Presentation on theme: "From Royalty To Independence"— Presentation transcript:
1From Royalty To Independence 1752– 1783Chapter 11
2SS8H3Analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution.
3SS8H4Describe the impact of events that led to the ratification of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Including: Georgia Constitution of 1777, The Articles of Confederation (Strengths, weaknesses, revisions), Constitutional Convention of 1787, Abraham Baldwin, William Few
4SS8H5Explain significant factors that affected the development of Georgia as part of the growth of the United States between 1789 and 1840.Including: UGA, Louisville, Baptist & Methodist churches, land policies (headright system, land lotteries, & the Yazoo land fraud), cotton gin, railroads, Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, the Trail of Tears.
5Governmental StatusReviewProprietary Colony: governed by a Board of Trustees (ceased in 1752)Royal Colony: colony directly governed by the King (1752)some people returned who had left under Proprietary ruleNaval Captain John Reynolds, first royal governor (1754)Reynolds introduced the idea of self-governmentTwo-chamber legislature: bi-cameralCommons House of Assembly (Lower House)Governor’s Council (Upper House)Court of Conscience settled disputes (justice of the peace)Only people owning 50 or more acres of land could vote
6In the rest of North America: 1754 ReviewIn the rest of North America: 1754Spain - claimed Florida & MexicoFrance – claimed Louisiana to the Great Lakes, parts of CanadaGreat Britain - 13 colonies
77 Years War FRANCE England Feared France would gain more power Review7 Years WarFRANCEEnglandFeared France would gain more powerBetter navyAllies with Indian tribesClaimed Ohio River Valley AreaVA Gov sent Captain George Washington w/ soldiers to Fort Necessity (near today’s Pittsburgh); a battle eruptedFeared England would gain more powerStronger army with more experienced leadershipAllies with Indian tribesClaimed Ohio River Valley AreaBuild several fortsIndians sided with French
8Review7 years war:War spread to Europe – British controlled the Ohio River Valley AreaTreaty of Paris (1763) ended the war:GA’s Western boundary = Mississippi RiverProclamation of 1763 (King George III): GA’s southern boundary = St. Mary’s RiverGeorgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian MountainsCherokee & Creek tribes gave up land claims north of Augusta and in the coastal region
9Tax on sugar & molasses imported from the West Indies Copy me!Pre-Revolutionary War Acts Great Britain needed money to pay debts from collected in 7 years warSugar Act(April 1764)Tax on sugar & molasses imported from the West IndiesStamp Act(March 22, 1765 – March 18,1766)All documents must contain a revenue stamp to be legal. All Deeds, wills, marriage licenses, even newspapers were affected.Georgia’s stamp master served 1 day in Jan. 1766Declaratory Act(March 18, 1766)Parliament declares sovereignty over colonies in all casesEnacted on the same day as Stamp act repealedEnacted to keep England from losing face for giving in to the colonies
10Copy me!Pre-Revolutionary War Acts What forced the colonist to go to War with their Mother country? How did these acts affect Georgia?Intolerable Acts: (March – June 1774)Coercive ActsCloses Boston HarborEliminates current government of MassachusettsRestricts many other government meetingsConvening of 1st Continental Congress (Sept., 1774)
11Georgia’s First Assembly Savannah - 1755 Copy Me!GA’s ResponseGeorgia’s First Assembly SavannahPassed bills to repair and build roadsOrganized a militiaCodes created to limit rights of slavesCaptain Henry Ellis (1757)Believed Savannah was one the world’s hottest placesColonists immigrated to GA from SC and West IndiesOffered large land grants (increased slavery – 3,600 by 1759)Economy flourished = more farms & goods to buy1761, Ellis - Royal Gov. of Nova Scotia
12ProtestsCopy Me!GA’s ResponseLiberty Boys - Georgians who came together to oppose the Stamp Act (“Sons of Liberty” – “Liberty Brawlers”)Met in taverns, such as Savannah’s Tondee’s TavernGeorgia only colony to actually sell the stampsGovernor Wright - disbanded the assembly trying to end protestsNoble Wimberly Jones - speaker of GA assembly - led Townshend Act protestsTownshend Acts: placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass, and coloring for paintsElijah Clarke, William Few and George Wells signed Augusta petition stating that they disagreed with the course being taken by the Radicals
13Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress Copy Me!GA’s ResponseGeorgia’s Second Provincial CongressTondee’s Tavern (Savannah - July 1775)Archibald Bulloch, John Houston, Noble Wimberly Jones, and Reverend John Zubly chosen to represent GA in PhiladelphiaDelegates given no specific instructions; told to make best decisions for GeorgiansGovernor Wright fled colony in early 1776; Council of Safety established “Rules and Regulations” to govern Georgia
