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Midterm Review December 2013. 1.Where does the energy to fuel food webs come from? A.Producers B.Sunlight C.The Atmosphere D.Consumers.

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Presentation on theme: "Midterm Review December 2013. 1.Where does the energy to fuel food webs come from? A.Producers B.Sunlight C.The Atmosphere D.Consumers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Midterm Review December 2013

2 1.Where does the energy to fuel food webs come from? A.Producers B.Sunlight C.The Atmosphere D.Consumers

3 For ecosystems, the major source of energy is sunlight. Energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis. That energy then passes from organism to organism in food webs.

4 2. Draw a food pyramid with 3 levels and label the organisms in each one. Secondary Consumers Secondary Consumers Secondary Consumers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Primary Consumers Primary Consumers Primary Consumers Producers A. B. C. D.

5 3. How do decomposers benefit an ecosystem? C. an animal in the food chain that eats grass and other plants for food A. an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material B. an animal in the food chain that eats other animals or meat for food D. an organism like a green plant and certain bacteria that can produce their own fuel through photosynthesis

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7 4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid. Which is a network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships? A.Food web B.Food chain C.Energy pyramid D.All of the above

8 4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid. Which is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition? A.Energy pyramid B.Food web C.Food chain D. None of the above

9 A network of many food chains is called a food web. The arrows in a food chain show the flow of energy A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition

10 An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community. The different levels represent different groups of organisms that might compose a food chain. From the bottom-up, they are as follows: Producers — use energy from the sun. Primary consumers — eat the producers, which makes them herbivores in most communities. Secondary consumers — eat the primary consumers, which makes them carnivores: some eat producers and consumers, these are omnivores. Tertiary consumers — eat the secondary consumers, these are usually carnivores.

11 5. List 3 limitations of a model. Some limitations of a model are the 1) models are not alive, 2) models do not act exactly like the object they model, 3) depending on the model could be things like size, distance, temperature, color, etc.

12 The bottom of the curve is called the _______ A. Volume B. Cylinder C. Watermark D. Meniscus

13 6.Explain how you read the fluid in graduated cylinder. When measuring liquid volume it is important to read the graduated cylinder correctly. Your eye should be level with the top of the liquid and you should read the bottom of the curve.

14 7.What are the main objects in our Solar System? A.stars, 8 planets, 5+ dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets B. planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, and comets C. 1 star, 8 planets, 5+ dwarf planets, many moons, asteroids, and comets D. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

15 Is Pluto a Planet? A.It orbits around the Sun. B.It has sufficient mass for its self-gravity so that it assumes a spherical shape. C.It has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. 8. What is the difference between a Planet and a dwarf planet?

16 Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of glucose. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO 2, and H 2 O to make glucose. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O (+ light energy) yields C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 9.Describe the process of photosynthesis?

17 Photosynthesis is the process in which living organisms, most typically plants (but also algae), use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into organic material (i.e., carbohydrates) that is used for sustenance. Photosynthesis occurs in organelles called chloroplasts. The byproduct of this process is oxygen. 9.Describe the process of photosynthesis? Oxygen

18 10. Why are plants green? A.Chloroplasts B.Turgor Pressure C.Chlorophyll D.Photosynthesis Green plants are green because they contain a pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants.

19 11. Why do plants always grow up? A.Phototropism B.Geotropism C.Both of the above D.Neither of the above

20 12. What is work? Work is applying a force to an object and the object moving in the direction the force is applied. Ex. When you apply an upward force to a box and move the box upward you have done work. However, once you start walking with that box, the box is moving forward but you are applying the force upwards, so you are not doing work. The force and motion must be in the same direction.

21 12. How do you calculate work? Work = Force x Distance W = F x d The SI Unit for force is Newton The SI Unit for distance is meter The SI Unit for work is Joule

22 12. How do you calculate work? A little girl applies a force of 2,550 newtons to her dog that is sitting on her legs but is unable to move him. How much work does she do? A.2,550 J B. 255 J C. 25 J D. 0 J

23 12. How do you calculate work? If it takes a force of 68 newtons to move a chair 10 meters across the room. How much work do you do? A.6,880 J B. 680 J C J D. 0 J

24 13. What should you do if someone in your lab group breaks a piece of equipment? A.tell your lab partner B.use it carefully anyway C.use someone else’s equipment D.tell the teacher

25 14. What is this piece of equipment? A.spring scale C. Balance Scale B.Triple beam balanceD. Balance

26 14.A Triple Beam Balance measures _________ in _________ A.grams in mass A.force in Newtons B.mass in grams C.weight in grams

