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Chapter 6: Spanish Louisiana. Themes: Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp. 124-125) Spanish Government Begins; New Laws (pp. 126-130)Spanish Government.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Spanish Louisiana. Themes: Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp. 124-125) Spanish Government Begins; New Laws (pp. 126-130)Spanish Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6: Spanish Louisiana

2 Themes: Louisiana and the World Timeline (pp ) Spanish Government Begins; New Laws (pp )Spanish Government Begins; New Laws Unzaga; Gálvez; Miró (pp )Unzaga; Gálvez; Miró The Acadians (pp )The Acadians The New Orleans Fires (pp )The New Orleans Fires Carondelet; Economics (pp )Carondelet; Economics

3 Themes: End of Spanish Louisiana; Louisiana Purchase (pp )End of Spanish Louisiana; Louisiana Purchase Review (p. 147)

4 I. Spanish Government Begins Creoles were outraged when they learned of the Spanish control GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 72, 73, 76, 77

5 A. Antonio de Ulloa 1.Spain owned the colony but France continued to run it 2.A famous scientist and engineer who was appointed Spain’s first governor in Louisiana. 3.Viewed as weak, distant, and a poor manager, he was ousted from power during the Creole Revolution. 4.He was an introvert and distant from the people.

6 B. French Colonial Government Remains 1.Rather than making a bold transition, he chose to forego a formal public ceremony celebrating the transfer of control from France to Spanish control. 2.He planned to rule behind the scenes

7 C. Unrest in the Colony 1. He married a mestizo woman and many felt he had violate the Code Noir. 2.New economic regulations destroyed traditional trade ties. 3.Inflation was out of control so he set fixed prices 4.Merchants did not like being told how much they could charge for goods 5.Superior Council hated him and began plotting to rebel

8 D. The Creole Revolution 1.October 28, 1768, a mob of locals disabled the cannons protecting New Orleans Creoles and German Coast residents stormed the city, and the Superior Council ordered Ulloa to leave 3.Ulloa left and the French flag flew once again 4.They wrote a letter to the French king asking to be taken back by France—The king did not respond 5.Spain was going to strike back

9 Spanish soldier re-enactor

10 E. The Spanish Return to Louisiana 1.1 year later, Spanish fleet with 2,000 soldiers arrived in New Orleans to take back control 2.Commanded by General Don Alejandro O’Reilly 3.Spanish flag was raised

11 F. “Bloody” O’Reilly 1.Although Irish, he served Spain, and with his troops returned Louisiana to Spanish control after the Creole Revolution. 2.He executed and imprisoned the revolt’s leaders and served as Louisiana’s governor for a year. 3.Became know as “Bloody” O’Reilly 4.he served as governor for about a year

12 Don Alejandro O’Reilly

13 II. New Laws The Spanish government was more effective than that of the French

14 A. Something Old, Something New 1.Spanish officials were specifically trained for their jobs so the government was more efficient than under French rule. 2.Checks and balances reduced political corruption among officials. 3.Two lieutenant governors assisted the governor. 4.The colony was divided into 12 districts with a commandment in each to enforce the law and judge minor cases parishes were established. Each had a Catholic church and a priest. 6.The colony’s economic affairs were controlled by the intendant.

15 B. The Cabildo 1.Replaced the Superior Council and passed laws for the city of New Orleans 2.It included members who were appointed (even Creoles), as well as some who paid for their positions. 3.Each member had specific responsibilities. 4.If someone was convicted of a crime, they could appeal the conviction to the Cabildo

16 C. The Legal System Improves 1.French customs of Paris is replaced with the O’Reilly Code 2.The O’Reilly Code was the name of the new Spanish legal system 3.It had various levels of courts and judges who were trained for their positions

17 D. Changes to the Code Noir 1.Spanish Code Noir was similar to French, but included more rights for slaves 2.Freed slaves had the same rights as whites 3.Slaves could now testify in court 4.They were guaranteed a 30-minute lunch break and two-hour dinner breaks. 5.Owners could now free slaves without government permission. 6.Slaves had the right to buy their own freedom by splitting any wages they earned with their owners. 7.These changes resulted in a steady increase in the number of freed slaves. 8.Most became small merchants or craftsmen

18 E. French Culture Survives 1.the Creoles tolerated the Spanish and then began to appreciate them 2.O’Reilly established language schools, but he did not force Creoles to adopt Spain’s language or customs 3.They could maintain French customs and traditions as long as they did not conflict with the Spanish

19 III. Luis de Unzaga Replaced O’Reilly as governor of Louisiana. His calm manner and marriage to a local woman along with allowing floating warehouses helped the colony prosper. Allowed English trading vessels, called floating warehouses, to come down the Mississippi River and trade goods even thought it was illegal GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78, 80

20 A. The American Revolution 1.13 colonies on the eastern seaboard had been arguing with Great Britain for years 2.Fighting erupted 3.July 4, 1776, colonial delegates approved a document declaring their independence as a separate nation 4.Spain did not officially support either side, but hoped the colonies would win 5.Unzaga offered the colonies help 6.provided Oliver Pollock, an American merchant with wheat to aid the colonies

