Presentation on theme: "Layered Curriculum You are now in charge!"— Presentation transcript:
1Layered Curriculum You are now in charge! Unit 4 Geography and Economics of Europe, Latin America, Canada, and AustraliaLayered CurriculumYou are now in charge!
2Layered Curriculum Analogy with Food Web Apex PredatorAcademic PredatorCompletion of this tier equals a grade ofThe creation of your Own Business Plan through receiving a grant, but you must decide based on the country's economic system where it will be placed and how the factors of production within that country will effect your business.see the rubricDate completed: __________Completion of this tier equals a grade of 85Step Four: Bar Graphs with Factors of Production presence or absence within the countries of UK, Germany, Cuba, Brazil, Canada, and Australia with an explanation.Date completed ________Step Five: Protective Trade Barriers and their use Date completed _________Step Six: Why do countries need a system for exchanging currencies for international trade? Date Completed _______Completion of this tier equals a grade of 75Step One: Label the Physical and Political Features for Latin America, Australia and Canada Date completed: LA________ C ________ A _______Take the Map Quiz: Grade _____ Grade _____ Grade _____Step Two: Complete the Pocket Organizer Types of Economic Systems and Mixed Economic Continuum with country explanation Date completed: _______Step Three: Complete the Pocket Organizer over Factors of Production that cause economic growth within a countryDate completed: _________ Take Quiz: __________
4Theme: LocationA society’s location will affect its economy, culture, and development. So what is “development”?
5List on your paper numbers 1-9 Based on your prior knowledge of these regions and continents which do you think will have lower development/infrastructure, lower GDPs and lower standards of living and why? (As you research see if your predictions are True or False.
10Geography of Latin America Standard SS6G1Now it is time for you to complete your Latin America MapThe student will locate selected features of Latin America and the Caribbean.a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map:Amazon RiverCaribbean SeaGulf of MexicoPacific OceanPanama CanalAndes MountainsSierra Madre Mountainsand Atacama Desert.b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries ofBoliviaBrazilColombiaCubaHaitiMexicoPanamaand Venezuela.
11Sierra Madre Mountains No gas stations, restaurants, or hospitals HMM! Economy?Watch your fuel levels is in purple writing
12The CaribbeanNotice where we are in relative location…
18Complete the map of Latin America Today Come Practice with a partner
19Closing Question Student 1 answers Student 2 answers A physical trade barrier is a landform that will stop or make trade near impossible.According to today’s technologyWhat physical features will act as a physical trade barrier within Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean?Student 1 answers Student 2 answers
21Canada SS6G5 The student will locate selected features of Canada. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map:the St. Lawrence RiverHudson BayAtlantic OceanPacific Oceanthe Great LakesCanadian Shieldand Rocky Mountains.Now it is your turn to label your map of Canada. Remember that you must study these physical feature and take a quiz over them as soon as you are ready to move on to the next task.
23Closing Question Student 1 answers Student 2 answers A physical trade barrier is a landform that will stop or make trade near impossible.According to today’s technologyWhat physical features will act as a physical trade barrier within Canada?Student 1 answers Student 2 answers
24AustraliaJust to review write down any prior knowledge you may have about AustraliaWhich European Empire colonized the continent, eventually creating the country?Who were the first colonists in Australia?What was the name of the people who are native to Australia, not colonists?What types of government do they have?
26Australia GeographySS6G12 The student will be able to locate selected features of Australia.Locate on a world and regional political-physical map:the Great Barrier ReefCoral SeaAyers Rockand Great Victoria DesertNow it is your turn to label your map of Australia. Remember that you must study these physical feature and take a quiz over them as soon as you are ready to move on to the next task.
27ClosingA physical trade barrier is a landform that will stop or make trade near impossible.According to today’s technologyWhat physical features will act as a physical trade barrier within Australia?Student 1 answers Student 2 answers
29Economythe production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services
30Private vs. Public Businesses Private means it is owned by citizensPublic means it is owned by the government“What a funny little government”Political Cartoon: by Horace Taylor in 1899John D. Rockefeller holding the White House and Treasury Department in his palmthe power of the Standard Oil empire, which controlled 90 percent of the refining business in the late 19th century. Rockefeller reaped huge profits by paying his employees extremely low wages and driving his competitors out of business by selling his oil at a lower price than it cost to produce it.Is some government regulation necessary?A set minimum wage for employeesNot allowing a monopoly on business
31Traditional EconomyAn economy where people use the same work methods and tools generation after generation.Citizens do not have enough goods to have a surplus (more than they need), so they cannot earn extra money to buy better equipment.Without better equipment, they continue to work in the same way, never changing their methods.
