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The Early Years of the War

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1 The Early Years of the War

2 Economic Advantages &Disadvantages
The Union: 1. 22 Mil. People 2. Immigrant Pop. (Irish & German) 3. 90% of: Factories Railroads Telegraphs The Confederacy: 1. 9 Mil. People, 2. 1/3 are slaves. 3. 10% of: Factories RailRoads Telegraphs

3 Military Advantages & Disadvantages
Union 1. No experienced military leadership 2. No Experienced Military 3. Had a Navy 4. Must Win The War Confederacy Had Experienced Military Leadership. Experienced Army No Navy Had to Fight The War to a Tie

4 Lincoln’s Dilemma 1. Does he surrender the fort without a fight? (Violates his Constitutional duty to uphold the Government of the Country) 2. Does he re-supply the fort with reinforcements, which would antagonize the Confederacy, and lead to further secession from the South?

5 Fort Sumter 4/12/61 1. Lincoln re-supplies the Fort, but sends no men.
2. Confederates fire on Fort Sumter, SC for 34hrs. 3. There are no casualties except a Confederate Horse. 4. On 4/15/61, Lincoln calls up 75,000 volunteers to fight the Confederacy

6 The Border States

7 Why The Border States? 1. The Border States are Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. 2. If the Confederacy had won these states they would have doubled: A. Population #’s B. # of Factories, Railroads, Telegraphs C. Won control of the OH River, which runs straight to the Mississippi, and gives control of the northern part of the river.

8 Lincoln’s Plan To maintain control of the Border States, Lincoln:
1. Declares Martial Law in Maryland. 2. Sends Federal Troops in to the state capitols. 3. Suspends the “Writ of Habeas Corpus” 4. Declares that the war is to Preserve the Union, not end slavery.

9 The Anaconda Plan

10 Effects of the Blockade
1. Union Ships prevent Confederacy from shipping “King Cotton” to Europe. A “Cotton Famine” starts. 2. Supplies from Europe cannot rearm the Confederacy. 3. Europe begins importing in Cotton from colonies in Egypt and India, further lowering the value of Confederate Cotton. 4. Confederates begin creating new technology to break the blockade; The 1st Submarine, and “Blockade Runners” like the Alabama.

11 International Intrigue
England The Trent Affair: Union Navy arrests Confederate Ambassadors off of British Ship. (Lincoln lets go to avoid war) British build “Laird Rams” for Confederate ships (refuse to sell) British tell Confederates a major victory will win their support. France French Dictator Napoleon III sees opportunity to move into North America, and takes over Mexico. (Violates Monroe Doctrine) Mexican Dictator Archduke Maxmilian is overthrown by the Mexican People on 5/5/1865

12 Economy of the Union 1. To Pay for the War, the Union:
A. Passes the National Banking Act which allows for the Printing of “Green Backs” paper currency B. Passes the Morrill Tariff Act which increased the tax on alcohol and tobacco C. Sells War Bonds D. Increased relations between the Government and Private Business to expedite production of weapons and supplies.

13 Economy of the South 1. Weakened by the Anaconda Plan
2. The Confederate Government allows for the printing of “Blue Backs” paper currency, which quickly loses value with a loss of gold supply. 3. Citizens and States oppose having to pay direct taxes to the Confederate Government. 4. Without Factories and Railroads, supplies for the war run short.

14 Role of Women The Union Clara Barton formed the Red Cross to help wounded casualties. Dorothea Dix and Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell form the American Sanitary Commission. Women work in factories for the war effort. The Confederacy 1. Women run the plantations, and make handmade supplies for the war effort.

15 The Battle of Bull Run 7/21/1861, Manassas, MD
The Union 1. Led by Gen. Irvin McDowell. 2. Major Union Defeat 3. McDowell is replaced by General George B. McClellan. The Confederacy 1. Led Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson. 2. Major Confederate Victory. 3. South now believes they can win the war.

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