2What is a machine? Allows you to do work in a way that is easier Can be quite simpleA machine changes at least one of three factors…
3The 3 Factors of Work Amount of force you exert The distance over which you exert your forceThe direction in which you exert your force
4Input and Output Forces Remember… when you use a machine to do work, you exert a force over some distance.The force you exert on the machine is the input force.The force the machine exerts on an object is called the output force.
5The output work done by the shovel can never be greater than the input work done by the gardener.
6Input and Output WorkInput force times input distance is called the input work.Done by the personThink “I” do input workOutput force times output distance is called the output workDone by the machine
7The output work done by the shovel can never be greater than the input work done by the gardener. Input work and output work can vary depending on the distance the force exerted.Small input force exerted over a long distance = large output force exerted over a short distance
8Making Work Easier By Changing Force, Distance or Direction
12Mechanical AdvantageMechanical advantage is the number of times a machine increases a force exerted on it.Think: “How was the force changed?”OFNo units! : )MAIF
13Mechanical Advantage If MA is over 1: If MA is less than 1 If MA = 1 Force is multiplied! (output force more than input, output distance is less)If MA is less than 1Distance is multiplied! (output force less than input, so output distance is more)If MA = 1Machine only changes direction – force and distance are the same for input and output
14Efficiency of Machines Assuming the input work is exactly equal to the output work is ideal, this is not always the caseThe efficiency of a machine compares the output work to the input work.Efficiency is expressed as a percent.The higher the percent, the more efficient the machine is.
15Efficiency of Machines What may be the cause of having a less efficient machine? Consider the difference between a new pair of garden shears and an old rusty pair of shears.
16Efficiency of Machines To calculate the efficiency of a machine, divide the output work by the input work and multiply the result by 100 percent.