Paul VI Catholic High School

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Paul VI Catholic High School
BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul VI Catholic High School Fairfax, Virginia

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
ENERGY: Ability to do work States of Energy Potential Kinetic Forms of Energy Mechanical Heat Atomic, etc.

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Potential Energy Kinetic Energy

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY Calorie: Amount of heat needed to raise 1.0 Gm. H2O 1.0 Co Kcal (kilocalorie) Joule: SI unit of work (energy) Energy needed to raise 1.0 Kg. 1.0 meter 1.0 Kcal. = kilojoules

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
ALL Energy obtained from Sun 13X1023 calories per year…or 40 million billion calories/sec. Sun energy stored as potential energy in chemical cmpds.

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Oxidation Reduction Reactions

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
OXIDATION/REDUCTION REACTION OXIDATION: Molecule LOSES electron REDUCTION: Molecule GAINS REDOX REACTIONS i.e. “coupled” reactions

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
OXIDIZING AGENT: Causes oxidation in molecule therefore is reduced REDUCING AGENT Causes reduction in molecule therefore is oxidized “LEO the lion says GER!”

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Energy can neither be made nor destroyed; only changed from one form to another The TOTAL AMOUNT of energy in the universe remains constant

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ENTROPY is increasing, i.e. disorder is more likely than order Entropy is the measure of disorder in a system

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Second Law of Thermodynamics

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
FREE ENERGY: That energy in a system that is available to do work Free Energy equals ENTHALPY minus ENTROPY times Ko

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Josiah Willard Gibbs Professor of Mathematics Yale University

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
GIBBS FREE ENERGY: Josiah Willard Gibbs ΔG = CHANGE in Free Energy Negative value - exothermic Positive value – endothermic ACTIVATION ENERGY: Energy required to initiate a chemical reaction

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
CATALYSTS: Lower Activation nrg. ENZYMES: Protein catalysts Mechanisms of Action (4) Factors Affecting Activity: Inhibition Competitive Inhibition Non-Competitive Inhibition

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
ENZYMES: Factors Affecting Activity: Activation “Activators” Maintain “active configuration”

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
ENZYME COFACTORS: Usually inorganic substances e.g. ions COENZYMES: Nonprotein organic molecules (vitamins) NADH (reduced form) FADH2 (reduced form)

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Biological Redox Often a PAIR of H atoms are removed, & one proton and 2 electrons are then transferred to NAD+

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) Nucleotide consisting of: Ribose Adenine (N-containing base) Three PO4 groups Transient Existence (Use it or lose it)

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Energy (Potential) stored in bond Yields 7.3 kcal/mol when ATPADP Provides energy for most endergonic reactions Coupled Reactions

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
EVOLUTION OF METABOLISM 1. Degradation 2. Glycolysis 3. Anaerobic Photosynthesis 4. Nitrogen Fixation 5. O2 Forming Photosynthesis 6. Aerobic Respiration

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
GLUCOSE CATABOLISM STAGE I: GLYCOLYSIS STAGE II: PYRUVATE OXIDATION STAGE III: KREBS CYCLE STAGE IV: ELECTRON TRANSPORT

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
GLYCOLYSIS: A process that occurs in the cytoplasm of every living cell 1. Glucose Priming: This changes glucose into a molecule that can be “cleaved”. Requires 2 molecules of ATP Phosphofructokinase: commits glucose to glycolysis

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
GLYCOLYSIS: 2. Splitting & Rearrangement: Six carbon compound splits to (2) 3 carbon cmpds. Fructose 1,6, Diphosphate into (2) Glyceraldehyde 3 PO4 “Substrate Level Phosphorylation” Making ATP (4 molecules/glucose)

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
GLYCOLYSIS: 3. Oxidation: Removal of electrons (energy) & capturing in NADH from NAD+. 4. ATP Generation: 4 reactions that convert G-3-PO4 to Pyruvate Generates 2 ATP per Pyruvate

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
GLYCOLYSIS RESULTS IN: Glucose → 2 molecules Pyruvate 2 molecules ADP → ATP for each molecule of pyruvate 2 molecules NAD+ → NADH from oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-PO4

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
B. Oxidation of Pyruvate: Occurs in mitochondrion 1. Aerobic conditions Pyruvate OXIDIZED to Acetyl CoA 2. Anaerobic conditions result in FERMENTATION REACTIONS

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Metabolism of Pyruvate

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
FERMENTATION REACTIONS: 1.Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvate REDUCED to Lactate No CO2 removal NADH → NAD+ 2. Alcohol Fermentation: Fungal (Yeast) Cells Pyruvate REDUCED to Alcohol CO2 Removed; NADH → NAD+

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Cytosol

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101. 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
C. KREBS CYCLE: 1. “Priming” Reactions Prepares the molecule for energy extraction Acetyl CoA (2C) joins oxaloacetate (4C) to form Citrate (6C) Citrate isomerizes to Isocitrate

