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Discoveries of Eighteenth Century

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Presentation on theme: "Discoveries of Eighteenth Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 Discoveries of Eighteenth Century
Average Life Span: 40 to 50 years

2 18th Century (cont) Gabriel Fahrenheit(1686-1736)
created 1st mercury thermometer Ben Franklin ( ) invented bifocals for eyeglasses Dr. Jessee Bennet Performs 1st successful C-section in 1794 Jenner worked as a doctor in Gloucestershire, England. At that time, smallpox was a serious and often deadly disease. Jenner observed that individuals who had caught the less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. This led him to discover the technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox. He found that this gave him immunity against the deadly smallpox.

3 Edward Jenner (1749-1823) Country doctor in England
Developed a vaccination for smallpox in 1796 How did he find this? … page Jenner worked as a doctor in Gloucestershire, England. At that time, smallpox was a serious and often deadly disease. Jenner observed that individuals who had caught the less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. This led him to discover the technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox. He found that this gave him immunity against the deadly smallpox.

4 Jenner observed that individuals who had caught the less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. This led him to discover technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox. He found that this gave the child immunity against deadly smallpox.


6 The word “vaccination”, made up by Jenner for his treatment (comes from Latin vacca, a cow).
Word was later adopted by Pasteur for immunization against any disease.

7 CheckPoint 10. The word vaccination is derived from a Latin word, which means . . ?.

8 Discoveries of 19th Century
Average Life Span: 40 to 65 years

9 19th Century (cont) Period known as the “industrial revolution”
Major progress in medical science occurred due to development of machines ready access to books

10 Rene Laënnec (1781-1826) French physician Invented stethoscope (1816)
Cylinder originally made from paper, then made from hollow wooden tube Hailed as Father of Thoracic Medicine

11 Before stethoscope, doctors put ear directly to body.


13 Evolution of Laennec’s stethoscope

14 19th Century(cont) Florence Nightingale (1820 – 1910)
Pioneer of Nursing Established efficient and sanitary nursing care units for injured soldiers during the Crimean War Began professional education of nurses

15 Florence Nightingale tending the ill
Often called the “Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night

16 published 200 books, reports & pamphlets
Although bedridden for many years, she campaigned tirelessly to improve health standards published 200 books, reports & pamphlets In recognition of her work Queen Victoria awarded Miss Nightingale the Royal Red Cross in 1883. She died at age 90. Florence Nightingale died at home at the age of 90 on 13 August 1910.

17 19th Century (cont) Major Developments Infection Control
Associated microscopic organisms with disease Methods developed to stop the spread of organisms Women became active participants in medical care Elizabeth Blackwell – 1st female physician in US Dorothea Dix – appointed Superintendent of Female Nurses of the Army Clara Barton – founded the American Red Cross

18 CheckPoint 11. Laennec’s first stethoscope was made of:  a. paper
b. wood c. tree bark.

19 CheckPoint cont. 12. Before Laennec’s stethoscope, how did physicians listen to heart & lung sounds? .

20 James Blundell ( ) 1818- performed 1st successful human blood transfusion transfused blood from husband to his wife by means of syringe James Blundell, a London physician troubled by the many women who died after childbirth from massive bleeding, introduced blood transfusion between humans, using the simple apparatus shown here.

21 Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830
about half were successful At this point, blood typing had not been developed & transfusions were risky. In 1870's, doctors began using milk from cows, goats & humans, as blood substitute This was replaced with saline solution in 1880's.

22 William Morton ( ) developed anesthesia techniques that made surgery painless

23 CheckPoint MATCHING: 13. Reformed hospitals; pioneered nursing
14. Successful blood transfusions 15. Developed anesthesia techniques. Morton Nightingale Blundell

24 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Father of Bacteriology
Discovered that microorganisms were everywhere Proved that microbes caused disease. Much of Pasteur's research was in the field of brewing and cheese production. He showed that by heat-treating foods they could be prevented from going off and developed the Pasteurizing of milk. He suggested that infectious diseases were caused by micro-organisms. An observation that revolutionized medicine and led to the germ theory of disease. Pasteur also developed several vaccines including ones against anthrax and rabies.

