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Discoveries of Eighteenth Century 1 Average Life Span: 40 to 50 years.

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Presentation on theme: "Discoveries of Eighteenth Century 1 Average Life Span: 40 to 50 years."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discoveries of Eighteenth Century 1 Average Life Span: 40 to 50 years

2 Gabriel Fahrenheit( ) created 1 st mercury thermometer Ben Franklin ( ) invented bifocals for eyeglasses Dr. Jessee Bennet Performs 1 st successful C-section in th Century (cont)

3 Edward Jenner ( ) Country doctor in England Developed a vaccination for smallpox in 1796 How did he find this? …..next page 3

4 Jenner observed that individuals who had caught the less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. This led him to discover technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox. He found that this gave the child immunity against deadly smallpox. 4

5 5

6 The word “ vaccination”, made up by Jenner for his treatment (comes from Latin vacca, a cow). Word was later adopted by Pasteur for immunization against any disease. 6

7 10. The word vaccination is derived from a Latin word, which means.. ?. CheckPoint 7

8 Discoveries of 19 th Century 8 Average Life Span: 40 to 65 years

9 19 th Century (cont) 9 Period known as the “industrial revolution” Major progress in medical science occurred due to development of machines ready access to books

10 Rene Laënnec ( ) French physician Invented stethoscope (1816) – Cylinder originally made from paper, then made from hollow wooden tube Hailed as Father of Thoracic Medicine 10

11 Before stethoscope, doctors put ear directly to body. 11

12 12

13 Evolution of Laennec ’ s stethoscope 13

14 19 th Century(cont) 14 Florence Nightingale (1820 – 1910) Pioneer of Nursing Established efficient and sanitary nursing care units for injured soldiers during the Crimean War Began professional education of nurses

15 Florence Nightingale tending the ill 15 Often called the “Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night

16 Although bedridden for many years, she campaigned tirelessly to improve health standards – published 200 books, reports & pamphlets In recognition of her work Queen Victoria awarded Miss Nightingale the Royal Red Cross in She died at age

17 19 th Century (cont) 17 Major Developments Infection Control Associated microscopic organisms with disease Methods developed to stop the spread of organisms Women became active participants in medical care Elizabeth Blackwell – 1 st female physician in US Dorothea Dix – appointed Superintendent of Female Nurses of the Army Clara Barton – founded the American Red Cross

18 11. Laennec ’ s first stethoscope was made of:  a. paper b. wood c. tree bark. CheckPoint 18

19 CheckPoint cont. 12. Before Laennec ’ s stethoscope, how did physicians listen to heart & lung sounds?. 19

20 James Blundell ( ) performed 1st successful human blood transfusion – transfused blood from husband to his wife by means of syringe 20

21 Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830 –about half were successful At this point, blood typing had not been developed & transfusions were risky. In 1870's, doctors began using milk from cows, goats & humans, as blood substitute This was replaced with saline solution in 1880's. 21

22 William Morton ( ) developed anesthesia techniques that made surgery painless 22

23 MATCHING: 13. Reformed hospitals; pioneered nursing 14. Successful blood transfusions 15. Developed anesthesia techniques. CheckPoint a.Morton b.Nightingale c.Blundell 23

24 Louis Pasteur ( ) Father of Bacteriology Discovered that microorganisms were everywhere Proved that microbes caused disease. 24

25 The process of boiling a liquid to destroy bacteria is still used today; most dairy products are pasteurized. Discovered that heating of milk killed germs--hence the term “ pasteurization ”. 25

26 Pasteur also developed vaccines against anthrax & rabies. Louis's pupil, Emile Roux, inoculating boy against rabies at Pasteur Institute 26

27 Sir Joseph Lister ( ) Used asepsis in surgery Discovered that carbolic acid killed germs. Carbolic acid sprayer 27

28 Lister Introduces Antisepsis For six weeks, Lister had treated a boy's compound fracture wound with carbolic acid. When Lister removed dressings from fracture, he found wound had healed without infection-- something unheard of at that time! 28

29 Wilhelm Roentgen ( ) German physicist Discovered x-rays in st X-ray was of his wife’s hand 29

30 Roentgen ’ s wife & X-ray of her hand 30

31 MATCHING: 16. Discovered x-rays 17. Developed rabies vaccine 18. Used carbolic acid to kill germs. CheckPoint a.Lister b.Pasteur c.Roentgen 31

32 32 Most rapid growth in health care Twentieth Century Average Life Span: 60 – 80 years