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
THE MALATE SHUTTLE

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT System of REDOX reactions Series of membrane electron carriers Ubiquinone (quinone molecule) Cytochromes (contain Fe++) OXYGEN is final electron acceptor Water is final product (two H+) attach to oxygen

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The movement of electrons down the concentration gradient to O2 as the final acceptor releases protons (H+) to the intermembrane space Protons move thru ATP synthase making ATP from ADP (oxidative phosphorylation)

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Four major components of electron trans- port system

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

Malate-Aspartate Shuttle
BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
ENERGY (ATP) YIELD per GLUCOSE Glycolysis: 2ATP by substrate level phosphorylation Oxidation Pyruvate: 2 NADH (3 ATP per) Krebs Cycle: 6 NADH (3 ATP per) 2 FADH2 (1-2 ATP per) 2 ATP via GTP Electron Transport: 32 ATP oxidative

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Oxidation of Fatty Acids in Mitochomdria & Peroxisomes

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Control of Glucose Catabolism Feedback inhibition Phosphofructokinase inhibited by: ATP levels Citrate levels Phosphofructokinase stimulated by ADP levels AMP levels

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Control Of Metabolism

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
There is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between the products of glycolysis and the requirements for photosynthesis. This is an interrelationship between the cell’s mitochondria and chloroplast.

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
PHOTOSYNTHESIS: LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS 1. Captures energy 2. Makes ATP & NADPH LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS 3. Use ATP & NADPH for synthesis organic compound

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
PHOTOSYNTHESIS: A process whereby radiant electromagnetic energy (light) is transformed by a specific photo- chemical system located in the thylakoid to yield chemical energy in the form of reducing potential (NADPH) and ATP.

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
CHLOROPLAST Double membrane, DNA containing organelle Internal membrane formed into: Thylakoids (contain photosystem) Grana (stacks of thylakoids) Stroma in internal compartment

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
PHOTOSYSTEM OVERVIEW: Acts as an antenna, i.e. absorbs light energy Energy passed via chlorophyll Förster resonance energy transfer Energy Reaction Center Membrane Proteins move energy Forms ATP and NADPH

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
PHOTOSYSTEM OVERVIEW: THE PROCESS OF TRANSDUCTION OF LIGHT ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL NRG, THE PHOTOCHEMICAL EVENT, IS THE ESSENCE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Visible Light Spectrum Range from 400nm-750nm Gamma rays to Radio Waves Measured in cps (Hertz) λ is symbol for wavelength

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Absorption Spectrum of Chlorophyll a

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
OVERALL Rx OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS: 6CO2+12H2O→C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O Reactions of Photosynthesis are divided into: “Photo”, i.e. light dependent in thylakoid “Synthesis”, i.e. carbon fixation; light independent, occurs in the stroma

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS 1. Primary Photo Event 2. Electron Transport 3. Chemiosmosis May be Cyclic or Noncyclic LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION 1. Calvin-Benson Cycle CO2 Fixation Organic Synthesis

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
PHOTOSYSTEMS: a network of Chlorophyll a and accessory pigments held within a protein matrix on the surface of the photo- synthetic membrane.

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
PHOTOSYSTEMS CONSIST OF: 1. Antenna Complex 2. Reaction Center PHOTOSYSTEM I: Absorption peak of 700nm. (P700) PHOTOSYSTEM II: Absorption peak of 680nm. (P680)

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
NONCYCLIC ELECTRON TRANSPORT Begins with Photosystem II Pheophytin (1o electron acceptor) Electron Transport Chain Photolysis (splitting water): This is the MOST IMPORTANT chemical reaction on earth.

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Formation of Oxygen during Non-Cyclic photosynthesis

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Cyclic Electron Transport

Cyclic Photosynthesis
BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Cyclic Photosynthesis

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Cyclic Photosynthesis

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION Utilizes the materials from the light dependent reactions, i.e. Energy (ATP from Photo 2) Reducing Power (NADPH from Photo 1)

PHOTOSYNTHESIS CALVIN CYCLE 3CO2 + 9ATP + 6NADPH + water

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Terminal Events of Calvin Cycle … Synthesis of Sucrose In cytoplasm of cell

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
CRASSULACEAN ACID PATHWAY Present in warmer climates Allows stomata to close during day (Preserve H2O) Characterized by: Cactus Pineapple “Temporal” separation of steps

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
C4 PATHWAY (Hatch-Slack Pathway) Allows stomata to close during day Characterized by: Grasses, Sugar Cane, Corn “Spatial” Separation of steps

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
C4 Pathway

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Chloroplast C4 Leaf C3 Leaf

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
Anatomy of the Vascular Sheath In C4 Leaves

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS Water Shortage Temperature Light Intensity

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM
PHOTORESPIRATION

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

AP BIOLOGY ENERGY & METABOLISM
Leaf Anatomy

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

AP BIOLOGY ENERGY & METABOLISM

AP BIOLOGY ENERGY & METABOLISM

AP BIOLOGY ENERGY & METABOLISM