Presentation on theme: "The World before the Opening of the Atlantic"— Presentation transcript:
1The World before the Opening of the Atlantic Chapter 1
2People Invented Writing Aztec City Teotihuacan Chapter 1 TimelineEnd of Ice AgePeople Invented WritingThe First MapAztec City Teotihuacan10,000 Years Ago5,000 Years Ago2500 BC500 BCWaves and currents reshaped Florida’s landformsPeople began writing laws, speeches, battle plans, and other things.The oldest know Map is a Babylonian clay tabletTeotihuacan reached its height, during its time it was the 6th largest city in the world; it had a population of 125,000 and covered about 8 square miles
3Chapter 1 Timeline 4-5 Million Years Ago 2.6 Million Years Ago Early humanlike creatures called Australopithecus developed in AfricaHominids make the first stone toolsBy this time hominids live all across EuropeThe first modern humans appear in AfricaHumans occupy all of the continents except AntarcticaIce Ages end and people begin to develop agriculture
4Begin About 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago Chapter 1 TimelinePoleolithic EraMesolithic EraNeolithic EraLucy DiscoveredUntil 10,000 Years Ago10,000 to 5,000 Years AgoBegin About 10,000 to 5,000 Years Ago195919741994The first part of the Old Stone Age when people began to make toolsThe Middle Stone Age when people began making more complex tools and sheltersThe New Stone Age when people learned to make fire and grow crops also called the Agriculture RevolutionMary Leakey found bones in East Africa belonging to a hominid that was more than 1.5million years oldDonald Johanson found the bones of a 3 million year old hominid he named Lucy: Proved Hominids walked uprightTom White found the remains of a hominid that lived as long as 4.4 million years ago
5Period of Time Terms Decade – a period of 10 years Century – a period of 100 yearsMillennium – a period of 1000 yearsEpoch – a long period of time marked by a distinctive developmentEra – a long period of time marked by great events, developments, or figures
6Terms Used With Dates Circa or c. – unsure date; about BC – before the birth of ChristAD – after the birth of ChristBCE – BC dates or before the common eraCE – AD dates or common era
7Terms that deal with Government and Society Politics – the art of creating government policiesEconomics – the study of the creation and use of goods and servicesMovement – a series of actions that bring about a change in societyCampaign – an effort to win a political office, or a series of military actionsColony – a territory settled and controlled by a country
8Section 1: The Earliest Americans The Big IdeaNative American societies developed across Mesoamerica and South America.Main IdeasClimate changes allowed Paleo-Indians to begin the first migration to the Americas.Early societies existed in Mesoamerica and South America.
9Main Idea 1: Climate changes allowed people to migrate to the Americas. Paleo-Indians crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to present-day Alaska during the last ice age between 38,000 and 10,000 BC.This movement of peoples from one region to another is called migration.Paleo-Indians and their descendants moved into present-day Canada, the United States, Mexico, and South America.
10Land Migration of Early People Page 7 During the Ice Age the seal level dropped and people used land bridges to migrate to new areas.People from Asia used the Bering Land Bridge to travel to North America.
11Climate Affects Early Peoples Early peoples in the Americas were hunter-gatherers, who hunted animals and gathered wild plants.The warming climate created new environments: climates and landscapes that surround living things.Different environments influenced the development of Native American societies: groups that share a common culture.Culture is a group’s common values and traditions.
