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Muhammad and the Rise of Islam

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Presentation on theme: "Muhammad and the Rise of Islam"— Presentation transcript:

1 Muhammad and the Rise of Islam
Part 1 Created by W. Williams 2009 1

2 Key World History Themes
Religious and Ethical Systems Empire Building Cultural Interaction

3 Terms and Names you are required to know
Allah Muhammad Islam Muslim Hijrah mosque hajj Qur’an Sunna Shiri’a

4 CORNELL FORMAT: Our Note Taking Strategy
Main Idea Questions Detailed Notes What are the benefits of the Cornell Note-Taking Format and how is it used?  What is Semantic Map or Web Note-Taking? THE CORNELL FORMAT VS. SEMANTIC MAPPING Can be used to provide an outline of the course, chapter, or lecture. Organized by main ideas and details. Can be as detailed as necessary. Sequential-- take notes as they are given by instructor or text in an orderly fashion. After class, write a summary of what you learned to clarify and reinforce learning and to assist retention. Can be used as study tool: Define terms or explain concepts listed on the left side. Identify the concept or term based on its definition on the right side. Can be used to provide a "big picture" of the course, chapter, or lecture. Organized by main ideas and sub-topics. Limited in how much detail you can represent. Simultaneous - you can use this method for instructors who jump around from topic to topic. After class, you will probably need to "translate" notes into a Cornell format. Can be used as a study tool -- to get a quick overview and to determine whether you need more information or need to concentrate your study on specific topics. Summary: What are the differences between the two Note-Taking Techniques? There are a couple of ways that you can take notes. The Cornell method is best when the information is given in a sequential, orderly fashion and allows for more detail. The semantic web/map method works best for instructors who skip around from topic to topic, and provides a "big picture" when you're previewing materials or getting ready to study for a test. Created by W. Williams 2009

Caption for picture. Term or Name Picture Sentence explaining the significance of the term or name. Definition Created by W. Williams 2009

6 What is a map? Are there different types of maps?
A map is a picture or representation of the Earth's surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction, and size. Maps are a way of showing many things about a portion of the earth's surface on a flat piece of paper that can be carried and transported easily. Maps have been used for centuries. A person who creates map as a profession is called a cartographer. . Are there different types of maps? There are a variety of maps that are used through out the world. We will review five types of popular maps that are related to the Arabian Peninsula. Can you predict what type of maps we will we cover?

7 Political Map 1. Political maps do not show physical features. Instead, they indicate state and national boundaries and capital and major cities. A capital city is usually marked with a star within a circle.

8 Physical maps 2. Physical maps show the physical features of an area, such as mountains and rivers. They usually use colors such as blue, green and orange. Green is usually used low-lying areas and orange is used for higher altitudes.

9 Climate map 3. Climate maps give information about climatic and precipitation conditions prevalent in a region. Precipitation - rain AND/OR snow.

10 Resource maps 4. Resource maps feature the type of natural resources or economic activities known in that area.

11 Road maps 5. Road maps show the major highways, railway tracks, airports and places of interest within a country, county, state, province or city.

12 Location: Mecca 21°25′0″N 39°49′0″E
Time Period 570 CE to 630 CE

13 B.C., which stands for "Before Christ," is used to date events before the birth of Jesus.
A.D. means "in the year of our Lord," and is used for dates after the birth of Jesus. This system of dating has been used for many years by Western archaeologists. Today, however, there is a growing understanding that not all archaeologists are Christians. Some archaeologists prefer to use the terms: Before the Common Era (B.C.E.) = B.C. Common Era (C.E.) = A.D. These new terms have nothing to do with Christianity.

14 Impact of an Individual
Muhammad or Mohammad The founder of the religion of Islam. Regarded by Muslims as the messenger and prophet of God Or Allah. إِسْلامْ 1. Born to a powerful Meccan family but was orphaned at age 6. As an adult he worked as a shepard and then a business manager for a wealthy business woman named Khadijiah. She later became a good wife and business partner. إِسْلام Time Line: The Life of the Prophet Mohammad Abu al-Qasim Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ibn HashimT

15 Revelations 2. At age 40, Muhammad’s life was changed over night. While meditating in a cave outside of mecca. Allah spoke to him through and angel named Gabriel. He told him that he was the messenger of the one and only GOD (Allah) monotheistic beliefs = one

16 The Hijrah 3. Muhammad began to preach publicly in Mecca.
He was met with hostility. Many people from Mecca were not ready to accept his revolutionary ideas. Some of Muhammad’s followers were attacked. As a result, Muhammad and a small group of Muslim supporters left Mecca In 622 CE/AD and migrated to Yathrib which later became Medina. This migration is known as a Hijra.. The Hijrah

17 Muhammad’s Return to Mecca
4. Prophet Muhammad returns to Mecca with 10,000 follower/warriors in 630 CE – jihad Mecca’s people in fear of defeat surrendered to Muhammad Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques Meccans pledged their loyalty to Mohammad and converted to Islam. Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca

18 Jihad - holy war against Mecca
In the West, the word is generally understood to mean "holy war," The Quran does call for "jihad" as a military struggle on behalf of Islam. But the Quran also refers to jihad as an internal, individual, spiritual struggle toward self-improvement, moral cleansing and intellectual effort. It is said that Prophet Muhammad considered the armed-struggle version of holy war as "the little jihad," but considered the spiritual, individual version of holy war--the war within oneself--as "the great jihad."

