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Introduction to Health & Wellness Spring 2014. 4 Health Models T he Medical Model was dominant in North America throughout the 20th century. T he Medical.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Health & Wellness Spring 2014. 4 Health Models T he Medical Model was dominant in North America throughout the 20th century. T he Medical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Health & Wellness Spring 2014

2 4 Health Models T he Medical Model was dominant in North America throughout the 20th century. T he Medical Model was dominant in North America throughout the 20th century. The Holistic Model of health is exemplified by the 1946 WHO definition, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". The Holistic Model of health is exemplified by the 1946 WHO definition, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". The Wellness Model was developed through the WHO health promotion initiative. The Wellness Model was developed through the WHO health promotion initiative. The Environmental Model The Environmental Model

3 The Medical Model Most widely excepted definition Most widely excepted definition In its most extreme form, the "medical model" views the body as a machine, to be fixed when broken. In its most extreme form, the "medical model" views the body as a machine, to be fixed when broken. It emphasizes treating specific physical diseases, does not accommodate mental or social problems well and, being concerned with resolving health problems, de-emphasizes prevention. It emphasizes treating specific physical diseases, does not accommodate mental or social problems well and, being concerned with resolving health problems, de-emphasizes prevention. This has led logically to measuring health by its absence, e.g., by disease or death rates. Therefore health is defined as the absence of disease and the presence of high levels of function. This has led logically to measuring health by its absence, e.g., by disease or death rates. Therefore health is defined as the absence of disease and the presence of high levels of function. Applied to population health, the medical model might define a healthy population as one in which its members were all healthy. Applied to population health, the medical model might define a healthy population as one in which its members were all healthy.

4 The Holistic Model Views health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Views health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Broadened the medical perspective, and also introduced the idea of positive health Broadened the medical perspective, and also introduced the idea of positive health The WHO definition was long considered unmeasurable; the terms were vague. This was less because no-one could invent ways to measure "well-being," The WHO definition was long considered unmeasurable; the terms were vague. This was less because no-one could invent ways to measure "well-being," Applied to a population, the holistic model would again either sum appropriate individual indicators, or would record measures of the well-being of the population as a whole. Applied to a population, the holistic model would again either sum appropriate individual indicators, or would record measures of the well-being of the population as a whole.

5 The Wellness Model The Wellness Model focuses on the Integration of the total individual- body, mind and spirit in the functioning process. The focus is on the individual as a system that is improving and moving towards excellence The Wellness Model focuses on the Integration of the total individual- body, mind and spirit in the functioning process. The focus is on the individual as a system that is improving and moving towards excellence Health is a state of feeling; It is not external symptoms but “more of a feeling or an internal experience that people enjoy or lack. Health is a state of feeling; It is not external symptoms but “more of a feeling or an internal experience that people enjoy or lack. Applied to population health, the definition might include elements such as the success with which the population adapts to change such as shifting economic realities or natural disasters. Applied to population health, the definition might include elements such as the success with which the population adapts to change such as shifting economic realities or natural disasters.

6 Wellness is ….. Wellness is a conscious, self-directed and evolving process of achieving full potential Wellness is a conscious, self-directed and evolving process of achieving full potential Wellness is multidimensional and holistic, encompassing lifestyle, mental and spiritual well-being, and the environment Wellness is multidimensional and holistic, encompassing lifestyle, mental and spiritual well-being, and the environment Wellness is positive and affirming Wellness is positive and affirming National Wellness Institute

7 Comparing Models Medical Model + States that disease represents a crucial issue facing society + disease states are readily diagnosed and counted - Narrow and in extreme form implies that people with disabilities are "unhealthy," and that health is only about physical disease and mortality. - Omission of a time dimension (Should we consider as equally healthy two people in equal functional status, one of whom is carrying a fatal gene that will lead to early death?

8 Holistic & Wellness Models + Both focus on mental as well as physical health, and on broader issues of active participation in life (i.e. taking proactive indicatives to stay healthy) + Both feel that individuals who succeed in living productive lives despite a physical impairment: blind people or amputees may still be able to satisfy aspirations, be productive, happy and so be viewed as healthy. -They do not distinguish clearly between the state of being healthy and the consequences of being healthy; nor do they distinguish between health and the determinants of health. Determinants of health impact a wide range of health, functioning and quality of life outcomes. They are as follows: Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods Social norms and attitudes, such as discrimination Exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder, such as the presence of trash Social support and social interactions Exposure to mass media and emerging technologies, such as the Internet or cell phones Socioeconomic conditions, such as concentrated poverty

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10 The Six INTERRELATED Dimensions of Health

