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From Royalty To Independence

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1 From Royalty To Independence
1752– 1783 Chapter 11

2 SS8H3 Analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution.

3 SS8H4 Describe the impact of events that led to the ratification of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Including: Georgia Constitution of 1777, The Articles of Confederation (Strengths, weaknesses, revisions), Constitutional Convention of 1787, Abraham Baldwin, William Few

4 SS8H5 Explain significant factors that affected the development of Georgia as part of the growth of the United States between 1789 and 1840. Including: UGA, Louisville, Baptist & Methodist churches, land policies (headright system, land lotteries, & the Yazoo land fraud), cotton gin, railroads, Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, the Trail of Tears.

5 Governmental Status Review Proprietary Colony: governed by a Board of Trustees (ceased in 1752) Royal Colony: colony directly governed by the King (1752) some people returned who had left under Proprietary rule Naval Captain John Reynolds, first royal governor (1754) Reynolds introduced the idea of self-government Two-chamber legislature: bi-cameral Commons House of Assembly (Lower House) Governor’s Council (Upper House) Court of Conscience settled disputes (justice of the peace) Only people owning 50 or more acres of land could vote

6 In the rest of North America: 1754
Review In the rest of North America: 1754 Spain - claimed Florida & Mexico France – claimed Louisiana to the Great Lakes, parts of Canada Great Britain - 13 colonies

7 7 Years War FRANCE England Feared France would gain more power
Review 7 Years War FRANCE England Feared France would gain more power Better navy Allies with Indian tribes Claimed Ohio River Valley Area VA Gov sent Captain George Washington w/ soldiers to Fort Necessity (near today’s Pittsburgh); a battle erupted Feared England would gain more power Stronger army with more experienced leadership Allies with Indian tribes Claimed Ohio River Valley Area Build several forts Indians sided with French

8 Review 7 years war: War spread to Europe – British controlled the Ohio River Valley Area Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war: GA’s Western boundary = Mississippi River Proclamation of 1763 (King George III): GA’s southern boundary = St. Mary’s River Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains Cherokee & Creek tribes gave up land claims north of Augusta and in the coastal region

9 Tax on sugar & molasses imported from the West Indies
Copy me! Pre-Revolutionary War Acts Great Britain needed money to pay debts from collected in 7 years war Sugar Act (April 1764) Tax on sugar & molasses imported from the West Indies Stamp Act (March 22, 1765 – March 18,1766) All documents must contain a revenue stamp to be legal. All Deeds, wills, marriage licenses, even newspapers were affected. Georgia’s stamp master served 1 day in Jan. 1766 Declaratory Act (March 18, 1766) Parliament declares sovereignty over colonies in all cases Enacted on the same day as Stamp act repealed Enacted to keep England from losing face for giving in to the colonies

10 Copy me! Pre-Revolutionary War Acts What forced the colonist to go to War with their Mother country? How did these acts affect Georgia? Intolerable Acts: (March – June 1774) Coercive Acts Closes Boston Harbor Eliminates current government of Massachusetts Restricts many other government meetings Convening of 1st Continental Congress (Sept., 1774)

11 Georgia’s First Assembly Savannah - 1755
Copy Me! GA’s Response Georgia’s First Assembly Savannah Passed bills to repair and build roads Organized a militia Codes created to limit rights of slaves Captain Henry Ellis (1757) Believed Savannah was one the world’s hottest places Colonists immigrated to GA from SC and West Indies Offered large land grants (increased slavery – 3,600 by 1759) Economy flourished = more farms & goods to buy 1761, Ellis - Royal Gov. of Nova Scotia

12 Protests Copy Me! GA’s Response Liberty Boys - Georgians who came together to oppose the Stamp Act (“Sons of Liberty” – “Liberty Brawlers”) Met in taverns, such as Savannah’s Tondee’s Tavern Georgia only colony to actually sell the stamps Governor Wright - disbanded the assembly trying to end protests Noble Wimberly Jones - speaker of GA assembly - led Townshend Act protests Townshend Acts: placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paints Elijah Clarke, William Few and George Wells signed Augusta petition stating that they disagreed with the course being taken by the Radicals

13 Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress
Copy Me! GA’s Response Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress Tondee’s Tavern (Savannah - July 1775) Archibald Bulloch, John Houston, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Reverend John Zubly chosen to represent GA in Philadelphia Delegates given no specific instructions; told to make best decisions for Georgians Governor Wright fled colony in early 1776; Council of Safety established “Rules and Regulations” to govern Georgia

14 Declaration of Independence
Copy Me! Colonies Response Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine’s (“Common Sense”) = colonies break from Great Britain Other pamphlets, including “The Crisis” influenced opinion August 2, 1776: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton sign the Declaration of Independence The Declaration meant the colonists were one nation; Georgians prepared for war

