemical Equation: describes a chemical reaction  A + B C + D Reactants Products Law of the Conservation: During a chemical reaction, mass (energy) is neither created nor destroyed. Inorganic Compound: No carbon is present  Example: H 2 O

3 Organic Compound: Carbon is present; found in living things; shown by structural formula Isomers: compounds with the same chemical formula but different structural formulas; with different physical and chemical properties Carbohydrates: (end in OSE) Give quick energy; contain C,H,O (2H:O); sugars, starches Monosaccharides: C 6 H 12 O 6 (simple sugars)  Examples: glucose (commercial name of dextrose), galactose, fructose (in fruit)  Isomers: glucose, fructose, galactose

4 Disaccharides: C 12 H 22 O 11 (double sugars)  Examples: maltose, sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar)  Isomers: maltose, sucrose, lactose  Dehydration Synthesis Reactions: A + B C + H 2 O (H 2 O out)  Hydrolysis Reaction: C + H 2 O A + B (H 2 O in)  Glucose + Glucose Maltose + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O  Glucose + Fructose Sucrose + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O

5  Glucose + Galactose Lactose + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O  Maltose + H 2 O Glucose + Glucose  C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6  Sucrose + H 2 O Glucose + Fructose  C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O  Lactose + H 2 O Glucose + Galactose  C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6 Polysaccharides: starch (complex sugars)  Cellulose (plant starch)  Glycogen (animal starch); stored in the liver

6 Test for Monosaccharides:  Benedict’s Solution (blue solution) is added to an unknown substance + heat  Results: green, orange, brown (+) for monosaccharides; blue (-) for disaccharides, polysaccharides  A qualitative test Test for Polysaccharides:  Iodine (brown solution) is added to an unknown substance  Results: black, blue (+) for polysaccharides; brown (-) for monosaccharides and disaccharides  A qualitative test

7 Lipids: Gives stored energy ; contains C,H,O (H:O greater than 2:1); never dissolve in H 2 O  Examples: oils (liquid), waxes (solid) Body: padding around organs, insulation under skin  Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids Lipid + 3 H 2 O  Lipid + 3 H 2 O Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids Types of Fats:  Saturated Fat (bad) -C-C-  Unsaturated Fat C=C  Polyunsaturated Fat(good) C=C=C

8 Cholesterol: clogs arteries Steroids: important for growth, hormones Proteins: For maintenance and repair ; contain C,H,O,N Another name for a protein: polypeptide chain Bonds in a protein: peptide bonds  Examples: antibodies, hormones, enzymes  Enzyme: speeds up chemical reactions; also called catalyst, end in ASE Amino Acids = “the building blocks of proteins”

9  Amino Acid + Amino Acid Protein + H 2 O  Protein + H 2 O Amino Acid + Amino Acid Parts of a Protein:  COOH (carboxyl group) NH 2 amino group) Lipoproteins (lipids and proteins in blood)  HDL (high density lipoproteins): Remove cholesterol (+)  LDL (low density lipoproteins): Produce cholesterol (-)

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