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Age of Reason Rationalism. Age of Reason Tinkers and Thinkers New ideas had been arising in Europe and was challenging the faith of the Puritans. The.

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Presentation on theme: "Age of Reason Rationalism. Age of Reason Tinkers and Thinkers New ideas had been arising in Europe and was challenging the faith of the Puritans. The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Age of Reason Rationalism

2 Age of Reason

3 Tinkers and Thinkers New ideas had been arising in Europe and was challenging the faith of the Puritans. The Age of Reason began with philosophers and scientists of the 17 and 18th centuries who called themselves Rationalists.

4 Rationalism The belief that human beings can arrive at truth by using reason, rather than by relying on the authority of the past, on religious faith, or on intuition.

5 Age of Reason Everything could be explained through the use of reason—Nature, science, human progress Nature was a machine to be analyzed Human progress thrives on freedom (social contracts)

6 Comparisons Puritanism “God [is] actively and mysteriously involved in the workings of the universe.” Rationalism Sir Isaac Newton said God is a “clockmaker”. God’s special gift to humanity was reason – “the ability to think in an ordered, logical manner”

7 Rationalism

8 Age of Reason

9 1763 End of the French and Indian War France and England war over control for of the colonies All happy at the end of the war

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11 BUT

12 King George imposed regulations that colonists felt unfair  Stamp Act (raised taxes to pay war debt)  Stamps burned, distributors beaten  Stamp act repealed  Other acts follow and colonist boycott- British troops sent to Boston  leads to Boston Massacre (five Americans killed when in a mob)

13  Tea Act  Bostonians dressed as Indians and dumped tea into harbor  Coercive Acts  Colonists later named then “Intolerance Acts”  No regular public meetings  Troops could use colonists’ homes  Boston Harbor closed

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16  colonial leaders met in Philadelphia at the First Continental Congress  1775  700 British troops met 70 minutemen (8 Americans died)  British moved to Concord where “shot heard round the world” occurred GAME ON!

17 History Rock The Shot Heard Round the World Music & Lyrics: Bob Dorough Sung by: Bob Dorough

18 History Rock Now the ride of Paul Revere Set the nation on its ear, And the shot at Lexington Heard round the world. When the British fired In the early dawn, The War of Independence had begun, The die was cast, the rebel flag unfurled. And on to Concord marched the foe, To seize the arsenal there you know, Waking folks, searching all around. Till our militia stopped them in their tracks, At the Old North Bridge, we turned them back And chased those Redcoats back to Boston town.

19 History Rock And the shot heard round the world Was the start of the revolution. The minutemen were ready, on the move. Take your powder, take your gun, Report to General Washington, Hurry men, there's not an hour to lose. Now at famous Bunker Hill, Even though we lost, it was quite a thrill. The rebel Colonel Prescott proved he was wise. Outnumbered and low on ammunition, As the British stormed his position, He said, "Hold your fire till you see the whites of their eyes."

20 History Rock Though the next few years were rough, General Washington's men proved they were tough. Those hungry, ragged boys would not be beat. One night they crossed the Delaware, Surprised the Hessians in their lair, And at Valley Forge they just bundled up their feet. Now the shot heard round the world Was the start of the revolution. The minutemen were ready, on the move. Take your blanket, take your son, Report to General Washington. We've got our rights and now it's time to prove.

21 History Rock Well, they showed such determination That they won the admiration Of countries 'cross the sea like France and Spain. Who loaned the colonies ships and guns And put the British on the run, And the Continental Army on its feet again. And though they lost some battles too, The Americans swore they'd see it through. Their raiding parties %shut up, hit and run.% At Yorktown the British could not retreat, Bottled up by Washington and the French Fleet, Cornwallis surrendered and finally we had won. }} {The winner!} }} {Hurray!}

22 History Rock From the shot heard round the world, To the end of the revolution, The continental rabble took the day. And the father of our country beat the British there at Yorktown, and brought freedom to you and me and the U.S.A. God bless America! Let freedom ring!

23 Age of Reason Believe in the common good Whatever is for the common good, comes before personal freedom Nature is good and people are inherently good

24 Age of Reason Valued tradition, clarity, balance and order Sense of optimism Art flourished Science, ethics and government became important

25 Age of Reason

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27 Say What?!?! Enlightenment thinkers de-emphasized “grace” and “pre-destination” in favor of “moral choice” and scientific inquiry. –“virtue,” “order,” “reason,” “sympathy” –How is this a change in everyday thinking? How do you think religious figures felt about this changing view of the universe and how people should function within it?