21 IV. Bernardo de Gálvez Became governor after Unzaga. He was popular with the citizens of Louisiana and secretly helped the colonies as they fought for independence. Worked secretly with Pollock to provide aid to the colonies Shipped medicine, clothing, and weapons up the Mississippi to the rebels

22 A. The Willing Expedition 1.James Willings, an American, launched a military raid on British West Florida 2.attached English plantations around Natchez and Baton Rouge 3.They burned, looted, stole private property, and captured and English warship 4.Willing then transported goods to New Orleans to sell 5.Galvez was caught in the middle 6.Willings’ action turned West Florida residents to the side of the English due to his brutal treatment

23 B. Taking Sides 1.France and Spain decided to join the colonies in their war against England 2.Galvez raised an army and marched for Baton Rouge 3.Army included Spanish soldiers, Creoles, black militiamen, and Indians 4.Galvez captured Fort Bute, Fort Richmond, an English regiment at Mobile, and Pensacola 5.Treaties ending the Revolutionary war forced England to give: –Independence to Americans –Florida to Spain 6. Baton Rouge and the rest of West Florida continue to be separate from Louisiana 7.Spain owned the entire Gulf Coast

24 North America, 1783

25 V. Esteban Rodríguez Miró A Louisiana governor fluent in seven languages. More settlers came to Louisiana during his term than during that of any other Spanish governor.

26 A. The Colony Grows 1.the population grew under Spanish control 2.Grew because the Spanish wanted to move in large numbers of people to protect the gold and silver mines in Mexico

27 B. Land Grants 1.Spain built colonies population by offering land grants which was a parcel of land promised to each family who would settle in Louisiana 2.Government also provided tools, a rooster, two hens, two pigs, and supplies for a year

28 C. The Isleños- “Islanders” 1.Spanish group from the Canary Islands 2.settled mostly in areas of St. Bernard, Ascension, and Plaquemines Parishes and made their livings by fishing and trapping

29 D. Settling Northeast Louisiana 1.settled by a few French hunters and their families 2.they complained that the English and their Indian allies were raiding the area 3.Spanish official took action 4.Miro sent Captain Don Juan Filhiol up the Ouachita River to organize the French families into settlements

30 E. The Kaintocks 1.tensions over the Mississippi grew 2.Americans frequently traveled down the river to trade in New Orleans 3.Most came from Kentucky, the Creoles called all of them Kaintocks 4.they came into the city, drank too much, got into fights, and generally caused trouble 5.Due to this Miro closed the river to most American trade 6.Sometimes they let them through and sometime they didn’t 7.Kaintocks were furious with this inconsistency

31 F. The Spanish Conspiracy 1.Miro was involved 2.General James Wilkerson, an American and former American Revolution general, was an ambitious and untrustworthy man 3.He was forced to resign from the army 4.Wilkerson moved to Kentucky Territory 5.he traveled to New Orleans and met secretly with Governor Miro 6.he swore allegiance to Spain 7.Tried to get Kentucky to break away from the United States and join the Spanish territory 8.Failed and Kentucky became a US state

32 VI. The Acadians One of the largest group of settlers French-speaking Catholic colonists who lived in the French Canadian province of Acadia, which is modern-day Nova Scotia England acquired Acadia during one of the colonial wars, but the Acadians did not like the English Protestants The French and Indian War erupted and the English were afraid the Acadians would help the French, so they were deported GLEs: 64, 65, 74, 75, 78, 81

33 General James Wilkinson

34 A. Le Grand Deŕangement , the English government called a meeting and forced about 6,000 Acadians aboard a ship 2.It was tramatic and life-shattering 3.no one wanted the Acadians 4.People thought they were a burden and were competitors for jobs

35 B. Acadians Find Refuge in Louisiana 1.After many year in exile, Spain realized they would help populate the colony 2.Spanish offered to pay their way to Louisiana : perhaps as many as 10,000 Acadians came to the colony 4.Settled in the prairies of southwest Louisiana and along Bayou Teche

36 **Acadians and Cajuns (Read more about it on page 137)

37 **”Evangeline” and Bayou Teche (Read more about it on page 137)

38 Evangeline Oak

39 **New Orleans Fires of 1788 and 1794 (Read more about it on page 138) When a priest knocked over a candle the curtains caught fire Since it was Easter, bells were kept quiet so it took longer to notify the fire department Because the firemen spoke only French and the officials giving order spoke Spanihs, they were unable to communicate effectively Due to the size of the fire, it destroyed over 850 buildings, and over 1000 people lost their homes To reduce fire hazards, Governor Carondelet ordered builders to use brick for structures over one story tall. After the second fire, architects and builders copied Spanish styles so most French Quarter architecture is more Spanish than French. GLEs: 65, 73

40 VII. Francisco Luis Hector, Baron de Carondelet He was born in France, served in the French military, joined the Spanish Army. Although French, he governed Louisiana for Spain. He established laws under which slaves were treated more humanly. GLEs: 64, 65, 66, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80