12Main Idea 2: Early societies existed in Mesoamerica and South America. Developed around 1200 BC in MesoamericaKnown for use of stone in architecture and built the first pyramids in the AmericasCivilization ended around 400 BCOlmecDeveloped after the OlmecBy AD 200, were building large citiesCreated great pyramids, temples, palaces, and bridgesCivilization ended around AD 900Maya
14Aztec and Inca Aztec Inca Conquered central Mexico Founded capital city, Tenochtitlán, in AD 1325; it became the greatest city in the Americas and one of the world’s largest cities.By the early 1500s they ruled the most powerful state in Mesoamerica.AztecBegan as a small tribe in the Andes Mountains in South AmericaCapital city was Cuzco.By the 1500s, the empire stretched along much of the western South American coast.Known for a strong central government, their architecture, and their artInca
15Aztec, Maya, and Inca Civilizations Page 9 Inca Civilization was in South America along the Andes MountainsThe Maya Civilization was mainly in the Yucatan PeninsulaThe Aztec Civilization was in Central and Northern Mexico
16Characteristics/Culture Achievements/Technologies CivilizationLocation/LeadersCharacteristics/CultureAchievements/TechnologiesMaya1000 BC began farming200 AD began forming citiesAD began forming large cities1500 AD power had fadedMexico, Honduras, Belize, GuatemalaCapital: NoneKing PacalReligion – many gods, Sun God, Moon God, Maize God, human sacrificeGovernment: Theocracy – studied the starsCrops – beans, squash, avocados, maizeResources – cotton, cacao, obsidian, jade, bird feathers, gold, deer, rabbits, monkeysStone pyramids, temples, statues365 day calendar, 260 day calendarCalendars that determined length of the yearObservatoriesNumber system and symbol for 0Writing system of Detailed Written RecordsBooksCanals, terraces, HieroglyphicsAztecBegan in Mid-1100 AD1521 AD Empire EndedMexicoCapital: Tenochtitlan built in 1325 AD on Lake TexacocoEmperor Moctezuma IIReligion – many gods, human sacrificeCrops –cotton, maizeFormed alliances, controlled trade, collected tributeHuge MilitaryResources –cotton, gold, silver, gems, bright feathersCauseways, canals, HieroglyphicsChinampas (floating gardens)CalendarStudy astronomyDetailed Written recordsJewelry and maskArtisans used gold, gems and bright bird feathersWomen embroidered colorful designs of cloth they woveIncaBegan in Mid-1400’s ADIn 1537 AD Spanish began to rule the EmpireSouth AmericaCapital: CuzcoRuler PachacutiLanguage: QuechuaAndes MountainsReligion – many gods, rarely human sacrifice, mummiesCrops –maize, peanuts, potatoes,Resources -llamasStone pyramids, temples, masonryLargest empire (over 12 million people)Advanced highway system of 10,000 miles of stone roads and bridgesTerraces, HieroglyphicsGold and silver jewelryRecords kept with knotted cords called quipusFine textiles, pottery
17Section 2: Native American Cultures The Big IdeaMany diverse Native American cultures developed across the different geographic regions of North America.Main IdeasSeveral early societies developed in North America long before Europeans explored the continent.Geographic areas influenced Native American cultures.Native American cultures shared beliefs about religion and land ownership.
18Native American Culture Areas Page 13 Geographical and climatic conditions may have limited the size of groups or tribesThe ability to grow food and hunt also affected the size of the populationMountains, rivers, and lakes served as natural boundaries between the native groups of people
19Main Idea 1: Several early societies developed in North America long before Europeans explored the continent.Earliest people in North America were hunter-gatherers.Learned to farm around 5,000 BC.The Anasazi was an early farm culture in Southwest.Grew maize, beans, and squashDeveloped irrigation methodsLived in pueblos, aboveground houses made of heavy clay called adobeBuilt kivas, underground ceremonial chambers, for religious ceremoniesBuilt cliff dwellings for protection against enemiesBegan to abandon villages around AD 1300
21Mound Building Cultures Lived in Mississippi, Ohio, and lower Missouri river valleysSupported population with agriculture, fishing and tradeBuilt large burial mounds to honor the deadHopewellDeveloped later in same area as the HopewellBuilt hundreds of mounds topped with temples for religious ceremoniesMississippianDeveloped throughout eastern North AmericaCultures declined and by the 1700s, no longer existedOthers
22Main Idea 2: Geographic areas influenced Native American cultures. Researchers use culture areas to help describe ancient Native American peoples.Culture areas are geographic locations that influence societies.North America is divided into several culture areas, including the Far North, Pacific Coast, California, West, Southwest, Great Plains, and East.