11 Social Dimension Encourages contributing to one’s environment and community Our contributions- taking an active part in improving our world by encouraging healthier living and initiating better communication with those around you. Our contributions- taking an active part in improving our world by encouraging healthier living and initiating better communication with those around you. Interdependence between others and nature. Interdependence between others and nature. Social Wellness follows these beliefs: Social Wellness follows these beliefs: - Think of others and how you can help instead of focusing on yourself - Better to live in harmony with others than to live in conflict

12 Physical Dimension Recognize the need for regular physical activity. Physical development encourages learning about diet & nutrition, while discouraging the use of tobacco, drugs and excessive alcohol consumption. Physical development encourages learning about diet & nutrition, while discouraging the use of tobacco, drugs and excessive alcohol consumption. Optimal wellness is met through the combination of good exercise and eating habits. Optimal wellness is met through the combination of good exercise and eating habits. Personal responsibility and care for minor illnesses and also knowing when a professional medical attention is needed. Personal responsibility and care for minor illnesses and also knowing when a professional medical attention is needed. Prevention tactics- aware of vital signs & body’s warning signs. Prevention tactics- aware of vital signs & body’s warning signs. Understand and appreciate the relationship between sound nutrition and how your body performs. Understand and appreciate the relationship between sound nutrition and how your body performs.

13 The physical benefits of looking good and feeling terrific most often lead to the psychological benefits of enhanced self-esteem, self control, determination and a sense of direction. The physical benefits of looking good and feeling terrific most often lead to the psychological benefits of enhanced self-esteem, self control, determination and a sense of direction. Physical wellness follows these beliefs: - It is better to consume foods and beverages that enhance one’s health rather then those which impair it. - It is better to be physically fit than out of shape.

14 Emotional Dimension Recognizes awareness and acceptance of one’s feelings Optimism and enthusiasm about one’s self and life Optimism and enthusiasm about one’s self and life Maintains satisfying relationships with others. Maintains satisfying relationships with others. Capacity to manage one’s feelings and related behaviors include the realistic assessment of one’s limitations, development of one’s autonomy, and ability to cope effectively with stress Capacity to manage one’s feelings and related behaviors include the realistic assessment of one’s limitations, development of one’s autonomy, and ability to cope effectively with stress Emotional wellness follows these beliefs: - It is better to be aware of and accept our feelings than to deny them. - It is better to be optimistic in our approach to life than pessimistic

15 Spiritual Dimension Recognizes our search for meaning and purpose in human existence. Development of deep appreciation for the depth and expanse of life and natural forces that exist in the universe. Development of deep appreciation for the depth and expanse of life and natural forces that exist in the universe. Spiritual wellness follows these tenets: - It is better to ponder the meaning of life for ourselves and to be tolerant of the beliefs of others than to close our minds and become intolerant. - It is better to ponder the meaning of life for ourselves and to be tolerant of the beliefs of others than to close our minds and become intolerant. - It is better to live each day in a way that is consistent with our values and beliefs than to do otherwise and feel untrue to ourselves.

16 Occupational Dimension Recognizes personal satisfaction and enrichment in one’s life through work. Occupational development is related to one’s attitude about one’s work. Occupational wellness allows you to experience your unique gifts, skills and talents to work that is both personally meaningful and rewarding Occupational wellness follows these beliefs: - I t is better to chose a career which is consistent with our personal values, interests, and beliefs than to select one that tis unrewarding to us - I t is better to chose a career which is consistent with our personal values, interests, and beliefs than to select one that tis unrewarding to us - It is better to develop functional, transferable skills though structured involvement opportunities than to remain inactive and uninvolved - It is better to develop functional, transferable skills though structured involvement opportunities than to remain inactive and uninvolved

17 Intellectual Dimension Recognizes one’s creative, stimulating mental activities. A well person expands his/her knowledge and skills while discovering the potential for sharing his/her gifts with others. A well person expands his/her knowledge and skills while discovering the potential for sharing his/her gifts with others. A well person cherishes intellectual growth and stimulation A well person cherishes intellectual growth and stimulation Intellectual wellness follows these tenets: - It is better to stretch and challenge our minds with intellectual an creative pursuits than to become self- satisfied and unproductive - It is better to stretch and challenge our minds with intellectual an creative pursuits than to become self- satisfied and unproductive - It is better to identify potential problems and chose appropriate course of action on available information than to wait, worry and contend with major concern later

18 Health Continuum Where are YOU? PhysicalIntellectualEmotional Social Occupational Spiritual OPTIMAL WELLNESS

19 Morbidity & Mortality Morbidity Morbidity is another term for illness. A person can have several co-morbidities simultaneously. So, morbidities can range from Alzheimer's disease to cancer to traumatic brain injury. Morbidities are NOT deaths. Morbidity is another term for illness. A person can have several co-morbidities simultaneously. So, morbidities can range from Alzheimer's disease to cancer to traumatic brain injury. Morbidities are NOT deaths. Mortality M ortality is another term for death. A mortality rate is the number of deaths due to a disease divided by the total population. (If there are 25 lung cancer deaths in one year in a population of 30,000, then the mortality rate for that population is 83 per 100,000) M ortality is another term for death. A mortality rate is the number of deaths due to a disease divided by the total population. (If there are 25 lung cancer deaths in one year in a population of 30,000, then the mortality rate for that population is 83 per 100,000)

