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Holt McDougal, The World before the Opening of the Atlantic Chapter 1
Holt McDougal, End of Ice AgePeople Invented Writing The First MapAztec City Teotihuacan 10,000 Years Ago5,000 Years Ago2500 BC500 BC Waves and currents reshaped Florida’s landforms People began writing laws, speeches, battle plans, and other things. The oldest know Map is a Babylonian clay tablet Teotihuacan reached its height, during its time it was the 6 th largest city in the world; it had a population of 125,000 and covered about 8 square miles Chapter 1 Timeline
Holt McDougal, 4-5 Million Years Ago 2.6 Million Years Ago 500,000 Years Ago 200,000 Years Ago 11,000 Years Ago 10,000 Years Ago Early humanlike creatures called Australopith ecus developed in Africa Hominids make the first stone tools By this time hominids live all across Europe The first modern humans appear in Africa Humans occupy all of the continents except Antarctica Ice Ages end and people begin to develop agriculture Chapter 1 Timeline
Holt McDougal, Poleolithic Era Mesolithic Era Neolithic Era Lucy Discovered Until 10,000 Years Ago 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago Begin About 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago The first part of the Old Stone Age when people began to make tools The Middle Stone Age when people began making more complex tools and shelters The New Stone Age when people learned to make fire and grow crops also called the Agriculture Revolution Mary Leakey found bones in East Africa belonging to a hominid that was more than 1.5million years old Donald Johanson found the bones of a 3 million year old hominid he named Lucy: Proved Hominids walked upright Tom White found the remains of a hominid that lived as long as 4.4 million years ago Chapter 1 Timeline
Holt McDougal, Period of Time Terms Decade – a period of 10 years Century – a period of 100 years Millennium – a period of 1000 years Epoch – a long period of time marked by a distinctive development Era – a long period of time marked by great events, developments, or figures
Holt McDougal, Terms Used With Dates Circa or c. – unsure date; about BC – before the birth of Christ AD – after the birth of Christ BCE – BC dates or before the common era CE – AD dates or common era
Holt McDougal, Terms that deal with Government and Society Politics – the art of creating government policies Economics – the study of the creation and use of goods and services Movement – a series of actions that bring about a change in society Campaign – an effort to win a political office, or a series of military actions Colony – a territory settled and controlled by a country
Holt McDougal, Section 1: The Earliest Americans The Big Idea Native American societies developed across Mesoamerica and South America. Main Ideas Climate changes allowed Paleo-Indians to begin the first migration to the Americas. Early societies existed in Mesoamerica and South America.
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: Climate changes allowed people to migrate to the Americas. Paleo-Indians crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to present-day Alaska during the last ice age between 38,000 and 10,000 BC. This movement of peoples from one region to another is called migration. Paleo-Indians and their descendants moved into present-day Canada, the United States, Mexico, and South America.
Holt McDougal, Land Migration of Early People Page 7 During the Ice Age the seal level dropped and people used land bridges to migrate to new areas. People from Asia used the Bering Land Bridge to travel to North America.
Holt McDougal, Climate Affects Early Peoples Early peoples in the Americas were hunter- gatherers, who hunted animals and gathered wild plants. The warming climate created new environments: climates and landscapes that surround living things. Different environments influenced the development of Native American societies: groups that share a common culture. Culture is a group’s common values and traditions.