33 Development of Rehabilitation Professions 33 Physical Therapy Occupational Therapy Orthotics and Prosthetics Audiology Art Therapy Kinesiotherapy

34 Physical Therapy 1894 Originated in England Nurses were 1st Physical Therapists RN using a Current impulse stimulator 34

35 Another type of physical therapy Using a “shoulder wheel” which was used after arm & shoulder injuries 35

36 Occupational Therapy Developed in response to injured veterans returning from WWI. Needed rehab in order to get back to work. Occupational Therapy Ward 36

37 Depiction of wounded soldier weaving belt with aid of apparatus designed to exercise his injured arm. 37

38 WWII - physical therapy in use following surgery 38

39 Orthotics and Prosthetics Began with ancient art of splinting Associated with amputation surgery after wars Grew after WWI and WWII and the polio epidemics in late 1940 ’ s & early 1950 ’ s 39

40 Audiology ’ s Origin in 1920 ’ s when audiometers were 1st designed to measure hearing Profession surged after WWI & II from noise induced hearing loss 40

41 Art Therapy ’ s Patient ’ s creations were thought to reveal hidden feelings & emotions. 41

42 Kinesiotherapy - "Corrective Therapy" Rehab programs developed during WWII to expedite return of soldiers to active duty following battle injuries. 42

43 19. Many rehab professions developed in response to _______ injuries.  CheckPoint a.industrial b.farm c.polio d.war. 43

44 Other new developments during the 20 th Century Use of new machines, i.e. X-Rays, MRI, ultrasound, CT scans, PET scans New medicines and vaccines were developed Causes of many diseases were identified Physicians were able to treat the cause of the disease to cure the patient 44

45 X-Ray / MRI Scanner 45

46 Ultrasound of fetus 46

47 Walter Reed 47 Demonstrated that mosquitoes carry yellow fever (1900)

48 Sir Alexander Fleming 48 Accidently discovered penicillin in 1928 Became known as the “Wonder Drug” Penicillin is a broad- spectrum antibiotic since it kills a wide range of bacteria

49 Dr. Michael DeBakey 49 Well-renowned Houston cardiologist Linked Lung cancer to cigarette smoking 1950s – One of the first to perform Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 1953 – Performed the 1 st successful Carotid Endarterectomy (plague removal and stent placement) Pioneer in development of artificial heart. First to use an external heart pump successfully – a “left ventricular bypass pump”.

50 20 th Century (cont) 50 Jonas Salk Discovered a killed polio virus would afford immunity to poliomyelitis. Developed the polio vaccine in 1952 Albert Sabin Developed an oral live-virus polio vaccine in mid- 1950s

51 20 th Century (cont) 51 Francis Crick and James Watson Described the structure of DNA – “double helix” - in 1953 and how it carries genetic information

52 Dr. Christiaan Barnard 52 South African doctor performed the 1 st successful heart transplant in 1967 Louis Washkansky was the recipient of the world's first human heart transplant

53 Dr. William DeVries 53 American doctor who implanted the 1st artificial heart, Jarvik-7, into a patient in 1982 Dr. DeVriesBarney Clark “Jarvik-7”

54 20. ______________ performed the first successful heart transplant in  CheckPoint a.Barney Clark b.Christiaan Bernard c.Jonas Salk. 54

55 21. He discovered mosquitoes carried yellow fever.  CheckPoint a.William DeVries b.Albert Sabin c. Walter Reed. 55

56 22. Who accidently discovered penicillin?  CheckPoint a.Sir Alexander Fleming b.James Watson c.Francis Crick. 56

57 20 th Century (cont) 57 Other “Firsts” 1 st successful arm reattachment at the shoulder st liver transplant in st lung transplant in st Hospice founded in England in st “test tube” baby born in England in 1978 AIDS is identified in st gene therapy to treat disease in 1990

58 21 st Century 58 Stem cells used in the treatment of disease s HIPAA, Privacy act of 1996, put into effect in 2003 Human Genome project completed in 2003 Able to identify all of approx – genes in human DNA 1 st Face transplant in France in 2005 New vaccines in 2006 – Gardasil (cervical cancer), Zostavax (shingles)

59 Onward to new medical advances... 59

60 Future????? 60 Cure for AIDS, cancer, heart disease? Genetic manipulation to prevent inherited diseases? Eliminate paralysis by regenerating brain and spinal cord? Transplants of all organs, including the brain? Development of antibiotics that do not allow pathogens to become resistant? What will your part be in this????


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