Central Powers Defeated Karina Harada & Mona Lamug
Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Turkey Bulgaria Allies Britain and empire France Russia Italy Serbia Belgium Romania USA Japan
The German Spring offensive A major attack by Germany, as a last resort to win the war before the USA joins Also before Germans revolted Causing extra troops from German Allies were falling but the French kept up- even through the Awkward Bulge Awkward Bulge* after advancing, they lost momentum Awkward!
Allied counter-offensive begins The Allies counter attacked near Amiens, with lines of tanks Forcing the Germans to push back slowly 1918, Ludendorff, German general, insisted on asking Wilson, the president of USA for an armistice in October. Because they predicted they would lose by spring 1919 From asking for armistice, Germany would be asking for peace to preserve Germany’s reputation, and to keep Germany from being invaded. November 11, 1918 thearmistice was signed.
Reasons why the Central Powers lost the war Combination of military defeat and food shortages, causing mutiny in the navy. Schlieffen Plan failed. Germany thought there was no hope for a victory Allied sea power blocked the Central Powers causing food shortages while the armistice was fully supplied. German submarines failed because USA, Japan, and Britain protected convoys. A mistake because it brought USA into the war.
USA entered, and brought new resources for the Allies Lloyd George and Clemenceau were political leaders, they had more knowledge and experience compared the Central Power’s political leaders. Germany lost their best troops, 1918. New troops were inexperienced and young. There was a Spanish flu epidemic. Germany’s allies were no help, Germany had to always help Austria and Bulgaria- Germany saw no chance of victory.
It was the first Total War in history- the first big conflict between modern industrialized nations. Involved the entire population. Introduced new warfare: tanks, submarines, bombers, machine guns, and mustard gas. Women had to take over the jobs men left for the war. Civilian population suffered hardship from blockades Effects of the war
Changed the view of other countries on Europe’s high reputation. Europe used to be viewed as the “center of civilization” until the whole world witnessed all the carnage and destruction. Causing the end of European Domination DEATH TOLL in armed forces Germany: 2 million Britain: about 1 million Russia: 1.7 million France: 1.5 million Austria-Hungary: 1 million+ USA: 116,000 Other countries that suffered from death toll: Italy, Turkey, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, & Belgium
Germany’s defeat caused hardships and revolutions. Kaiser abdicated and Germany became a republic. Still had political, social and economic problems, until Hitler gained power in 1933 Habsburg empire collapsed, causing Austria and Hungary to divide into independent nations. Pressure of war causing two revolutions in Russia in 1917 Italy was drained of resources and heavily in dept. Even though it was on the winning side. Causing it to fall under the dictatorship.
Japan, China, and USA took advantage of Europe’s preoccupation to expand their trading which led to the Great Depression. Politicians and leaders determined about not having a war again Wilson comes up with the League of Nations to settle future disputes by arbitration and to keep peace through the “collective security”