2 DNA ExtractionPlace cells in detergent to break down membranes and salt to remove the histone proteins on the DNAPlace cell extract in ethanolDNA is insoluble in ethanol, so it comes out of solution, and can be removed for study
3 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Takes a small amount of DNA, and makes many copies of itThe more DNA available, the more studies you can do with itFrequently used for small amounts of DNA left at crime scenes
4 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) The DNA fragment to be copied is heated to make the strands separate.Enzyme DNA polymerase adds new complementary strands to each old strand.The process is then repeated over and over.
5 DNA ProfilingJust as no two people have the same fingerprint, no two people (except identical twins) have same DNA.
6 DNA ProfilingDifferences between individuals are due to different sequences of nucleotide basesRemember, different alleles are result of differences in base sequencesEx: AACTGGCA vs.AACCGGCA
7 Restriction EnzymesA restriction enzyme is an enzyme that cuts DNA into small fragments.The size of the fragments depends on the person’s DNA sequence.Therefore, you get different sized fragments from different individuals.
8 Gel ElectrophoresisGel electrophoresis is a way of separating, by size, the DNA fragments produced by restriction enzyme cuts
9 Gel Electrophoresis DNA fragments placed into wells in gel slab Electric voltage is applied to gel.DNA (negatively charged) migrates to (+) end of gel.Smaller the fragment, faster and farther it moves.
10 Transgenic BacteriaGenes for human proteins like insulin and blood clotting factor can be inserted into bacteriaBacteria then translate the inserted gene to produce the protein it codes forProteins can be used to treat people with disorders like diabetes or hemophilia
12 Transgenic PlantsPlants can be transformed with genes from other organisms to:Help plants resist pestsHelp plants resist weed-killing chemicalsGive plants additional nutrient value
13 Transgenic PlantsProcess uses a bacteria that infects plants and causes tumorsTumor-causing gene is removed, and another gene of choice is inserted
14 Animal Cell Transformation Uses:Insert human genes into experimental animals (mice) to study the gene functionCreate livestock that grow faster, produce leaner meat, resist disease better.
15 Animal Cell Transformation DNA to be inserted is injected directly into fertilized egg.Cell enzymes that usually repair DNA or help in recombination insert the new DNA into the animal’s chromosomes.