32Command EconomyPuppet on a string!An economy where the government owns the country’s resources and businesses.The government decides what goods should be produced and what services will be available.Seriously limits citizen’s choices of jobs, goods, and services.Government decides wages (how much you earn for doing a job)
33Market EconomyAn economy where private citizens or groups of citizens own businesses.Citizens are free to develop many different types of businesses, so people have a wide variety of jobs, goods, and servicesBecause people in a market economy are free to choose how to make and spend their moneyCitizens are paid based off of the private businesses value of their service
34Mixed Economy A mix of different economic systems Some businesses are government owned and others are privately owned by citizensPrivate businesses determine wages, but the government will set a minimum wage to protect its citizens.
35Obertobia Video over Economic Systems and Economic Continuum United States 75.5Pure MarketPure Command100
36ClosingWhat is the difference between a Market Economy, Traditional Economy, and Command Economy?Student One: MarketStudent Two: TraditionalStudent Three: Command
37Economics How many basic types of economic systems are there? Name the economic systems.Which economic system do most textbooks say is the most common throughout the world?
38Economics How many basic types of economic systems are there? 3 Name the economic systems. Traditional, Command, MarketWhich economic system do most textbooks say is the most common throughout the world? Mixed. The GCEE states that mixed is not an economic system but rather a blending of two different types of systems.
44What does this economic freedom index number tell us about a country? Economic freedom is the condition in which individuals can act with maximum autonomy and minimum obstruction in the pursuit of their economic livelihood and greater prosperity. Any discussion of economic freedom has at its heart reflection on the critical relationship between individuals and the government.
45Economic FreedomFor presentational clarity, the 10 economic freedoms are grouped into four broad categories:Rule of law (property rights, freedom from corruption);Government size (fiscal freedom, government spending);Regulatory efficiency (business freedom, labor freedom, monetary freedom); andMarket openness (trade freedom, investment freedom, financial freedom).Click this link to read more of a description of each of the broad categories.
47100 Economic Systems United Kingdom 74.9% Germany 73.9% Russia 51.9% United States 75.5%Data based on 2013Russia 51.9%6th Grade- This information is meant to be used in conjunction with the 6th and 7th grade Teacher Notes. For additional resources, go to GeorgiaStandards.org. (Note: This is not an expectation for students to memorize numbers, but to understand that factors that influence specific countries to move more towards a command or market economy). The numbering system is based on The Heritage Foundation’s Economic Freedom Index 2009 The Heritage Foundation is a conservative organization that has partnered with the Wall Street Journal for over a decade to evaluate each country based on a set of 10 criteria to determine economic freedom. Update information using resources listed in the Teacher Notes.100PureCommandPure MarketMixed Economy
48Russia’s Economy Today Historically:Russia’s economy has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from globally-isolated, centrally planned economy to a more market-based and globally integrated economy.
49Russia became the world’s leading oil producer, surpassing Saudi Arabia; Russia is the second largest producer of natural gas, the second-largest coal reserves, and the eighth-largest crude oil reserves. Russia is a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum.Russia was hit hard by the global 2008 & 2009 crisis.Russia’s Economy
50Russia’s Economy Today Russia’s long term challenges also includea shrinking workforce,rampant corruption,and underinvestment in infrastructureEconomic reforms of the 1990s privatized most industry except:Energy and Defense-related sectorsThe protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector still remains subject to heavy state interference.
51Germany’s Economy The fifth largest economy in the world Leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipmentHighly skilled labor forceChronically high unemployment and low average growth rateDue to global recession there was not a demand for German exports from surrounding countries
52The United Kingdom Economy Today A leading trading center and financial center, is the second largest economy in Europe after Germany.The government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs.Agriculture is highly mechanized and efficient producing 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the population.UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining. It is now a net importer of energy resources.
53United Kingdom Economy Today Largest proportions of GDP are from services:BankingInsuranceBusiness servicesIndustry is continuing to decline in importance.The UK was hit particularly hard by the 2008 global financial crisis:Sharply declining home prices, high consumer debt, and this pushed the UK into recession.
