2What is Agriculture and Where did Agriculture Begin? Key Question:What is Agriculture and Where did Agriculture Begin?
3Organic Agriculture Organic Agriculture – The production of crops without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers or the raising of livestock without hormones, antibiotics, and synthetic feeds.- sales of organic foods on the rise- grown everywhere- demand in wealthier countries
5Fair Trade Agriculture Fair Trade Coffee –shade grown coffee produced by certified fair trade farmers, who then sell the coffee directly to coffee importers.- guarantees a “fair trade price”- over 500,000 farmers- produced in more than 20 countries- often organically produced
6Fair trade coffee farmer in El Salvador grows his beans organically and in the shade, allowing him to get a much better price for his coffee.
7AgricultureAgriculture – the purposeful tending of crops and raising of livestock in order to produce food and fiber.
8Economic Activities Primary economic activities products closest to the groundSecondary economic activitiesManufacturing of primary products into new productsTertiary economic activitiesservice industry – connecting producers to consumers to facilitate tradeQuaternary economic activitiesInformation or the exchange of goodsQuinary economic activitestied into research or higher education
9Percent Arable by Country Arable LandPercent Arable by CountryDoes the percent of land that is arable in a country determine the agricultural output or the calorie consumption in a country?
10The First Agricultural Revolution… Domestication of plants and Animals Where did plant domestication begin?South and Southeast Asiaearly domestication of root crops, up to 14,000 years ago.Southwest Asia (the Fertile Crescent)early domestication of seed crops, about 10,000 years ago.
11World Areas of Agricultural Innovations Carl Sauer identified 11 areas where agricultural innovations occurred.
12Chief Source Regions of Important Crop Plant Domestications
13The First Agricultural Revolution Where did animal domestication begin?Fertile Crescentbegan about 8,000 years ago
14World Areas of Agricultural Innovations Carl Sauer identified 11 areas where agricultural innovations occurred.
15The Fertile Crescent –Where the planned cultivation of seed crops began.- because of seed selection, plants got bigger over time- generated a surplus of wheat and barley- first integration of plant growing and animal raising(used crops to feed livestock, used livestock tohelp grow crops)
16Animal Domestication – - Relatively few animals have been domesticated- Attempts at domestication continue, but most fail
17Old World Advantages Old World Crops New World Crops Wheats Corns Oats SquashRice BeansRye Cotton
18Old World Advantages Old World Animals New World Animals Food Cows TurkeyPigs Guinea PigChickenBurden/LaborHorse Alpaca (llama)OxCamelDonkey
19Old World Advantages Old World Diseases New World Diseases With a history of diseases comes a developed immunity. The exchange of these was deadly for the new world…Small Pox None of significanceInfluenzaYellow Fever
20Old World AdvantagesCalled the Columbian Exchange after Christopher Columbus:Products transferred from Old to New and New to Old worlds show that the Old world had distinct geographical advantages that may have fostered the more rapid advancement of the Old World in contrast to the New World.
21Impacts of the First Agricultural Revolution Domestication of plants and animals creates surplus food supply and Free time.Surplus food and free time creates specialization.Specialization creates economics & hierarchyHierarchy creates civilizationCivilization creates: Gov’t, religion, knowledgeImpacts of the First Agricultural Revolution
22Subsistence Agriculture Agriculture in which people grow only enough food to survive.- farmers often hold land in common- some are sedentary, and some practice shifting cultivation* slash-and-burn
23World Regions of Primarily Subsistence Agriculture On this map, India and China are not shaded because farmers sell some produce at markets; in equatorial Africa and South America, subsistence farming allows little excess and thus little produce sold at markets.
24Settling down in one place, a rising population, and the switch to agriculture are interrelated occurrences in human history. Hypothesize which of these three happened first, second, and third, and explain why.
25How did Agriculture Change with Industrialization? Key Question:How did Agriculture Change with Industrialization?