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: Early societies existed in Mesoamerica and South America. Developed after the Olmec By AD 200, were building large cities Created great pyramids, temples, palaces, and bridges Civilization ended around AD 900 Olmec Developed around 1200 BC in Mesoamerica Known for use of stone in architecture and built the first pyramids in the Americas Civilization ended around 400 BC Maya
Holt McDougal, Maya Civilization page 8
Holt McDougal, Aztec and Inca Began as a small tribe in the Andes Mountains in South America Capital city was Cuzco. By the 1500s, the empire stretched along much of the western South American coast. Known for a strong central government, their architecture, and their art Aztec Conquered central Mexico Founded capital city, Tenochtitlán, in AD 1325; it became the greatest city in the Americas and one of the world’s largest cities. By the early 1500s they ruled the most powerful state in Mesoamerica. Inca
Holt McDougal, Aztec, Maya, and Inca Civilizations Page 9 Inca Civilization was in South America along the Andes Mountains The Maya Civilization was mainly in the Yucatan Peninsula The Aztec Civilization was in Central and Northern Mexico
Holt McDougal, CivilizationLocation/LeadersCharacteristics/CultureAchievements/Technologies Maya 1000 BC began farming 200 AD began forming cities AD began forming large cities 1500 AD power had faded Mexico, Honduras, Belize, Guatemala Capital: None King Pacal Religion – many gods, Sun God, Moon God, Maize God, human sacrifice Government: Theocracy – studied the stars Crops – beans, squash, avocados, maize Resources – cotton, cacao, obsidian, jade, bird feathers, gold, deer, rabbits, monkeys Stone pyramids, temples, statues 365 day calendar, 260 day calendar Calendars that determined length of the year Observatories Number system and symbol for 0 Writing system of Detailed Written Records Books Canals, terraces, Hieroglyphics Aztec Began in Mid-1100 AD 1521 AD Empire Ended Mexico Capital: Tenochtitlan built in 1325 AD on Lake Texacoco Emperor Moctezuma II Religion – many gods, human sacrifice Crops –cotton, maize Formed alliances, controlled trade, collected tribute Huge Military Resources –cotton, gold, silver, gems, bright feathers Stone pyramids, temples, statues Causeways, canals, Hieroglyphics Chinampas (floating gardens) Calendar Study astronomy Detailed Written records Jewelry and mask Artisans used gold, gems and bright bird feathers Women embroidered colorful designs of cloth they wove Inca Began in Mid-1400’s AD In 1537 AD Spanish began to rule the Empire South America Capital: Cuzco Ruler Pachacuti Language: Quechua Andes Mountains Religion – many gods, rarely human sacrifice, mummies Crops –maize, peanuts, potatoes, Resources -llamas Stone pyramids, temples, masonry Largest empire (over 12 million people) Advanced highway system of 10,000 miles of stone roads and bridges Terraces, Hieroglyphics Gold and silver jewelry Records kept with knotted cords called quipus Fine textiles, pottery
Holt McDougal, Section 2: Native American Cultures The Big Idea Many diverse Native American cultures developed across the different geographic regions of North America. Main Ideas Several early societies developed in North America long before Europeans explored the continent. Geographic areas influenced Native American cultures. Native American cultures shared beliefs about religion and land ownership.
Holt McDougal, Native American Culture Areas Page 13 Geographical and climatic conditions may have limited the size of groups or tribes The ability to grow food and hunt also affected the size of the population Mountains, rivers, and lakes served as natural boundaries between the native groups of people
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: Several early societies developed in North America long before Europeans explored the continent. Earliest people in North America were hunter-gatherers. Learned to farm around 5,000 BC. The Anasazi was an early farm culture in Southwest. –Grew maize, beans, and squash –Developed irrigation methods –Lived in pueblos, aboveground houses made of heavy clay called adobe –Built kivas, underground ceremonial chambers, for religious ceremonies –Built cliff dwellings for protection against enemies –Began to abandon villages around AD 1300
Holt McDougal, Anasazi Cliff Dwellings page 11
Holt McDougal, Mound Building Cultures Developed later in same area as the Hopewell Built hundreds of mounds topped with temples for religious ceremonies Hopewell Lived in Mississippi, Ohio, and lower Missouri river valleys Supported population with agriculture, fishing and trade Built large burial mounds to honor the dead Mississippian Developed throughout eastern North America Cultures declined and by the 1700s, no longer existed Others
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: Geographic areas influenced Native American cultures. Researchers use culture areas to help describe ancient Native American peoples. Culture areas are geographic locations that influence societies. North America is divided into several culture areas, including the Far North, Pacific Coast, California, West, Southwest, Great Plains, and East.