23North and Northwest Culture Areas ArcticInuit people in present-day Alaska and CanadaAleut people in AlaskaFished and hunted large mammalsSubarcticDorgrib and Montagnais peoplesHunters followed migrating deer.People lived in temporary shelters made of animal skins.Pacific NorthwestCarved images of totems, ancestor or animal spirits, on tall, wooden polesHeld feasts called potlatchesThrived on abundant game animals, fish, and wild plants
24West and Southwest Culture Areas CaliforniaMany food sources, such as acorns, fish, and deerPeople lived in isolated family groups of 50 to 300.More than 100 different languages were spoken.Groups included the Pomo, Hupa, and Yurok peoples.SouthwestDry climateGroups included the Apache, Navajo, and Pueblo.The Pueblo irrigated land to grow crops.The Apache and Navajo hunted game and raided the villages of other groups.
25Great Plains and Eastern Culture Areas Stretched from Canada to Texas and from the Mississippi Valley to the Rocky MountainsMainly grasslands, with game such as buffaloUsed buffalo skins for shields, clothing, and coverings for teepees, cone-shaped sheltersMatrilineal societies that traced ancestry through their mothers, not their fathersGroups included the Mandan, Pawnee, Arapaho, Blackfoot, and Comanche.Northeast and SoutheastRegion rich in sources of food and shelterSoutheastern groups, such as the Cherokee and Creek, lived in farming villages.The Algonquian and Iroquois were the main groups in the Northeast.The Iroquois formed the Iroquois League, a confederation that waged war against non-Iroquois peoples.
26Northeast and Southeast Native American HomesNorth and NorthwestWest and SouthwestGreat PlainsNortheast and SoutheastTheir homes were igloos, hide tents, and huts.They built two storied houses out of adobe bricks.They used animal skins and buffalo hides to make teepees, or cone shaped shelters.They built longhouses or rectangular homes make from logs and bark, that housed 8-10 people
27Main Idea 3: Native American cultures shared beliefs about religion and land ownership. Shared religious beliefsReligion linked to natureSpiritual forces were everywhere– even in plants and animals.Shared beliefs about propertyIndividual ownership applied only to the crops one grew and was temporary.Land was for the use of everyone in the village.Believed they should preserve the land for future generationsDespite shared beliefs, Native Americans on the North American continent were independent culture groups and did not form large empires.
28Section 3: Trading Kingdoms of West Africa The Big IdeaUsing trade to gain wealth, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were West Africa’s most powerful kingdoms.Main IdeasWest Africa developed three great kingdoms that grew wealthy through their control of trade.Slaves became a valuable trade item in West Africa.
29Main Idea 1: West Africa developed three great kingdoms that grew wealthy through their control of trade.For hundreds of years, trade routes run by Berbers, a northern African group, crisscrossed West Africa.Eventually though, trade routes were taken over by a succession of West African kingdoms:GhanaMaliSonghai
31Kingdom of GhanaBegan around 300 AD as farmers banded together for protectionDeveloped into a trading centerSalt from the Sahara in the northGold mined from Ghana itselfAs trade increased, so did Ghana’s power. By 800 it controlled all of West Africa’s trade routes.Used wealth to build an army and an empireIn the 1060s, Muslim groups attacked Ghana in an effort to force its leaders to convert to Islam. This cut off many trade routes and led to the decline of the Ghana empire.Islam eventually became the most practiced religion in the region.
32Ghana was an ideal Trading Center Ghana had many valuable items to trade. The Sahara Desert to the north was a source of valuable salt, and Ghana itself was rich in gold. Because of its geographic location, nearly all trade between northern and southern Africa passed through Ghana.
33Kingdoms of Mail and Songhai MaliDeveloped along the fertile banks of the upper Niger RiverControlled trade along the riverKing Mansa Musa led the kingdom to the height of its wealth, power, and fame by building important trade cities like Timbuktu.Mansa Musa also encouraged the spread of Islam in West Africa by building mosques, buildings for Muslim prayer, and by making a hajj, or pilgramage to Mecca.Declined after the death of Mansa MusaSonghaiLived along the Niger RiverCame to power as the Mali empire weakenedGreatest ruler was Askia the Great. He was a devout Muslim, supported education and learning, and worked to develop a strong government.After Askia’s death, the kingdom declined and was invaded by Moroccans from the north.