26Second Agriculture Revolution A series of innovations, improvements, and techniques used to improve the output of agricultural surpluses (started before the industrial revolution).eg. seed drilladvances in livestock breedingnew fertilizersThree Field systemMechanization
27Second Agriculture Revolution Impacts of the Second Ag Rev:Increased food production… First in EuropeCoincided with the Industrial RevolutionSpurred rapid urbanizationCreated a huge population explosion (Demographic Transition stage 2)
28Third Agriculture Revolution (Green Revolution… 1943-1970’s) invention of high-yield grains, especially rice, with goal of reducing hunger.- increased production of rice- new varieties in wheat and corn- reduced famines due to crop failure,now most famines are due topolitical problems- impact (in terms of hunger) is greatestwhere rice is produced
30Opposition to Green Revolution Opposition argues Green Revolutionhas led to:vulnerability to pestsSoil erosionWater shortagesMicronutrient deficienciesDependency on chemicals for productionLoss of control over seeds
31Year Round Rice Production – - lands that used to be used for family subsistence are now used for commercialized farming with revenues going to the men. - women do the work of rice production and see little of the benefit because of the power relations in Gambia
32GMO’s Last part of the 3rd Agricultural Revolution DNA changed to change the plant’s propertiesengineered to possess several desirable traits, including resistance to pests, herbicides, or harsh environmental conditions; improved product shelf life, and increased nutritional value
33GMO’s Generally by the core for the core OPOSITION??? Strong in Western EuropeConcerned about seed saving and cultural preservationHealth concerns
34Regional and Local Change Geographer Judith Carney finds that changing agricultural practices alter the rural environment and economy and also relations between men and women.In Gambia, international development projects have converted wetlands into irrigated agricultural lands, in order to make production of rice year round.
35Von Thunen Model Von Thunen Model What farmers produce varies by distance from the town, with livestock raising farthest from town.Cost of transportation governs use of land.First effort to analyze the spatial character of economic activity.
36Application of Von Thunen Model Geographer Lee Liu studied the spatial pattern of agriculture production in China.Found:- farmers living in a village farm both lands close to the village and far away intensively- methods varied spatially – resulting in land improvement (by adding organic material) close to village and land degradation (lots of pesticides and fewer conservation tactics) farther from village.
37Genetically engineered crops are yielding some ethical problems Genetically engineered crops are yielding some ethical problems. In the semi-periphery, farmers typically keep seeds from crops so that they can plant the seeds the next year. Companies that produce genetically engineered seeds do not approve of this process; generally, they want farmers to purchase new seeds each year. Using the concepts of scale and jumping scale, determine the ethical questions in this debate.
38What Imprint does Agriculture make on the Cultural Landscape? Key Question:What Imprint does Agriculture make on the Cultural Landscape?
39Cadastral Systems Township and Range System (rectangular survey system) is based on a grid system that creates 1 square mile sections.Metes and Bounds Surveyuses natural features to demarcate irregular parcels of land.Longlot Survey Systemdivides land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals.
41Township and Range –The cultural landscape of Garden City, Iowa reflects the Township and Range system. Townships are 6x6 miles and section lines are every 1 mile.
42Longlot Survey System – The cultural landscape of Burgandy, France reflects the Longlot Survey system, as land is divided into long, narrow parcels. People live in nucleated villages and land ownership is highly fragmented.
43Agricultural Villages Linear VillageCluster Village (nucleated)Round Village (rundling)Walled VillageGrid Village
45Functional Differentiation within Villages Cultural landscape of a village reflects:Social stratification (How is material well being reflected in the spaces of a village?)Differentiation of buildings (What are they used for? How large are they?)
46Stilt village in Cambodia Buildings look alike, but serve different purposes.
47Farm in Minnesotaeach building serves a different purpose
48Think of an agricultural region you have either visited or seen from an airplane. Describe the imprint of agriculture on this cultural landscape and consider what the cultural landscape tells you about how agriculture is produced in this region and how production has changed over time.
49Key Question:What is the Global Pattern of Agriculture and Agribusiness? Book Notes!!!
50Agriculture Commercial Agriculture Term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology.- roots are in colonial agriculture- today, global production made possible by advances in transportation and food storage
51Advances in Transportation and Food Storage - Containerization of seaborne freight traffic- Refrigeration of containers, as they wait transport in Dunedin, New Zealand
52Agriculture and Climate Climate Regions (based on temperature and precipitation) help determine agriculture production.Agriculture Regions – drier lands usually have livestock ranching and moister climates usually have grain production.
53Koppen Climate Classification System World Map of ClimatesKoppen Climate Classification System
54World Map of Agriculture Cash Crop and Plantation AgricultureCotton and RubberLuxury CropsCommercial Livestock, Fruit, and Grain AgricultureSubsistence AgricultureMediterranean AgricultureIllegal Drugs
55Agribusiness and the Changing Geography of Agriculture Commercialization of Crop ProductionWith the development of new agricultural technologies, the production of agriculture has changed.- eg. Poultry industry in the USproduction is now concentratedfarming is turning into manufacturing
56Agriculture and the environment Loss of topsoilChemical run off into streamsLoss of biodiversity and native habitatsSoil erosionDeforesting
57Loss of Productive Farmland Farmland in danger of being suburbanized as cities expand into neighboring farmlands.
58Analyze Figure Describe what areas of farmland in the country are the most susceptible to development, and explain why certain regions have more susceptible land than other regions.