14Declaration of Independence Copy Me!Colonies ResponseDeclaration of IndependenceThomas Paine’s (“Common Sense”) = colonies break from Great BritainOther pamphlets, including “The Crisis” influenced opinionAugust 2, 1776: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton sign the Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration meant the colonists were one nation; Georgians prepared for war
15GA’s First Constitution About 1/3 of Georgians loyal to Great Britain; (Tories)Whigs influenced state constitution:allowing separation of powersgiving citizens rights to agree how they were governedConstitution adopted at Constitutional Convention in Savannah (May 1777)Created Eight counties : Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Richmond, Wilkes, & LibertyLimited Governor’s powerPower = Executive Council (12 legislators)Council could overrule the governor’s decisionsJohn Treutlen appointed GA’s first governorConstitution changed in 1789
161st Continental Congress Copy Me!Colonies Response1st Continental Congress2nd Continental CongressPhiladelphia (Sept.1774) - protest “Intolerable Acts” placed against the Mass. colonistsGeorgia was not representedUrged creations of “Committees of Safety”Agreed to stop all trade with BritainCarried on its work in secret“Provincial Congress” (Savannah – Jan.1775) less than half GA’s parishes representedPhiladelphia (May 10, 1775) after Lexington & Concord battlesDrafted petition for King George III - asking for end of unfriendly steps against the coloniesKing refused to accept petitionAuthorized Continental ArmyLyman Hall (GA) arrived late(GA representatives: Lyman Hall, George Walton, Button Gwinnett)
17The Articles of Confederation First U.S.A. ConstitutionRatified - July 4, 1776Went into effect – Jan.1781(approved by MD & VA)Very Weak document – Very little power given to the Federal government
19American Revolution Georgia Battles (11) Savannah captured by British troops (Dec.1778) - lootings, murders, & burnings occurredSunbury port captured (1779)Augusta attackedGeorgia militia not effective against well-trained British troopsGovernor Wright eventually returned from Great Britain to govern Georgia
20American Revolution Georgia Battles (11) Battle of Kettle Creek (1779)Siege of Savannah (1779)Colonel Elijah Clarke led Georgia Militia,defeated 800 British troops near Washington, GeorgiaGreat victory for morale of the militia & Georgians seeking independenceWon badly-needed weapons & horses from British15,000 Americans and 4,000 French attacked(Oct. 9) = 1,000 American & French deaths (less than an hour)40 British troops diedSavannah remained under British control for nearly four more yearsGuerrilla warfare continued in the GA backcountry
21American Revolution Georgia Battles (11) Battle at Briar Creek:Fought along the Sav. RiverColonel Samuel Elbert (outnumbered & lacking arms) defended their camp against BritishShort battle (1 day)400 Americans; less than 12 BritishElbert captured – British Prison (later elected gov)
22The War EndsElijah Clark (Georgia Militia & Continental Army) regain Augusta from British (June 1781) - 11 battles fought in GAGeorge Washington (&French) - force British surrender at Yorktown, VA (Oct.1781)British leave Savannah (1782)Treaty of Paris (Sept.1783) ends warSigned by: US, Great Britain, & France
23Georgia Crackers People from VA, NC, & SC Viewed as “undesirable people” by plantation ownersLower class nicknamed “Crackers” = insultCrackers - not welcomeBelieved to be law breakers
24Governor James WrightWanted to expand Georgia’s western lands to settlersStrengthened Savannah’s defenses (palisades)Sunbury = GA’s official port of entryLand purchases increased greatlyMore schools established (upper class only)
25Georgia Wartime Heroes Nancy Hart:Captured British loyalists bragging of murdering an American colonelHart County – only county named for a womanAustin Dabney:Wounded at Kettle CreekSaved Elijah Clarke’s life during battle
26Pop-Quiz – 3rd periodWhich was NOT a name used to identify the British during this time period: Lobsterbacks, redcoats, minutemen, regularsWhat battle is the 1st major victory for the Patriots in Georgia?How many battles took place in Georgia?Who signed the Treaty of Paris?Where was the first battle of the American Revolution?
27Pop Quiz – 4th period How many battles took place in Georgia? Where was the first battle of the American Revolution?What was the major weakness of the Articles of Confederation?In which congressional congress was the Declaration of Independence written?Who signed the Declaration from Georgia?
28Pop quiz - 5th Period Why was Georgia reluctant to join the rebellion? How many battles occurred in GA during the American Revolution?Which was NOT a name used to identify the British during this time period: Lobsterbacks, minutemen, regulars, redcoats.What battle is the 1st major victory for the Patriots in Georgia.Who signed the Treaty of Paris?
29Pop quiz - 6th periodWhere was the last battle of the American Revolution fought?How many battles were fought in Georgia?Name two major battles fought in Georgia during the Revolutionary War.What was a major weakness of the Articles of Confederation?In which congressional Congress session was the Declaration of Independence signed?