28 But What About Providence? Enlightenment brought a new, exciting way of seeing the universe… universe as an orderly system With application of reason, humanity would comprehend universe (think of Newton’s Laws). How might this change the way the common man felt about religion and God?

29 Political Pamplets Political pamphlets Patriotism grows Encourages Revolutionary War Support

30 Travel Writing Instills pride Creates common agreement about issues

31 Style Highly ornate style They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance, by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? Sir, we are not weak if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Patrick Henry

32 Persuasive Writing Instructive in values Poor Richard’s Almanac Franklin’s Autobiography

33 Age of Reason Valued reason over faith Believed that by using reason, we can understand both man and nature

34 -from Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography “I never doubted the existence of the deity, that He made the world, and governed it with His providence; that the most acceptable service of God was the doing good to man; that our souls are immortal; and that all crime will be punished and virtue rewarded either here or hereafter; these I esteemed the essentials of every religion, and being to be found in all the religions we had in our country I respected them all.”

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36 “Benjamin Franklin Drawing Down Electricity from the Sky” Down Electricity from the Sky” (Benjamin West, ca. 1816) (Benjamin West, ca. 1816)

37 Rhetoric Today this term means “the art of speaking or writing effectively (especially persuasive speaking or writing).” In Franklin’s time the term meant the same thing, but more precisely it stood for “the study of principles and rules of composition formulated by critics of ancient times.” Logic A system of rules used to express reasoning Reason If one is “rational,” then he has the ability “to reason.” What does it mean to reason? Reasoning is a type of thinking used to seek a truth through cause and effect and through drawing conclusions. Socratic Method A technique in which a debater does not argue directly but instead asks a series of questions, with the result that the opponent comes either to the desired knowledge by answering the questions or to a deeper awareness of the limits of his knowledge.

38 Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography  The unquestioned masterpiece of the Age of Reason  Franklin used the personal narrative, a form that was common in Colonial America. He separated it from much of its religious justification (the Puritan impulse toward self-examination). Then he molded it into what became a classic American pattern: the rags-to-riches story.  Written in clear, witty prose, this charming account of the development of a self-made American provided the model for a story that would be told again and again. It appears in the moralistic stories about the office boy by Horatio Alger and in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby.

39 Most Influential Writers  Benjamin Franklin  Thomas Jefferson  Thomas Paine  Patrick Henry

40 Rationalists and God “[D]iscovered God though the medium of the natural world” “[T]hought it unlikely that God would choose to reveal himself only at particular ties to particular people” “[B]elieved that God made it possible for all people at all times to discover natural laws through their God-given power of reason.”

41 ? Deism ? The idea that God is not a power that controls everything. Saw God as more of a humanitarian, not vengeful He created the universe, but left it up to the people to figure out how to work it, or to figure out the natural laws. Rationalists were deists and thought all could be figured out through science. {Think of the on-going debate over evolution and one gets pretty good picture of how Puritans and Rationalists differ.}

42 Deism Are people basically good? Believed “that the universe was orderly and good” Believed “in the perfectibility of every individual thought the use of reason” Believed that “God’s objective... Was the happiness of his creatures.” Believed “the best form of worship was to do good for others”

43 Deism

44 Artifacts of Different Eras Thou hast a house on high erect, Framed by that mighty Architect, With glory richly furnished, Stands permanent though this be fled. It’s purchased and paid for too By Him who hath enough to do. A price so vast as is unknown Yet by His gift is made thine own; There’s wealth enough, I need no more, Farewell, my pelf, farewell my store. The world no longer let me love, My hope and treasure lies above. (Bradstreet, 1666) While virtue warms the generous breast, There heaven-born freedom shall reside, Nor shall the voice of war molest, Nor Europe’s all-aspiring pride – There Reason shall new laws devise, And order from confusion rise. Forsaking kings and regal state, With all their pomp and fancied bliss, The traveler [admits], convinced though late, No realm so free, so blessed as this – The east is half to slaves consigned, Where kings and priests enchain the mind. (“On the Religion of Nature,” Philip Freneau, 1785)

45 Order and Virtue We should organize our lives into an ordered sequence of reasoned and virtuous thoughts and behaviors Aim is “human perfection” How would the Puritans have felt about the concept of humans perfecting themselves for themselves and by themselves?

46 Review oGenre/Style oPolitical pamphlets oTravel writing oPersuasive ospeeches oEffects oPatriotism oPride oAgreement oAmerican character ovalues oBasic Beliefs oReason & science over faith oMan is naturally good, not evil oDeism


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