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BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul VI Catholic High School Fairfax, Virginia.

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Presentation on theme: "BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul VI Catholic High School Fairfax, Virginia."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Dr. Michael C. Potter Paul VI Catholic High School Fairfax, Virginia

2 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ENERGY: Ability to do work States of Energy Potential Kinetic Forms of Energy Mechanical Heat Atomic, etc.

3 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Potential Energy Kinetic Energy

4 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY Calorie: Amount of heat needed to raise 1.0 Gm. H 2 O 1.0 C o Kcal (kilocalorie) Joule: SI unit of work (energy) Energy needed to raise 1.0 Kg. 1.0 meter 1.0 Kcal. = kilojoules

5 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ALL Energy obtained from Sun 13X10 23 calories per year…or 40 million billion calories/sec. Sun energy stored as potential energy in chemical cmpds.

6 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Oxidation Reduction Reactions

7 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM OXIDATION/REDUCTION REACTION OXIDATION: Molecule LOSES electron REDUCTION: Molecule GAINS electron REDOX REACTIONS i.e. “coupled” reactions

8 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM OXIDIZING AGENT: Causes oxidation in molecule therefore is reduced REDUCING AGENT Causes reduction in molecule therefore is oxidized “LEO the lion says GER!”

9 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

10 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Energy can neither be made nor destroyed; only changed from one form to another The TOTAL AMOUNT of energy in the universe remains constant

11 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ENTROPY is increasing, i.e. disorder is more likely than order Entropy is the measure of disorder in a system

12 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Second Law of Thermodynamics

13 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FREE ENERGY: That energy in a system that is available to do work Free Energy equals ENTHALPY minus ENTROPY times K o

14 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Josiah Willard Gibbs Professor of Mathematics Yale University

15 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM GIBBS FREE ENERGY: Josiah Willard Gibbs ΔG = CHANGE in Free Energy Negative value - exothermic Positive value – endothermic ACTIVATION ENERGY: Energy required to initiate a chemical reaction

16 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM CATALYSTS: Lower Activation nrg. ENZYMES: Protein catalysts Mechanisms of Action (4) Factors Affecting Activity: Inhibition Competitive Inhibition Non-Competitive Inhibition

17 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

18 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

19 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ENZYMES: Factors Affecting Activity: Activation “Activators” Maintain “active configuration”

20 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ENZYME COFACTORS: Usually inorganic substances e.g. ions COENZYMES: Nonprotein organic molecules (vitamins) NADH (reduced form) FADH 2 (reduced form)

21 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Biological Redox Often a PAIR of H atoms are removed, & one proton and 2 electrons are then transferred to NAD +

22 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

23 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM COENZYME NADH

24 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) Nucleotide consisting of: Ribose Adenine (N-containing base) Three PO 4 groups Transient Existence (Use it or lose it)

25 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Phosphate groups Adenine Ribose

26 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Energy (Potential) stored in bond Yields 7.3 kcal/mol when ATP  ADP Provides energy for most endergonic reactions Coupled Reactions

27 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM EVOLUTION OF METABOLISM 1. Degradation 2. Glycolysis 3. Anaerobic Photosynthesis 4. Nitrogen Fixation 5. O 2 Forming Photosynthesis 6. Aerobic Respiration

28 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM GLUCOSE CATABOLISM A.STAGE I: GLYCOLYSIS B.STAGE II: PYRUVATE OXIDATION C.STAGE III: KREBS CYCLE D.STAGE IV: ELECTRON TRANSPORT

29 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

30 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

31 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

32 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

33 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM A.GLYCOLYSIS : A process that occurs in the cytoplasm of every living cell 1. Glucose Priming: This changes glucose into a molecule that can be “cleaved”. Requires 2 molecules of ATP Phosphofructokinase: commits glucose to glycolysis

34 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

35 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM A.GLYCOLYSIS: 2. Splitting & Rearrangement: Six carbon compound splits to (2) 3 carbon cmpds. Fructose 1,6, Diphosphate into (2) Glyceraldehyde 3 PO 4 “Substrate Level Phosphorylation” Making ATP (4 molecules/glucose)

36 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

37 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM GLYCOLYSIS: 3. Oxidation: Removal of electrons (energy) & capturing in NADH from NAD ATP Generation: 4 reactions that convert G-3-PO 4 to Pyruvate Generates 2 ATP per Pyruvate

38 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

39 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM GLYCOLYSIS RESULTS IN: Glucose → 2 molecules Pyruvate 2 molecules ADP → ATP for each molecule of pyruvate 2 molecules NAD + → NADH from oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-PO 4

40 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM B. Oxidation of Pyruvate: Occurs in mitochondrion 1. Aerobic conditions Pyruvate OXIDIZED to Acetyl CoA 2. Anaerobic conditions result in FERMENTATION REACTIONS

41 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Metabolism of Pyruvate

42 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

43 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

44 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FERMENTATION REACTIONS: 1.Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvate REDUCED to Lactate No CO 2 removal NADH → NAD + 2. Alcohol Fermentation: Fungal (Yeast) Cells Pyruvate REDUCED to Alcohol CO 2 Removed; NADH → NAD +

45 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Cytosol

46 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

47 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

48 BIO ENERGY & METABOLISM C. KREBS CYCLE: 1. “Priming” Reactions Prepares the molecule for energy extraction Acetyl CoA (2C) joins oxaloacetate (4C) to form Citrate (6C) Citrate isomerizes to Isocitrate

49 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

50 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM C. KREBS CYCLE: 2. “Energy Extraction”- oxidation reactions disassembling the molecule Decarboxylation Reactions Reduction NAD +→ NADH Reduction FAD + → FADH 2 Regeneration oxaloacetate

