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Paul VI Catholic High School

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Presentation on theme: "Paul VI Catholic High School"— Presentation transcript:

1 Paul VI Catholic High School
BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul VI Catholic High School Fairfax, Virginia

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ENERGY: Ability to do work States of Energy Potential Kinetic Forms of Energy Mechanical Heat Atomic, etc.

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Potential Energy Kinetic Energy

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MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY Calorie: Amount of heat needed to raise 1.0 Gm. H2O 1.0 Co Kcal (kilocalorie) Joule: SI unit of work (energy) Energy needed to raise 1.0 Kg. 1.0 meter 1.0 Kcal. = kilojoules

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ALL Energy obtained from Sun 13X1023 calories per year…or 40 million billion calories/sec. Sun energy stored as potential energy in chemical cmpds.

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Oxidation Reduction Reactions

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OXIDATION/REDUCTION REACTION OXIDATION: Molecule LOSES electron REDUCTION: Molecule GAINS REDOX REACTIONS i.e. “coupled” reactions

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OXIDIZING AGENT: Causes oxidation in molecule therefore is reduced REDUCING AGENT Causes reduction in molecule therefore is oxidized “LEO the lion says GER!”

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10 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Energy can neither be made nor destroyed; only changed from one form to another The TOTAL AMOUNT of energy in the universe remains constant

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SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ENTROPY is increasing, i.e. disorder is more likely than order Entropy is the measure of disorder in a system

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Second Law of Thermodynamics

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FREE ENERGY: That energy in a system that is available to do work Free Energy equals ENTHALPY minus ENTROPY times Ko

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Josiah Willard Gibbs Professor of Mathematics Yale University

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GIBBS FREE ENERGY: Josiah Willard Gibbs ΔG = CHANGE in Free Energy Negative value - exothermic Positive value – endothermic ACTIVATION ENERGY: Energy required to initiate a chemical reaction

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CATALYSTS: Lower Activation nrg. ENZYMES: Protein catalysts Mechanisms of Action (4) Factors Affecting Activity: Inhibition Competitive Inhibition Non-Competitive Inhibition

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ENZYMES: Factors Affecting Activity: Activation “Activators” Maintain “active configuration”

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ENZYME COFACTORS: Usually inorganic substances e.g. ions COENZYMES: Nonprotein organic molecules (vitamins) NADH (reduced form) FADH2 (reduced form)

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Biological Redox Often a PAIR of H atoms are removed, & one proton and 2 electrons are then transferred to NAD+

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COENZYME NADH

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ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) Nucleotide consisting of: Ribose Adenine (N-containing base) Three PO4 groups Transient Existence (Use it or lose it)

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Adenine Ribose Phosphate groups

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Energy (Potential) stored in bond Yields 7.3 kcal/mol when ATPADP Provides energy for most endergonic reactions Coupled Reactions

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EVOLUTION OF METABOLISM 1. Degradation 2. Glycolysis 3. Anaerobic Photosynthesis 4. Nitrogen Fixation 5. O2 Forming Photosynthesis 6. Aerobic Respiration

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GLUCOSE CATABOLISM STAGE I: GLYCOLYSIS STAGE II: PYRUVATE OXIDATION STAGE III: KREBS CYCLE STAGE IV: ELECTRON TRANSPORT

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GLYCOLYSIS: A process that occurs in the cytoplasm of every living cell 1. Glucose Priming: This changes glucose into a molecule that can be “cleaved”. Requires 2 molecules of ATP Phosphofructokinase: commits glucose to glycolysis

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GLYCOLYSIS: 2. Splitting & Rearrangement: Six carbon compound splits to (2) 3 carbon cmpds. Fructose 1,6, Diphosphate into (2) Glyceraldehyde 3 PO4 “Substrate Level Phosphorylation” Making ATP (4 molecules/glucose)

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GLYCOLYSIS: 3. Oxidation: Removal of electrons (energy) & capturing in NADH from NAD+. 4. ATP Generation: 4 reactions that convert G-3-PO4 to Pyruvate Generates 2 ATP per Pyruvate

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GLYCOLYSIS RESULTS IN: Glucose → 2 molecules Pyruvate 2 molecules ADP → ATP for each molecule of pyruvate 2 molecules NAD+ → NADH from oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-PO4

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B. Oxidation of Pyruvate: Occurs in mitochondrion 1. Aerobic conditions Pyruvate OXIDIZED to Acetyl CoA 2. Anaerobic conditions result in FERMENTATION REACTIONS

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Metabolism of Pyruvate

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FERMENTATION REACTIONS: 1.Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvate REDUCED to Lactate No CO2 removal NADH → NAD+ 2. Alcohol Fermentation: Fungal (Yeast) Cells Pyruvate REDUCED to Alcohol CO2 Removed; NADH → NAD+

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Cytosol

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C. KREBS CYCLE: 1. “Priming” Reactions Prepares the molecule for energy extraction Acetyl CoA (2C) joins oxaloacetate (4C) to form Citrate (6C) Citrate isomerizes to Isocitrate