20 What do you think were the leading causes of death 100 years ago? ANSWER: Infectious Diseases Influenza Influenza Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Pneumonia Pneumonia

21 Top Five Leading Causes of Death Today Heart Disease Heart Disease Cancer Cancer Stroke Stroke Lung Disease Lung Disease Unintentional injuries Unintentional injuries

22 What do you think are the causes of these deaths/diseases? Heart Disease- Smoking, high fat diets, lack of exercise, stress, obesity Smoking, high fat diets, lack of exercise, stress, obesityCancer- Smoking, high fat diets, environmental factors Smoking, high fat diets, environmental factors Lung Disease- Smoking, environmental factors Smoking, environmental factorsAccidents- Risky behavior (use of drugs), making poor decisions Risky behavior (use of drugs), making poor decisionsHomicides/Suicide- Depression, stress, poor decisions, jealousy, fear, religion Depression, stress, poor decisions, jealousy, fear, religion

23 4 Factors Affecting Health 1. Heredity 2. Health Care 3. Environment 4. Lifestyle/Personal Behavior

24 Factors that Influence our Health 45% 10% 25% 20%

25 Top 10 Killers of Teens (Current Health 2000) 1-Accidents 2-Homicide 3-Suicide 4-Cancer 5-Heart Disease 6-H.I.V. 7-Congenital Abnormalities 8-Pneumonia & Influenza 9-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 10-Stroke

26 Factors that Influence Health Heredity Heredity * Race * Sex Men: (examples) - Color blindness - Mostly men who inherit color blindness, affecting about 1 in 20 men for every 1 in 200 women. - Color blindness - Mostly men who inherit color blindness, affecting about 1 in 20 men for every 1 in 200 women. - Epilepsy- Men are more prone to epilepsy than women. - Osteoarthritis - Often thought of as a condition only affecting women, is actually more common in men under the age of 45. Women: (examples) - Autoimmune diseases -strike women three times more than men - Autoimmune diseases -strike women three times more than men - Grave’s Disease - leads to an overactive thyroid gland (AKA: hyperthyroidism) - Grave’s Disease - leads to an overactive thyroid gland (AKA: hyperthyroidism) - Sjögren's syndrome - cause dryness of the mouth and eyes as well as fatigue and joint pain - Sjögren's syndrome - cause dryness of the mouth and eyes as well as fatigue and joint pain - Heart Disease - More than 6.5 million women have some form of it - Heart Disease - More than 6.5 million women have some form of it

27 Environment  Adequacy of housing  Family Composition  Education level of parent(s)  Economic status of parent(s)  Culture

28 Health Care  Lack of health care  Delay in diagnosis  Delay in treatment

29 Lifestyle/Behavioral  Tobacco Use  Unhealthy Diet  Inadequate Activity  Alcohol and other drug use/abuse  Risky sexual behavior  Behaviors leading to intentional or unintentional injuries  Violence exposure  Infectious disease exposure  Toxic substance exposure

30 Although adolescence and young adulthood are generally healthy times of life, several important public health and social problems either peak or start during these years. Homicide Homicide Suicide Suicide Motor vehicle crashes, including those caused by drinking and driving Motor vehicle crashes, including those caused by drinking and driving Substance use and abuse Substance use and abuse Smoking Smoking Sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Teen and unplanned pregnancies Teen and unplanned pregnancies Homelessness Homelessness

31 The leading causes of illness and death among adolescents and young adults are largely preventable. Health outcomes for adolescents and young adults are grounded in their social environments and are frequently mediated by their behaviors. Behaviors of young people are influenced at the individual, peer, family, school, community, and societal levels. Family Adolescents who perceive that they have good communication and are bonded with an adult are less likely to engage in risky behaviors.27 Adolescents who perceive that they have good communication and are bonded with an adult are less likely to engage in risky behaviors.27 Parents who provide supervision and are involved with their adolescents' activities are promoting a safe environment in which to explore opportunities.28 Parents who provide supervision and are involved with their adolescents' activities are promoting a safe environment in which to explore opportunities.28 The children of families living in poverty are more likely to have health conditions and poorer health status, as well as less access to and utilization of health care.2, 29 The children of families living in poverty are more likely to have health conditions and poorer health status, as well as less access to and utilization of health care.2, 29

32 The BIG Thought The BIG Thought Today, in many or most cases, B-E-H-A-V-I-O-R tips the balance towards good health EVEN when heredity or environment is a negative factor

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