41 A. Boundary Disputes 1.Spain gained West Florida, but it’s northern boundary was under dispute 2.Spain claimed Natchez as part of the territory 3.United States argued 4.Western American threatened to attack New Orleans and secure take the Mississippi River 5.American’s were angry because Spain had closed the river again 6.Spain knew they would lose a war with the United States and have to give up Louisiana

42 B. Treaty of San Lorenzo-Pinckney’s Treaty 1.Spain avoided war 2.US got to use the Mississippi River for trade and had the right of deposit in New Orleans for 3 years 3.West Florida boundary was changed at 31 degrees north latitude

43 C. The Pointe Coupée Slave Revolt 1.Carondelet felt harsh treatment of slaves could lead to rebellion, so he established laws that treated slave more humanely. 2.His policy has several effects. 3.These included: Slaves challenging their owners’ authority Work slowdowns The Pointe Coupee Slave Rebellion-which resulted in the hanging of 23 slaves and 31 floggings so severe that only four survived Some slave owners then began treating slaves even more harshly than before the new policy The new policy put slaves under the authority of all whites.

44 VIII. Economics Spain was much more successful than France

45 A. Sugar 1.Became the largest cast crop in the colony 2.Etienne de Bore was a sugarcane grower with a plantation in New Orleans 3.His new granulation process made sugarcane a very profitable crop

46 B. Perique Tobacco 1.Became an important cash crop that brought money to the colony

47 C. Land Grants 1.Marquis de Maison Rouge and Baron de Bastrop were given land grants. 2.Neither man met his quota to bring new settlers in 3.Most settlers who did come to the colony were Americans who brought English culture with them

48 IX. The End of Spanish Louisiana 1.During the French Revolution, working- class people rebelled against upper- class aristocrats who ruled France. 2.During the 10-year revolt thousands were killed. 3.The King and Queen were beheaded. GLEs: 65, 66, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78

49 A. Foreign French 1.Louisiana’s French population grew because of the masses of French fleeing the country to escape the Revolution 2.They were called Foreign French 3.Soon Revolutionary societies sprang up in Louisiana and the Spain feared a revolt 4.Governor Carondelet sent in more troops and arrested the rebels 5.There was no revolt

50 B. Napoleon Bonaparte 1.He became France’s Dictator after the French Revolution. 2.dreamt of rebuilding the French empire in America 3.The only significant colony France had left in North American was Saint-Domingue 4.He wanted to turn this colony into a money- making sugarcane plantation 5.He needed a place to get food for the plantation slaves and Louisiana was the answer

51 Napoleon Bonaparte

52 C. A Secret Treaty 1.Fall of 1800 Napoleon forced Spain to give Louisiana back to France in the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso. 2.Spain’s military was too weak to fight Napoleon 3.He allowed the Spanish to continue running the colony 4.President Thomas Jefferson became concerned the Napoleon may want to attack the United States

53 Thomas Jefferson

54 James Monroe

55 D. Fighting for Control Spain revoked the right of deposit to American traders 2.If the river was eventually closed to trade the US economy would suffer 3.Jefferson decided to buy the Isle of Orleans 4.He know whoever controlled the city of New Orleans controlled the entire Mississippi Valley

56 E. A Change of Plans 1.Jefferson send US ambassador to France, Robert Livingston to make the purchase 2.Napoleon would not consider selling the Isle of Orleans 3.James Monroe then traveled to France 4.Napoleon decided he wanted to sell all of Louisiana 5.He wanted the money for a war against England and he had lost Saint-Domingue to a slave revolt (became Haiti), so he no longer needed LA for food supplies

57 F. The Louisiana Purchase 1.Napoleon planned to turn Saint-Dominque into a giant sugarcane plantation, but he would then need to feed the slaves by raising more crops in Louisiana. 2.A war with England and a slave rebellion on the island forced him to sell Louisiana to the United States instead. 3.Jefferson knew how aggressive Napoleon was and wondered if he might attack the United States. 4.Robert Livingston and James Monroe traveled to France to convince Napoleon to sell the Isle of Orleans to the United States. 5.They soon learned Napoleon wanted to sell the entire colony of Louisiana for the price of $15 million. 6.To pay for this, Jefferson arranged to borrow most of the money from English banks. 7.Our nation doubled in size thanks to the Louisiana Purchase 8.The area was later carved into 15 different states.

58 The Louisiana Purchase

59 **Troubled in the Bubbles (Read more about it on page )

60 G. Another New Culture 1.Residents of the colony had lived under both French and Spanish rule before being acquired by the United States. 2.Resident included slaves, free blacks, Acadians, and immigrants from the Canary Islands and France. 3.Evidence of French, Spanish, and Cajun culture is still evident today.

61 H. Three Flags in Three Weeks 1.Spain to France 2.3 weeks later, France to the United States

62 Spanish, French, and American flags

63 I. A New Era 1.Mercantilism was gone 2.all powerful monarchies were gone 3.LA had to get accustom to American ideals, such as 4.Free enterprise 5.Voting 6.Jury duty 7.Political parties 8.Freedom of Religion

64 copyright © 2006 Gibbs Smith, developed by LetterPress Software, Inc.


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