54The United Kingdom, continued The United Kingdom put into place several measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial sectors:Nationalizing part of the banking systemTemporarily cutting taxesSuspending public sector borrowing rulesMoving forward public spending of capital projectsStill weak consumer spending and subdued business investment weighed on the economy
55100 Economic Systems Canada 80.2% Brazil 56.9% Cuba 28.7% Pure Market United States 75.5%Brazil 56.9%Data based on 2013Cuba 28.7%6th Grade- This information is meant to be used in conjunction with the 6th and 7th grade Teacher Notes. For additional resources, go to GeorgiaStandards.org. (Note: This is not an expectation for students to memorize numbers, but to understand that factors that influence specific countries to move more towards a command or market economy). The numbering system is based on The Heritage Foundation’s Economic Freedom Index 2009 The Heritage Foundation is a conservative organization that has partnered with the Wall Street Journal for over a decade to evaluate each country based on a set of 10 criteria to determine economic freedom. Update information using resources listed in the Teacher Notes.100PureCommandPure MarketMixed Economy
56Cuba’s Economy Today Economic Freedom Index Score 28.7 The government continues to balance the its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control.April 2011 the government held the first Cuban Party Congress in which leaders approved a plan for wide-range economic changes.Expanded opportunities for self-employment (entrepreneurship)Introduced limited reforms to help with serious shortages of food, consumer goods, services, and housingThe average standard of living for Cubans still is lower than before the 1990s (loss of Soviet Union aid and domestic inefficiencies)Venezuela has been providing Cuba with oil (100,000 barrels per day) in return for Cuban medical personnel (30,000)
57Brazil’s Economy Today Economic Freedom Index Score 56.9Characterized by a large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil’s economy outweighs that o all other South American countries, and Brazil is expanding its presence in world markets.The global financial crisis affected its economy with a two year recession; however in 2010 Brazil’s economy began to recovery.GDP growth rate 7.5%, the highest in the last 25 yearsUnemployment is at historic lowsHigh levels of income inequality has declined over the last 14 yearsBrazil historic high interests rates have made it an attractive destination for foreign investors (high interests rates on money loaned out)
58Oh Canada! Economy Today Economic Freedom Index Score 80.2High-tech industrial society, resembling the US in its market – oriented economic systemHigh Standard of LivingHighly skilled labor forceSince WWII impressive growth of the mining, manufacturing, and service sectors has brought Canada into an urban (city) industrial society instead of rural.Canada's major banks emerged from the financial crisis of among the strongest in the world.The World and Its People, p. 162, The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005Government involvement in the economy.
59Oh Canada! Economy Today Economic Freedom Index Score 80.2Canada joined the US-Canada Free Trade agreement in 1989 and in 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement, including Mexico.Dramatic increase in trade (US is its principal trading partner)US absorbs ¾ of Canada’s exports each yearCanada is the US’s largest supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric powerCanada has discovered more oil in the Alberta’s oil sands boosting its rank to # 3 in the world behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.The World and Its People, p. 162, The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005Government involvement in the economy.
60100 Economic Systems Australia 82% United States 75.5% Pure Market Data based on 20136th Grade- This information is meant to be used in conjunction with the 6th and 7th grade Teacher Notes. For additional resources, go to GeorgiaStandards.org. (Note: This is not an expectation for students to memorize numbers, but to understand that factors that influence specific countries to move more towards a command or market economy). The numbering system is based on The Heritage Foundation’s Economic Freedom Index 2009 The Heritage Foundation is a conservative organization that has partnered with the Wall Street Journal for over a decade to evaluate each country based on a set of 10 criteria to determine economic freedom. Update information using resources listed in the Teacher Notes.100PureCommandPure MarketMixed Economy
61Australia’s Economy Today Economic Freedom Index Score 82Australia’s Economy TodayAustralia’s economy has experienced continuous growth and features low unemployment.Contained inflation: meaning goods and services have stable costs from year to yearVery low public debtStrong and stable financial system20 years of economic growth averaging 3.5% a yearDemand for resources from China and Asia has grown rapidly, creating a channel for resources investments and growth in commodity exports.
62Australia’s Economy Continued 70% of the GDP is in the Services and 75% of the jobsBanking system has remained strong despite the financial crisis inSurge in trade, exporter of natural resources, energy, and foodHigh Levels of Foreign Investments due to:Coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy
63Australia’s Economy Continued Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services.Australia is working with the World Trade Organization, APEC, G20, which opens up trade with many countries:ChileMalaysiaNew ZealandSingaporeThailandUnited StatesCanadaMexicoPeruSingaporeVietnamJapanIndonesiaIndia
64Closing What is an economic continuum? Student One: What does an economic continuum tell us about a country?Student Two:
65Trade Barrier also called protective Trade Barriers Obertopia Protective Trade Barriers VideoBarrier=wallSomething that prevents tradeExamples:TariffQuotaEmbargoGeography (geography that prevents easy trade, like mountains, oceans, etc.)
66Tariff a tax that the government puts on imported or exported goods. This protects your citizens businesses from foreign businesses by making the foreign products more expensive to buy!
67Quota The amount of something that is allowed or admitted Examples: A restriction on the quantity (number) of a good that can be imported during a specific time period would be called an “import quota”.If the United States government only allows 50 tons of corn to be imported into the US each year, this would also be called an “import quota”.If your teacher has given you 20 minutes to work on an assignment, your “time quota” is 20 minutes.