34Accomplishments of Askia the Great GovernmentReligionEducationset up five provincesappointed governors loyal to himcreated departments to oversee taskwas a devout Muslimbuilt mosquesopened schools and universitiesencouraged study of mathematics, medicine, science, grammar, and law
35Main Idea 2: Slaves became a valuable trade item in West Africa. Slavery existed in Africa for centuries and involved black Africans, who were both slaveholders and slaves.People who were captured by warring groups, criminals, and even relatives of people who owed money, were sold into slavery.Beginning in the 600s, Arab Muslims and Europeans became interested in the slave trade.Slave market increased as Muslim traders bought or seized black Africans to sell in North Africa.Slave trade became important part of West African economy because slaves were traded for valuable goods.West Africa was home of many enslaved Africans brought to the Americas.
36Section 4: Europe before Transatlantic Travel The Big IdeaNew ideas and trade changed Europeans’ lives.Main IdeasThe Greeks and Romans established new forms of government.During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed from a feudal system to a system with a middle class of artisans and merchants.The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts and in learning.
37Main Idea 1: The Greeks and Romans established new forms of government. Greek GovernmentPhilosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle worked to teach people to think and question their beliefs and to live lives based on reason, or clear and ordered thinking.Greeks established the first democracy, a form of government in which people rule themselves.Citizens vote on every issue.Ideas are debated at an assembly of citizens.Roman GovernmentEstablished a republicCitizens elect representatives to vote on issues.Ideas are debated at an assembly of representatives.Laws, which protected citizens’ rights, were written and kept on public display.
40Plato Plato was a student of Socrates. He started a school called The Academy.Plato’s writing took the form of a dialogue between teacher and student.Plato wrote the Republic, which described an ideal society.
41The Middle AgesAfter the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe began to divide into many smaller kingdoms.Feudalism, a system of agreements between lords, and vassals, including knights, developed. The lord promised to give lands to his knights in exchange for military service. The knight promised to support the lord in battle.Knights allowed peasants to farm land on their large estates, called manors. In return, the peasants had to give the knights food or goods as payment.The Catholic Church served as a strong unifying force between kingdoms.The Crusades, a long series of wars beginning in the 1000s between European Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia, helped create trade links between Europe and Asia.
42Main Idea 2: During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed from a feudal system to a system with a middle class of artisans and merchants.As travel became safer, more trade routes opened and spread all across Europe.Trade brought not only goods, but also diseases like the Black Death that spread across Europe, killing nearly 25 million people.Worker shortages meant that peasants and serfs could demand payment. They moved to cities for work, and the cities grew.The growth of trade and cities led to the decline of feudalism.A new middle class of artisans and merchants developed.Trade cities became commercial centers.
43Main Idea 3: The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts and in learning. The Renaissance period brought new ways of thinking to Europe.Began in Italy and spread to other parts of EuropeEuropean rulers began to increase their power over the nobles in their countries.Fewer invasions from the outside helped bring a period of peace and stability.Renaissance means “rebirth.”The growth in trade and services sparked a commercial revolution. This also brought a rise in mercantilism, an economic growth system, that unifies and increases the power and wealth of a nation.
44Growth of Knowledge and Learning Classical writings were found and scholars rediscovered the glories of ancient Greece and Rome.Ancient TextsFocus shifted from religion to the importance of people and human value.HumanismGreat artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci reflected the ideals of the Renaissance in their sculptures and paintings. Writers also penned great works of literature during this time.Art and LiteratureAdvances were made in mathematics and astronomy. German-born Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press which allowed thousands to read the same books and share ideas about them.Science and Invention
46Joint-Stock Companies business in which a group of people invest togetherallowed investors to make money more quickly.investors share in the companies’ profits and lossesallowed investors to take fewer risk