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C. KREBS CYCLE: 2. “Energy Extraction”- oxidation reactions disassembling the molecule Decarboxylation Reactions Reduction NAD+→ NADH Reduction FAD+ → FADH2 Regeneration oxaloacetate

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THE MALATE SHUTTLE

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D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT System of REDOX reactions Series of membrane electron carriers Ubiquinone (quinone molecule) Cytochromes (contain Fe++) OXYGEN is final electron acceptor Water is final product (two H+) attach to oxygen

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D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The movement of electrons down the concentration gradient to O2 as the final acceptor releases protons (H+) to the intermembrane space Protons move thru ATP synthase making ATP from ADP (oxidative phosphorylation)

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Four major components of electron trans- port system

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BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

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ENERGY (ATP) YIELD per GLUCOSE Glycolysis: 2ATP by substrate level phosphorylation Oxidation Pyruvate: 2 NADH (3 ATP per) Krebs Cycle: 6 NADH (3 ATP per) 2 FADH2 (1-2 ATP per) 2 ATP via GTP Electron Transport: 32 ATP oxidative

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Oxidation of Fatty Acids in Mitochomdria & Peroxisomes

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Control of Glucose Catabolism Feedback inhibition Phosphofructokinase inhibited by: ATP levels Citrate levels Phosphofructokinase stimulated by ADP levels AMP levels

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Control Of Metabolism

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There is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between the products of glycolysis and the requirements for photosynthesis. This is an interrelationship between the cell’s mitochondria and chloroplast.

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS: LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS 1. Captures energy 2. Makes ATP & NADPH LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS 3. Use ATP & NADPH for synthesis organic compound

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PHOTOSYNTHESIS: A process whereby radiant electromagnetic energy (light) is transformed by a specific photo- chemical system located in the thylakoid to yield chemical energy in the form of reducing potential (NADPH) and ATP.

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CHLOROPLAST Double membrane, DNA containing organelle Internal membrane formed into: Thylakoids (contain photosystem) Grana (stacks of thylakoids) Stroma in internal compartment

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PHOTOSYSTEM OVERVIEW: Acts as an antenna, i.e. absorbs light energy Energy passed via chlorophyll Förster resonance energy transfer Energy Reaction Center Membrane Proteins move energy Forms ATP and NADPH

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PHOTOSYSTEM OVERVIEW: THE PROCESS OF TRANSDUCTION OF LIGHT ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL NRG, THE PHOTOCHEMICAL EVENT, IS THE ESSENCE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

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ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Visible Light Spectrum Range from 400nm-750nm Gamma rays to Radio Waves Measured in cps (Hertz) λ is symbol for wavelength

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Absorption Spectrum of Chlorophyll a

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OVERALL Rx OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS: 6CO2+12H2O→C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O Reactions of Photosynthesis are divided into: “Photo”, i.e. light dependent in thylakoid “Synthesis”, i.e. carbon fixation; light independent, occurs in the stroma

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LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS 1. Primary Photo Event 2. Electron Transport 3. Chemiosmosis May be Cyclic or Noncyclic LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION 1. Calvin-Benson Cycle CO2 Fixation Organic Synthesis

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PHOTOSYSTEMS: a network of Chlorophyll a and accessory pigments held within a protein matrix on the surface of the photo- synthetic membrane.

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PHOTOSYSTEMS CONSIST OF: 1. Antenna Complex 2. Reaction Center PHOTOSYSTEM I: Absorption peak of 700nm. (P700) PHOTOSYSTEM II: Absorption peak of 680nm. (P680)

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NONCYCLIC ELECTRON TRANSPORT Begins with Photosystem II Pheophytin (1o electron acceptor) Electron Transport Chain Photolysis (splitting water): This is the MOST IMPORTANT chemical reaction on earth.

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Formation of Oxygen during Non-Cyclic photosynthesis

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Cyclic Electron Transport

100 Cyclic Photosynthesis
BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Cyclic Photosynthesis

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Cyclic Photosynthesis

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LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION Utilizes the materials from the light dependent reactions, i.e. Energy (ATP from Photo 2) Reducing Power (NADPH from Photo 1)

103 PHOTOSYNTHESIS CALVIN CYCLE 3CO2 + 9ATP + 6NADPH + water
reacts to yield 3-PGA + 8Pi + 9ADP + 6 NADP+

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Terminal Events of Calvin Cycle … Synthesis of Sucrose In cytoplasm of cell

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CRASSULACEAN ACID PATHWAY Present in warmer climates Allows stomata to close during day (Preserve H2O) Characterized by: Cactus Pineapple “Temporal” separation of steps

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C4 PATHWAY (Hatch-Slack Pathway) Allows stomata to close during day Characterized by: Grasses, Sugar Cane, Corn “Spatial” Separation of steps

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C4 Pathway

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Chloroplast C4 Leaf C3 Leaf

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Anatomy of the Vascular Sheath In C4 Leaves

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FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS Water Shortage Temperature Light Intensity

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PHOTORESPIRATION

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Leaf Anatomy

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