15 GA’s First Constitution
About 1/3 of Georgians loyal to Great Britain; (Tories) Whigs influenced state constitution: allowing separation of powers giving citizens rights to agree how they were governed Constitution adopted at Constitutional Convention in Savannah (May 1777) Created Eight counties : Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Richmond, Wilkes, & Liberty Limited Governor’s power Power = Executive Council (12 legislators) Council could overrule the governor’s decisions John Treutlen appointed GA’s first governor Constitution changed in 1789

16 1st Continental Congress
Copy Me! Colonies Response 1st Continental Congress 2nd Continental Congress Philadelphia (Sept.1774) - protest “Intolerable Acts” placed against the Mass. colonists Georgia was not represented Urged creations of “Committees of Safety” Agreed to stop all trade with Britain Carried on its work in secret “Provincial Congress” (Savannah – Jan.1775) less than half GA’s parishes represented Philadelphia (May 10, 1775) after Lexington & Concord battles Drafted petition for King George III - asking for end of unfriendly steps against the colonies King refused to accept petition Authorized Continental Army Lyman Hall (GA) arrived late (GA representatives: Lyman Hall, George Walton, Button Gwinnett)

17 The Articles of Confederation
First U.S.A. Constitution Ratified - July 4, 1776 Went into effect – Jan.1781(approved by MD & VA) Very Weak document – Very little power given to the Federal government


19 American Revolution Georgia Battles (11)
Savannah captured by British troops (Dec.1778) - lootings, murders, & burnings occurred Sunbury port captured (1779) Augusta attacked Georgia militia not effective against well-trained British troops Governor Wright eventually returned from Great Britain to govern Georgia

20 American Revolution Georgia Battles (11)
Battle of Kettle Creek (1779) Siege of Savannah (1779) Colonel Elijah Clarke led Georgia Militia, defeated 800 British troops near Washington, Georgia Great victory for morale of the militia & Georgians seeking independence Won badly-needed weapons & horses from British 15,000 Americans and 4,000 French attacked (Oct. 9) = 1,000 American & French deaths (less than an hour) 40 British troops died Savannah remained under British control for nearly four more years Guerrilla warfare continued in the GA backcountry

21 American Revolution Georgia Battles (11)
Battle at Briar Creek: Fought along the Sav. River Colonel Samuel Elbert (outnumbered & lacking arms) defended their camp against British Short battle (1 day) 400 Americans; less than 12 British Elbert captured – British Prison (later elected gov)

22 The War Ends Elijah Clark (Georgia Militia & Continental Army) regain Augusta from British (June 1781) - 11 battles fought in GA George Washington (&French) - force British surrender at Yorktown, VA (Oct.1781) British leave Savannah (1782) Treaty of Paris (Sept.1783) ends war Signed by: US, Great Britain, & France

23 Georgia Crackers People from VA, NC, & SC
Viewed as “undesirable people” by plantation owners Lower class nicknamed “Crackers” = insult Crackers - not welcome Believed to be law breakers

24 Governor James Wright Wanted to expand Georgia’s western lands to settlers Strengthened Savannah’s defenses (palisades) Sunbury = GA’s official port of entry Land purchases increased greatly More schools established (upper class only)

25 Georgia Wartime Heroes
Nancy Hart: Captured British loyalists bragging of murdering an American colonel Hart County – only county named for a woman Austin Dabney: Wounded at Kettle Creek Saved Elijah Clarke’s life during battle

26 Pop-Quiz – 3rd period Which was NOT a name used to identify the British during this time period: Lobsterbacks, redcoats, minutemen, regulars What battle is the 1st major victory for the Patriots in Georgia? How many battles took place in Georgia? Who signed the Treaty of Paris? Where was the first battle of the American Revolution?

27 Pop Quiz – 4th period How many battles took place in Georgia?
Where was the first battle of the American Revolution? What was the major weakness of the Articles of Confederation? In which congressional congress was the Declaration of Independence written? Who signed the Declaration from Georgia?

28 Pop quiz - 5th Period Why was Georgia reluctant to join the rebellion?
How many battles occurred in GA during the American Revolution? Which was NOT a name used to identify the British during this time period: Lobsterbacks, minutemen, regulars, redcoats. What battle is the 1st major victory for the Patriots in Georgia. Who signed the Treaty of Paris?

29 Pop quiz - 6th period Where was the last battle of the American Revolution fought? How many battles were fought in Georgia? Name two major battles fought in Georgia during the Revolutionary War. What was a major weakness of the Articles of Confederation? In which congressional Congress session was the Declaration of Independence signed?

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