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Activity – Pure sex appeal 5 groups of 4 – 1 poster each Read Sinbad the sailor Rank characters from the most reprehensible to the least reprehensible,

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Presentation on theme: "Activity – Pure sex appeal 5 groups of 4 – 1 poster each Read Sinbad the sailor Rank characters from the most reprehensible to the least reprehensible,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Activity – Pure sex appeal 5 groups of 4 – 1 poster each Read Sinbad the sailor Rank characters from the most reprehensible to the least reprehensible, according to moral values, justifying your choices. 20 min

2 Questions What are the methods of verifying moral positions? Is there such a thing as a moral fact? Are all values the same? If not, what is your hierarchy of ethical concern? What are the differences between judging moral values according to Principles Motives Consequences

3 From other times and places What are the major moral issues of today? What were they 100 years ago? 1000 years ago? What will they be 100 years from now? Are there moral judgments that do not change across cultures?

4 Ethical issues throughout time

5 Ethical issues throughout cultures United StatesFrance Abortion The death penalty Arms control Teaching creationism in schools Marriage Secularism Assisted reproduction New social rights (housing) The market economy (private education) Genetically Modified Organisms the Louvre museum in Abu- Dhabi Illegal immigrants

6 Ethics (objectives) Define ‘morality’, ‘ethics’ and ‘value judgements’ Give one real life example of ethical relativism Explain how moral judgments differ if one focuses on the person (virtue ethics), motivation (duty based theories), consequences (utilitarianism) or the situation Give example of one personal moral judgement Give examples of ethical issue related to \areas of knowledge Explain how two ways of knowing are relevant to moral judgements Give one example to show how knowledge may create moral responsibilities

7 Ethics Ethics is a set of rules to regulate the way people behave Within an organization these rules underpin the aims of the services that created them (doctors have ethical rules es. confidentiality that helps them achieve the aim of their profession)

8 Ethics Within our society ethics is a set of clearly stated moral principles that is useful to guide us in our every day relationships with others My action is ethical if: I believe it’s right and i am ready to justify it as such The interest of someone else rather than myself is involved I must act of my own free will My action must be deliberate

9 Where do ethical principles come from? Philosophers and religious thinkers have developed them They are called Theories of Conduct: Religious theories The Self Interest Theories The Universal Law theory The Utilitarian theory

10 Religious theories of conduct The major religions in the world have ethical codes which set standards of behavior for their members The codes are usually revealed through divine revelation, that is directly from a god to a prophet There are problems with the religious theories of conduct

11 The four main religions Hinduism Buddhism Islam Christianity

12 The self-interest theory We should aim at the acquisition of all those things we most desire If we cultivate virtues like generosity, bravery, temperance and loyalty, on the long term these will make us happy (Aristotle - Nichomachean Ethics) Self-interest is not selfishness: concern for others is rational self-interest

13 The universal law theory Kant: the categorical imperative The universal law: we act in such a way that our actions could become a universal rule of human conduct The law of respecting others: People should be respected as rational beings with goals of their own. No-one should use people simply to attain their own goals

14 The utilitarian theory Actions are right if they are useful, or for the benefit of, the majority More applicable to governments or organizations rather than being a personal ethical code

15 A contemporary definition of the ethical There are no objective moral truths Ethics was developed in ancient times as the best pragmatic way to survive and then genetically passed on to further generations

16 Glossary  Morality: the rightness or wrongness of something as judged by accepted moral standards  Ethics: a system of moral principles governing the appropriate conduct for a person or group  Value judgment: subjective judgment, a judgment of the worth, appropriateness, or importance of somebody or something made on the basis of personal beliefs, opinions, or prejudices rather than facts

17 Quotes “Broken promises don’t upset me. I just think, “why did they believe me?” Jack Handy, “These are my principles and if you don’t like them – I have others” Groucho Marx, “Whenever I’m caught between two evils, I take the one I’ve never tried” Mae West,


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