25 Discovered that heating of milk killed germs--hence the term “pasteurization”.
The process of boiling a liquid to destroy bacteria is still used today; most dairy products are pasteurized.

26 Pasteur also developed vaccines against anthrax & rabies.
Louis's pupil, Emile Roux, inoculating boy against rabies at Pasteur Institute

27 Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912) Used asepsis in surgery
Discovered that carbolic acid killed germs. Lister believed that infection was caused by airborne dust particles. He sprayed the air with carbolic acid, a chemical that was then being used to treat foul smelling sewer, in hopes that it would result in a decrease of infection in infirmaries. Carbolic acid sprayer

28 Lister Introduces Antisepsis
For six weeks, Lister had treated a boy's compound fracture wound with carbolic acid. When Lister removed dressings from fracture, he found wound had healed without infection--something unheard of at that time! As Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University, Lister saw many patients survive surgery only to die from infections such as gangrene. To prevent this he covered wounds with a piece of lint soaked in carbolic acid. He developed this further by making apparatus that produced a fine mist of carbolic acid that was pumped into the air around a person undergoing surgery. This first use of an antiseptic greatly reduced infections and increased survival.

29 Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) German physicist
Discovered x-rays in 1895 1st X-ray was of his wife’s hand X-rays were discovered in 1895 by the German Physicist Wilhelm Roentgen. He was studying cathode rays produced by a recently-invented piece of equipment called a Crooke's tube when he noticed that a fluorescent screen across the room started to glow.

30 Roentgen’s wife & X-ray of her hand

31 CheckPoint MATCHING: 16. Discovered x-rays
17. Developed rabies vaccine 18. Used carbolic acid to kill germs. Lister Pasteur Roentgen

32 Twentieth Century Most rapid growth in health care
Average Life Span: 60 – 80 years

33 Development of Rehabilitation Professions
Physical Therapy Occupational Therapy Orthotics and Prosthetics Audiology Art Therapy Kinesiotherapy

34 Physical Therapy 1894 Originated in England
Nurses were 1st Physical Therapists RN using a Current impulse stimulator Physical Therapy has an rich, international history. In any other country the profession of "Physical Therapy" is called "Physiotherapy." The earliest documented origins of actual physical therapy as a professional group date back to 1894 when nurses in England formed the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Other countries soon followed and started formal training programs.

35 Another type of physical therapy
Using a “shoulder wheel” which was used after arm & shoulder injuries

36 Occupational Therapy - 1917
Developed in response to injured veterans returning from WWI. Needed rehab in order to get back to work. Occupational Therapy Ward Effects of World War I (1914), and rapidly growing populations that found homes in city tenements and work in factories. With returning veterans, the rising incidence of industrial and automotive accidents, and medical advances that saved more and more lives, a growing population faced long-term residual disability with few available resources for reconstructing lives. In 1917, a group of well educated, East Coast men and women founded the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy.

37 Depiction of wounded soldier weaving belt with aid of apparatus designed to exercise his injured arm.

38 WWII - physical therapy in use following surgery

39 Orthotics and Prosthetics
Began with ancient art of splinting Associated with amputation surgery after wars Grew after WWI and WWII and the polio epidemics in late 1940’s & early 1950’s Historically, the study of orthotics (external supports) began with the ancient art of splint and brace making (1,2). Bonesetters and brace makers eventually developed into what we now call orthopedic surgeons and orthotists. The study of prosthetics has been closely associated with amputation surgery performed as a lifesaving measure from the aftermath of battle. Injured soldiers who returned home from battle with traumatic amputations utilized primitive wooden prostheses. Each major war apparently has been the stimulus for improvement of amputation surgical techniques and for the development of improved prostheses. It was not until the twentieth century when the most significant contributions to prosthetic/orthotic sciences were made, stimulated by the aftermath of the first and second world wars and the polio epidemics of the late 1940’s and early 1950s.

40 Audiology ’s Origin in 1920’s when audiometers were 1st designed to measure hearing Profession surged after WWI & II from noise induced hearing loss The profession of audiology had its origins in the 1920s when audiometers were first designed for measuring hearing. Interest in this profession surged in the 1940s when soldiers returned from World War II with noise induced hearing loss due to near-by gunfire or to prolonged and unprotected exposure to machinery noise.