Holt McDougal, North and Northwest Culture Areas Arctic Inuit people in present-day Alaska and Canada Aleut people in Alaska Fished and hunted large mammals Subarctic Dorgrib and Montagnais peoples Hunters followed migrating deer. People lived in temporary shelters made of animal skins. Pacific Northwest Carved images of totems, ancestor or animal spirits, on tall, wooden poles Held feasts called potlatches Thrived on abundant game animals, fish, and wild plants
Holt McDougal, West and Southwest Culture Areas California Many food sources, such as acorns, fish, and deer People lived in isolated family groups of 50 to 300. More than 100 different languages were spoken. Groups included the Pomo, Hupa, and Yurok peoples. Southwest Dry climate Groups included the Apache, Navajo, and Pueblo. The Pueblo irrigated land to grow crops. The Apache and Navajo hunted game and raided the villages of other groups.
Holt McDougal, Great Plains and Eastern Culture Areas Great Plains Stretched from Canada to Texas and from the Mississippi Valley to the Rocky Mountains Mainly grasslands, with game such as buffalo Used buffalo skins for shields, clothing, and coverings for teepees, cone-shaped shelters Matrilineal societies that traced ancestry through their mothers, not their fathers Groups included the Mandan, Pawnee, Arapaho, Blackfoot, and Comanche. Northeast and Southeast Region rich in sources of food and shelter Southeastern groups, such as the Cherokee and Creek, lived in farming villages. The Algonquian and Iroquois were the main groups in the Northeast. The Iroquois formed the Iroquois League, a confederation that waged war against non-Iroquois peoples.
Holt McDougal, Native American Homes North and Northwest West and Southwest Great Plains Northeast and Southeast Their homes were igloos, hide tents, and huts. They built two storied houses out of adobe bricks. They used animal skins and buffalo hides to make teepees, or cone shaped shelters. They built longhouses or rectangular homes make from logs and bark, that housed 8-10 people
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 3: Native American cultures shared beliefs about religion and land ownership. Shared religious beliefs –Religion linked to nature –Spiritual forces were everywhere– even in plants and animals. Shared beliefs about property –Individual ownership applied only to the crops one grew and was temporary. –Land was for the use of everyone in the village. –Believed they should preserve the land for future generations Despite shared beliefs, Native Americans on the North American continent were independent culture groups and did not form large empires.
Holt McDougal, Section 3: Trading Kingdoms of West Africa The Big Idea Using trade to gain wealth, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were West Africa’s most powerful kingdoms. Main Ideas West Africa developed three great kingdoms that grew wealthy through their control of trade. Slaves became a valuable trade item in West Africa.
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: West Africa developed three great kingdoms that grew wealthy through their control of trade. For hundreds of years, trade routes run by Berbers, a northern African group, crisscrossed West Africa. Eventually though, trade routes were taken over by a succession of West African kingdoms: –Ghana –Mali –Songhai
Holt McDougal, Empires of West Africa page 18
Holt McDougal, Kingdom of Ghana Began around 300 AD as farmers banded together for protection Developed into a trading center –Salt from the Sahara in the north –Gold mined from Ghana itself As trade increased, so did Ghana’s power. By 800 it controlled all of West Africa’s trade routes. Used wealth to build an army and an empire In the 1060s, Muslim groups attacked Ghana in an effort to force its leaders to convert to Islam. This cut off many trade routes and led to the decline of the Ghana empire. Islam eventually became the most practiced religion in the region.
Holt McDougal, Ghana was an ideal Trading Center Ghana had many valuable items to trade. The Sahara Desert to the north was a source of valuable salt, and Ghana itself was rich in gold. Because of its geographic location, nearly all trade between northern and southern Africa passed through Ghana.
Holt McDougal, Kingdoms of Mail and Songhai Mali Developed along the fertile banks of the upper Niger River Controlled trade along the river King Mansa Musa led the kingdom to the height of its wealth, power, and fame by building important trade cities like Timbuktu. Mansa Musa also encouraged the spread of Islam in West Africa by building mosques, buildings for Muslim prayer, and by making a hajj, or pilgramage to Mecca. Declined after the death of Mansa Musa Songhai Lived along the Niger River Came to power as the Mali empire weakened Greatest ruler was Askia the Great. He was a devout Muslim, supported education and learning, and worked to develop a strong government. After Askia’s death, the kingdom declined and was invaded by Moroccans from the north.