19 The Ka’aba in Mecca All Muslims face the Ka’aba in Mecca during prayer no matter were they are in the world -This building predates Islam -First builing built at this site by Abraham

20 Qur’an Contains much of Mohammed recounting of Allah’s teachings
These records of Muhammad’s revelations were received during his visions These records were written down by his followers after his death from notes and memories, on “stones”

21 Sunna- the best model for proper living. Mohammad’s example

22 Islamic Law: The Shari’a
The system of law that regulates the family life Based on Quran and logical schools of analysis Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity


24 mosque A Muslim place of worship.

25 Five Pillars of Islam: To be a Muslim, all believers have to carry
out 5 duties.

26 Five Pillars of Islam 1. Faith “There is no God but Allah.”
2. Prayer five times a day facing the Ka’aba in Mecca 3. Fasting During the month of Ramadan 4. Alms to the poor 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca


28 Comparing and Contrasting Islam to Judaism and Christianity
1. monotheism (defined a bit differently) 2. insistence on the responsibility of human beings 3. final judgment and rewards 4. angels and spirits 5. practice of virtues: truthfulness, compassion 1. an emphasis on compassion and mercy 2. alms giving moderate 3. heaven conceived a bit differently 4. no priests or sacramental system 5. easy conversion: the Shahadah ‘There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.’ 1. an emphasis on compassion and mercy 2. alms giving moderate 3. heaven conceived a bit differently 4. no priests or sacramental system 5. easy conversion: the Shahadah ‘There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.’ GRAPHIC ORGANIZER (VENN-DIAGRAM) *Remember, Muslims believed in Jesus Christ but believed that he was a prophet and not the son of God* Created by W. Williams 2009

29 Islam Expands Part 2

30 World History Theme Empire Building

31 Terms and Names to Know 1. Caliph- successor or deputy (Abu-Bakr)
2. Umayyads- new family that took power 661 CE. Not traditional Muslims. They surrounded themselves with wealth. 3. Shi’a- party of the deceased Ali 4. Sunni- accepted the rule of Umayyads. They were followers of Mohammad’s example Mohammad’s example 5. Sufi- rejected luxury and devoted to spiritual path 6. Abbasids- new empire in 750 CE 7. Al-Andalus- Muslim state in southern Spain 731 CE 8. Fatimid- caliphate. Shi’a Muslims who claimed to be descents of Muhammad’s daughter. 9. The House of Wisdom- place were scholars of different cultures worked to translate text from other countries into Arabic

32 Spread of Islam

33 Abu Bakr After the death of Muhammad his follows chose Abu Bakr to become caliph which means successor or deputy. -A successor is one who takes over after a a leader dies. -A deputy is an assistant to a leader who absent When Abu Bakr dies Mohammads relative Ali is elected caliph

34 After Ali is murdered the Ummayyad took control and generated permanent split in the Islamic community Shi’as Sunnis

35 4. Umayyads ) 1. Prophet Muhammad- the Messenger of Allah dies
3. Ali a relative of Mohammad is elected caliph and is murdered 2 years later 2. Abu Bakr becomes caliph after Muhammad dies 4. Umayyads The caliph system dies with Ali and a powerful family takes control b. Sunni Accepted the Umayyad rule c. Sufi Accepted Umayyad rule but followed a more spiritual path a. Shi’a Believed that a caliph should be a relative of Mohammad 1. monotheism (defined a bit differently) 2. insistence on the responsibility of human beings 3. final judgment and rewards 4. angels and spirits 5. practice of virtues: truthfulness, compassion )


37 1.) What city in Europe was under Muslim control by 750?
2.) What cities were in the lands conquered by Muslims under the first four caliphs? 3.) What is true of lands conquered by Muslims between 661 and 750? 4.) Along what body of water did Muslims control the most land by 632?

38 TEST PREP 1. What important teaching or custom is shared by only two of the three faiths? 2. In which faith is the spiritual leader called by a term that means "Teacher"? 3. What important teaching or custom is shared by all three of the faiths? Created by W. Williams 2009

39 Essay Question: Drawing Conclusions What contributed to the unity of the Muslim Empire?
Responses should include the following points: Religion, language, trade, and the economy tied Muslim lands together. The Muslims had a highly skilled and powerful military, which allowed them to conquer new territories and to control them. They spread Islam throughout the empire, which unified people of different cultures. Islam stressed uniform behaviors, such as praying and pilgrimages. They were tolerant of the existence of other religions. However, they created a class structure and taxation system that placed restrictions on non-Muslims and made it beneficial to convert to Islam.

40 Looks like it will come down
Star Scholar of the Month! Ask your teacher for a flyer.  Looks like it will come down to the Unit Test Created by W. Williams 2009

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