51 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

52 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

53 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM THE MALATE SHUTTLE

54 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT System of REDOX reactions Series of membrane electron carriers Ubiquinone (quinone molecule) Cytochromes (contain Fe ++ ) OXYGEN is final electron acceptor Water is final product (two H + ) attach to oxygen

55 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

56 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The movement of electrons down the concentration gradient to O 2 as the final acceptor releases protons (H + ) to the intermembrane space Protons move thru ATP synthase making ATP from ADP (oxidative phosphorylation)

57 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Four major components of electron trans- port system

58 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

59 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

60 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

61 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ENERGY (ATP) YIELD per GLUCOSE Glycolysis: 2ATP by substrate level phosphorylation Oxidation Pyruvate: 2 NADH (3 ATP per) Krebs Cycle: 6 NADH (3 ATP per) 2 FADH 2 (1-2 ATP per) 2 ATP via GTP Electron Transport: 32 ATP oxidative phosphorylation

62 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

63 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Oxidation of Fatty Acids in Mitochomdria & Peroxisomes

64 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

65 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Control of Glucose Catabolism Feedback inhibition Phosphofructokinase inhibited by: ATP levels Citrate levels Phosphofructokinase stimulated by ADP levels AMP levels

66 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Control Of Metabolism

67 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM There is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between the products of glycolysis and the requirements for photosynthesis. This is an interrelationship between the cell’s mitochondria and chloroplast.

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71 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

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73 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

74 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM PHOTOSYNTHESIS: LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS 1. Captures energy 2. Makes ATP & NADPH LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS 3. Use ATP & NADPH for synthesis organic compound

75 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

76 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM PHOTOSYNTHESIS: A process whereby radiant electromagnetic energy (light) is transformed by a specific photo- chemical system located in the thylakoid to yield chemical energy in the form of reducing potential (NADPH) and ATP.

77 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

78 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

79 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM CHLOROPLAST Double membrane, DNA containing organelle Internal membrane formed into: Thylakoids ( contain photosystem ) Grana (stacks of thylakoids) Stroma in internal compartment

80 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM PHOTOSYSTEM OVERVIEW: Acts as an antenna, i.e. absorbs light energy Energy passed via chlorophyll F ö rster resonance energy transfer Energy Reaction Center Membrane Proteins move energy Forms ATP and NADPH

81 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

82 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM PHOTOSYSTEM OVERVIEW: THE PROCESS OF TRANSDUCTION OF LIGHT ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL NRG, THE PHOTOCHEMICAL EVENT, IS THE ESSENCE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

83 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Visible Light Spectrum Range from 400nm-750nm Gamma rays to Radio Waves Measured in cps (Hertz) λ is symbol for wavelength

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85 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

86 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

87 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Absorption Spectrum of Chlorophyll a

88 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

89 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

90 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM OVERALL Rx OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS: 6CO 2 +12H 2 O→C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 +6H 2 O Reactions of Photosynthesis are divided into: “Photo”, i.e. light dependent in thylakoid “Synthesis”, i.e. carbon fixation; light independent, occurs in the stroma

91 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS 1. Primary Photo Event 2. Electron Transport 3. Chemiosmosis May be Cyclic or Noncyclic LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION 1. Calvin-Benson Cycle CO 2 Fixation Organic Synthesis

92 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM PHOTOSYSTEMS: a network of Chlorophyll a and accessory pigments held within a protein matrix on the surface of the photo- synthetic membrane.

93 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

94 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM PHOTOSYSTEMS CONSIST OF: 1. Antenna Complex 2. Reaction Center PHOTOSYSTEM I: Absorption peak of 700nm. (P700) PHOTOSYSTEM II: Absorption peak of 680nm. (P680)

95 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM NONCYCLIC ELECTRON TRANSPORT Begins with Photosystem II Pheophytin (1 o electron acceptor) Electron Transport Chain Photolysis (splitting water): This is the MOST IMPORTANT chemical reaction on earth.

96 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

97 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

98 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Formation of Oxygen during Non-Cyclic photosynthesis

99 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Cyclic Electron Transport

100 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Cyclic Photosynthesis

101 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Cyclic Photosynthesis

102 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION Utilizes the materials from the light dependent reactions, i.e. Energy (ATP from Photo 2) Reducing Power (NADPH from Photo 1)

103 PHOTOSYNTHESIS CALVIN CYCLE 3CO 2 + 9ATP + 6NADPH + water reacts to yield 3-PGA + 8P i + 9ADP + 6 NADP +

104 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

105 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Terminal Events of Calvin Cycle … Synthesis of Sucrose In cytoplasm of cell

106 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM CRASSULACEAN ACID PATHWAY Present in warmer climates Allows stomata to close during day (Preserve H 2 O) Characterized by: Cactus Pineapple “Temporal” separation of steps

107 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

108 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

109 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM C 4 PATHWAY (Hatch-Slack Pathway) Allows stomata to close during day Characterized by: Grasses, Sugar Cane, Corn “Spatial” Separation of steps

110 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM C 4 Pathway

111 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM C 3 Leaf C 4 Leaf Chloroplast

112 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM Anatomy of the Vascular Sheath In C 4 Leaves

113 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM

114 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1.Water Shortage 2.Temperature 3.Light Intensity

115 BIO 101, 102 ENERGY & METABOLISM PHOTORESPIRATION

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120 AP BIOLOGY ENERGY & METABOLISM Leaf Anatomy

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130 AP BIOLOGY ENERGY & METABOLISM

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