Holt McDougal, Accomplishments of Askia the Great GovernmentReligionEducation set up five provinces appointed governors loyal to him created departments to oversee task was a devout Muslim built mosques opened schools and universities encouraged study of mathematics, medicine, science, grammar, and law
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: Slaves became a valuable trade item in West Africa. Slavery existed in Africa for centuries and involved black Africans, who were both slaveholders and slaves. People who were captured by warring groups, criminals, and even relatives of people who owed money, were sold into slavery. Beginning in the 600s, Arab Muslims and Europeans became interested in the slave trade. Slave market increased as Muslim traders bought or seized black Africans to sell in North Africa. Slave trade became important part of West African economy because slaves were traded for valuable goods. West Africa was home of many enslaved Africans brought to the Americas.
Holt McDougal, Section 4: Europe before Transatlantic Travel The Big Idea New ideas and trade changed Europeans’ lives. Main Ideas The Greeks and Romans established new forms of government. During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed from a feudal system to a system with a middle class of artisans and merchants. The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts and in learning.
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 1: The Greeks and Romans established new forms of government. Greek Government Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle worked to teach people to think and question their beliefs and to live lives based on reason, or clear and ordered thinking. Greeks established the first democracy, a form of government in which people rule themselves. –Citizens vote on every issue. –Ideas are debated at an assembly of citizens. Roman Government Established a republic –Citizens elect representatives to vote on issues. –Ideas are debated at an assembly of representatives. Laws, which protected citizens’ rights, were written and kept on public display.
Holt McDougal, Democracy and Republic page 23
Plato Plato was a student of Socrates. He started a school called The Academy. Plato’s writing took the form of a dialogue between teacher and student. Plato wrote the Republic, which described an ideal society.
Holt McDougal, The Middle Ages After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe began to divide into many smaller kingdoms. Feudalism, a system of agreements between lords, and vassals, including knights, developed. The lord promised to give lands to his knights in exchange for military service. The knight promised to support the lord in battle. Knights allowed peasants to farm land on their large estates, called manors. In return, the peasants had to give the knights food or goods as payment. The Catholic Church served as a strong unifying force between kingdoms. The Crusades, a long series of wars beginning in the 1000s between European Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia, helped create trade links between Europe and Asia.
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 2: During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed from a feudal system to a system with a middle class of artisans and merchants. As travel became safer, more trade routes opened and spread all across Europe. Trade brought not only goods, but also diseases like the Black Death that spread across Europe, killing nearly 25 million people. Worker shortages meant that peasants and serfs could demand payment. They moved to cities for work, and the cities grew. The growth of trade and cities led to the decline of feudalism. A new middle class of artisans and merchants developed. Trade cities became commercial centers.
Holt McDougal, Main Idea 3: The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts and in learning. The Renaissance period brought new ways of thinking to Europe. Began in Italy and spread to other parts of Europe European rulers began to increase their power over the nobles in their countries. Fewer invasions from the outside helped bring a period of peace and stability. Renaissance means “rebirth.” The growth in trade and services sparked a commercial revolution. This also brought a rise in mercantilism, an economic growth system, that unifies and increases the power and wealth of a nation.
Holt McDougal, Classical writings were found and scholars rediscovered the glories of ancient Greece and Rome. Focus shifted from religion to the importance of people and human value. Great artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci reflected the ideals of the Renaissance in their sculptures and paintings. Writers also penned great works of literature during this time. Growth of Knowledge and Learning Advances were made in mathematics and astronomy. German-born Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press which allowed thousands to read the same books and share ideas about them. Ancient Texts Humanism Art and Literature Science and Invention
Holt McDougal, Trading Centers page 26
Holt McDougal, Joint-Stock Companies business in which a group of people invest together allowed investors to make money more quickly. investors share in the companies’ profits and losses allowed investors to take fewer risk