41 Art Therapy ’s Patient’s creations were thought to reveal hidden feelings & emotions. In the 1940’s, artists working in psychiatric hospitals became aware that painting, drawing and other forms of artwork could form the basis of a therapeutic relationship between patient and therapist. The patients’ creations are said to reveal hidden feelings and emotions and so help the therapist to better understand the patient as well as being an important medium for communication.

42 Kinesiotherapy - "Corrective Therapy"
Rehab programs developed during WWII to expedite return of soldiers to active duty following battle injuries. to implement exercise programs designed to reverse or minimize debilitation and enhance the functional capacity of medically stable patients in a wellness, sub-acute, or extended care setting

43 CheckPoint 19. Many rehab professions developed in response to _______ injuries.  industrial farm polio war.

44 Other new developments during the 20th Century
Use of new machines, i.e. X-Rays, MRI, ultrasound, CT scans, PET scans New medicines and vaccines were developed Causes of many diseases were identified Physicians were able to treat the cause of the disease to cure the patient

45 X-Ray / MRI Scanner

46 Ultrasound of fetus

47 Walter Reed Demonstrated that mosquitoes carry yellow fever (1900)

48 Sir Alexander Fleming Accidently discovered penicillin in 1928
Became known as the “Wonder Drug” Penicillin is a broad- spectrum antibiotic since it kills a wide range of bacteria

49 Dr. Michael DeBakey Well-renowned Houston cardiologist
Linked Lung cancer to cigarette smoking 1950s – One of the first to perform Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 1953 – Performed the 1st successful Carotid Endarterectomy (plague removal and stent placement) Pioneer in development of artificial heart. First to use an external heart pump successfully – a “left ventricular bypass pump”.

50 20th Century (cont) Jonas Salk Albert Sabin
Discovered a killed polio virus would afford immunity to poliomyelitis. Developed the polio vaccine in 1952 Albert Sabin Developed an oral live-virus polio vaccine in mid- 1950s

51 20th Century (cont) Francis Crick and James Watson
Described the structure of DNA – “double helix” - in 1953 and how it carries genetic information

52 Dr. Christiaan Barnard South African doctor performed the 1st successful heart transplant in 1967 Louis Washkansky lived 18 days with this heart. He died of pneumonia. Louis Washkansky was the recipient of the world's first human heart transplant.

53 Dr. William DeVries American doctor who implanted the 1st artificial heart, Jarvik-7, into a patient in 1982 Barney Clark, a dentist, suffered from congestive heart failure. He was unsuitable for a transplant, so had the artificial heart implanted. He survived 112 days. Dr. DeVries Barney Clark “Jarvik-7”

54 CheckPoint 20. ______________ performed the first successful heart transplant in  Barney Clark Christiaan Bernard Jonas Salk.

55 CheckPoint 21. He discovered mosquitoes carried yellow fever. 
William DeVries Albert Sabin Walter Reed.

56 CheckPoint 22. Who accidently discovered penicillin? 
Sir Alexander Fleming James Watson Francis Crick.

57 20th Century (cont) Other “Firsts”
1st successful arm reattachment at the shoulder 1962 1st liver transplant in 1963 1st lung transplant in 1964 1st Hospice founded in England in 1967 1st “test tube” baby born in England in 1978 AIDS is identified in 1981 1st gene therapy to treat disease in 1990

58 21st Century Stem cells used in the treatment of disease - 2000s
HIPAA, Privacy act of 1996, put into effect in 2003 Human Genome project completed in 2003 Able to identify all of approx – genes in human DNA 1st Face transplant in France in 2005 New vaccines in – Gardasil (cervical cancer), Zostavax (shingles)

59 Onward to new medical advances . . .

60 Future????? What will your part be in this????
Cure for AIDS, cancer, heart disease? Genetic manipulation to prevent inherited diseases? Eliminate paralysis by regenerating brain and spinal cord? Transplants of all organs, including the brain? Development of antibiotics that do not allow pathogens to become resistant? What will your part be in this????

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