# Wave Properties Refraction, diffraction and superposition.

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Wave Properties Refraction, diffraction and superposition

The mug trick!

Today’s lesson Refraction of light

The mug trick!

Refraction When a wave changes speed (normally when entering another medium) it may refract (change direction)

Water waves Water waves travel slower in shallow water

Sound waves Sound travels faster in warmer air

Light waves Light slows down as it goes from air to glass/water

Snell’s law There is a relationship between the speed of the wave in the two media and the angles of incidence and refraction Ray, NOT wavefronts i r

Snell’s law speed in substance 1 sinθ1 speed in substance 2 sinθ2 =

Snell’s law In the case of light only, we usually define a quantity called the index of refraction for a given medium as n = c = sinθ1/sinθ2 cm where c is the speed of light in a vacuum and cm is the speed of light in the medium c vacuum cm

Snell’s law Thus for two different media sinθ1/sinθ2 = c1/c2 = n2/n1

Refraction – a few notes
The wavelength changes, the speed changes, but the frequency stays the same

Refraction – a few notes
When the wave enters at 90°, no change of direction takes place.

A practical!

i r Ask them to set up the experiment as above. Gradually increase the angle of incidence. What happens?

Data collection and processing
Table of raw results with quantity, unit, uncertainty and an agreement between the uncertainty and precision of measurements Data correctly processed (including graphs and line of best fit Uncertainties correctly propagated (calculated) and error bars on graph (max/min line of best fit)

Conclusion and evaluation
Compare result with actual result (referenced) Discussion of possible systemmatic errors Identification of weaknesses with relevant significance Improvements based on weaknesses No “waffly” terms!

Diffraction Ripple Tank Simulation

Diffraction Waves spread as they pass an obstacle or through an opening

Diffraction Diffraction is most when the opening or obstacle is similar in size to the wavelength of the wave

Diffraction patterns HL later!

Diffraction patterns HL
θ b bsinθ = nλ θ = λ/b (radians)

Diffraction Diffraction is most when the opening or obstacle is similar in size to the wavelength of the wave

Diffraction That’s why we can hear people around a wall but not see them!

Superposition

Principle of superposition
When two or more waves meet, the resultant displacement is the sum of the individual displacements

Constructive and destructive interference
When two waves of the same frequency superimpose, we can get constructive interference or destructive interference. + = = +

Superposition In general, the displacements of two (or more) waves can be added to produce a resultant wave. (Note, displacements can be negative)

INTERFERENCE 1. Constructive Interference - when the crests (or troughs) of two waves coincide, they combine to create an amplified wave. All waves can be Reflected The two waves are in phase with each other – there is zero phase difference between them. 33

INTERFERENCE 2. Destructive Interference - where the crests of one wave are aligned with the troughs of another, they cancel each other out. All waves can be Reflected The waves are out of phase (or in antiphase) with each other – they are half a cycle different from each other. 35

Superposition Let’s try adding some waves!

Standing waves store energy, whereas travelling waves transfer energy from 1 point to another
The amplitude of standing waves varies from 0 at the nodes to a max at the antinodes, but the same amplitude for all the oscillations along the progressive wave is constant. The oscillations are all in phase between nodes, but the phase varies continuously along a travelling wave.

Interference patterns
Ripple Tank Simulation

If we pass a wave through a pair of slits, an interference pattern is produced

Path difference Whether there is constructive or destructive interference observed at a particular point depends on the path difference of the two waves

Constructive interference if path difference is a whole number of wavelengths

Constructive interference if path difference is a whole number of wavelengths
antinode

Destructive interference if path difference is a half number of wavelengths

Destructive interference if path difference is a half number of wavelengths
node