68More QUOTA examplesMoney Quota: Your parents give you $20 a week to spend. Once you spend all $20, you have met your “money quota”. You will not receive any more money until next week.Gas Quota: If you drive a company car and your work gives you one tank of gas for a week, then once you use all the gas in the car, you have met your “gas quota”. You will not receive any more gas until next week.Paper Quota: Your job only allows you to use 1,000 sheets of paper per year. If you use all 1,000 sheets, then you have met your “paper quota”. You will not receive any more paper until next year.
70EmbargoA government order prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports.A government restriction on trade with a foreign nation.
71ClosingWhat are the protective trade barriers, and what is their purpose?Student One:Student Two:Student Three:
72International TradeThe sale of goods or services across country bordersTrade between different countriesThis requires a system of exchanging currency.
73Voluntary TradeWhen two countries both benefit from trade and they voluntarily decide to trade with one anotherCountry BCountry A
74Currency A unit of exchange for goods or services The money in circulation in any countryA long time ago our money was based on the barter system, BUT it did not work out when the good you wanted did not match the good the person had to trade you. Currency allowed you to trade, but receive a commodity/cash that would allow you to go to another individual to get the good you needed as well.
75Every country needs a system for exchanging its currency: Exchange Rate VideoWhy is it that a system of exchange is necessary between countries when they trade internationally?Businessmen in the United States may want a natural resource to create a product, but they need it from another country, say Canada.US businessman needs Redwood Lumbar from CanadaCanada Lumbar Company states it will cost 50,000 Canadian DollarsThe US businessman has to determine how many US dollars it will cost him to pay 50,000 Canadian Dollars to the Canadian Lumbar Co. in order to get the natural resource needed to create his product.A system of exchanging national currency is needed.$.998 US Dollar = 1.00 Canadian Dollars50,000 Canadian Dollars = 49,900
76What are the factors of production? United Streaming VideoList the factors of production:Human CapitalCapital GoodsEntrepreneursNatural ResourcesInvesting in each of these areas will help to increase your economic growth (GDP)
77Capital Good The “stuff” used to make other goods Examples: Machines Obertopia Capital Goods VideoThe “stuff” used to make other goodsExamples:MachinesIce machineCoin pressFactoriesA car manufacturing plantTechnologyComputersSoftwareEconomic Growth Factor: How can we tell if a country is investing in their CAPITAL?
78If you said check their Literacy Rate, I am so impressed! Human CapitalIf you said check their Literacy Rate, I am so impressed!Obertopia Human Capital VideoThe skills that humans have to build things or perform services.Examples:A worker in a factoryA hair stylistAn actorWaiter/waitressA person who mows lawnsInvesting in citizens either with time training them for a specific skill or money through formally educating them through K-12 and college level.Economic Growth Factor: How can we tell if a country is investing in their HUMAN CAPITAL?
79Investment in Human Capital If a country does not invest in the education, training, and skills of its people its poverty rate will be higher.What does the chart show about living in poverty and obtain an education?The sample was the age population years old
80Why having an education is important to the citizen having a higher standard of living, but also the nation’s GDP!
81The more education you receive the more earning power you will have.
82Education PaysPoor people apparently have lower college completion rates, which confirms prior intuition: poor families may not be able to pay the cost of education, or other burdens of poverty such as bad health may make it difficult to complete college.It’s a vicious circle: poverty makes it harder to get an education, and lack of a good education makes it more likely that you are poor. Unsurprisingly, average income is substantially different for people of different education levels, with high average incomes practically a prerogative for the better educated:
83Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The total value of all the goods and services produced within the borders of a nation during a specific time period (usually a year).Often an indicator of Standard of Living (just like the literacy rate)Obertopia GDP and GDP per Capita VideoAtlanta Federal Reserve view of GDP as an indicator of economic growth video
84Natural Resource Any product that comes from nature Examples: Oil, coal, natural gasVegetables and fruitsCottonSheep and cowsGold and silverHow do natural resources affect an economy of a country?Production of goods/servicesIf a country is lacking a natural resource they must import the ones they need. (adds to costs of goods and services)If a country has many natural resources they can export then it will raise their standard of living.Voluntary Trade: each country benefits from the exchange
85Entrepreneur/Entrepreneurship When a person organizes and manages a business.Are willing to risk everything for the possibility of gaining a profitEconomic Growth Factor: How can we tell if a country is investing in their citizens as entrepreneurs?
86UnemploymentThe labor force divided by the number of citizens that do not have a job…This can be due to lay offs from companies and people are actively seeking another job.This can be from people not having the skills that that jobs require in order to obtain it.This can be due to there not being enough jobs available for citizens.Video on Understanding Unemployment
87Creating your own business plan: Use the knowledge gained to create your own business plan by analyzing the different countries economy’s and the presence or absence of the economic growth factors.Critical Thinking DOK 4Advanced ProjectRubric will be given out in class.