27 15.What do the following instruments measure and in what units? Triple Beam Balance - Graduated Cylinder - used to accurately measure the volume of a liquid in ml. All are read by measuring the lowest portion of the meniscus. measures the mass of an object. The unit of measurement is a gram

28 15.What do the following instruments measure and in what units? Pipette - Meter Stick - 1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm The meter "Stick" measures distance, more specifically it measures distance in units of meters. is used to transfer small amounts (< 1 ml) of liquids

29 15. You can use a spring scale to measure which of these? A.liquids B.volume C.force D.stress

30 15. A spring scale uses which of the following? A.meters B.Joules C.Newtons D.milliliter

31 19. This picture is of… A.graduated cylinders B.test tubes C.beakers D.spring scales

32 Vocabulary You Should Know! These are not in any particular order and there may be a few extra to help you!

33 1. Ecosystems can be both large and small. A. TrueB. False

34 An ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment. (All LIVING and NONLIVING) can be as small as a drop of water or as large as a forest some (like caves) have clear boundaries, others (like forests) do not provides the organisms that live in it what they need to survive: food (energy), water and shelter runs on energy from the sun energy moves through the food web

35 2. an organism that makes its own food/fuel through the process of photosynthesis. A.Consumer A.Producer B.Herbivore C.Heterotroph

36 3. What are the different types of weathering A.Mechanical and Physical B.Physical and Erosion C.Mechanical and Chemical D.Chemical and Erosion

37 mechanical – the physical break down of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces. Examples: abrasion, ice wedging, plants and animals chemical – the chemical break down of rocks and minerals into new substances. Examples: water, acid in precipitation, acid in ground water, acid in living things.

38 4. an organism that must eat other organisms in a food chain for fuel. A.consumer B.Producer C.Ecosystem D.autotroph

39 5.An opening in the Earth’s crust where lava, ash and gases come out. A mountain that forms when molten rock is forced to the Earth’s surface. A.Canyon B.Magma Chamber C.Volcano D.Mountain

40 6. an animal in the food chain that only eats other animals. A.Consumer B.Carnivore C.Herbivore D.Decomposer

41 7. an animal in the food chain that only eats grass and other plants. A.Carnivore B. Decomposer C. All of the Above D. None of the Above

42 8. pressure exerted by water inside the cell on the cell wall. A.Photosynthesis B. Chloroplast Pressure C. Turgor Pressure D. Water Pressure

43 9. an animal in the food chain that consumes both plants and other organisms. A.Autotroph B. Omnivore C. All of the Above D. None of the Above

44 10. an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material. A.Producer B. Herbivore C. Decomposer D. None of the Above

45 11. the process by where rock, soil, and sediment are moved from one location to another by natural forces such as wind, water, and ice. A.Mechanical Weathering B. Physical Weathering C. Erosion D. Deposition

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47 12. a push or pull. A.Newton B. Force C. Joule D. None of the above

48 13. the breaking down of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces but the pieces remain in the same place. A.Mechanical Weathering B. Physical Weathering C. Weathering D. None of the Above

49 14. a community of organisms and their abiotic (nonliving) environment. A.ecoregion B. region C. ecosystem D. ecology

50 15. the laying down or accumulation of rock, soil and sediment after it has been moved from another location by natural forces. A.Mechanical Weathering A.Physical Weathering B.Erosion C.Deposition

51 Definitions Consumer (Heterotroph) – an organism that must eat other organism in a food chain for fuel Producer (Autotroph) – an organism like a green plant and certain bacteria that can produce their own fuel through photosynthesis Decomposer – an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material

52 Ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment. (All LIVING and NONLIVING) Earthquake - shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane or from volcanic activity Volcano – an opening in the earths crust in which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected

53 Carnivore – an animal in the food chain that eats other animals or meat for food Herbivore – an animal in the food chain that eats grass and other plants for food Omnivore– an animal in the food chain that consumes both plants and other organisms.

54 Weathering - the breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by natural processes Erosion - process by which wind and water move sediment from one place to another Deposition – the process of laying down or the accumulation of rock, soil and sediment after it has been moved from one place to another

55 Photosynthesis – a process used by plants to change light energy captured by the sun to chemical energy that can be used as fuel Turgor Pressure – pressure exerted by water inside the cell on the cell wall Force – is a push or pull. Unbalanced force causes motion.

56 Rotation – the spinning motion of a body, such as a planet about an internal axis Revolution - The amount of time that each planet takes to travel around the sun. It is the length of a year on that planet.

57 Phototropism- when a plants stem and leaves grow towards the sunlight. (positive phototropism) Gravitropism or Geotropism- when roots grow towards the center of Earth (positive gravitropism) Ex. Roots show positive geotropism Stems show negative geotropism

58 Hydrotropism is a change in the growth of a plant in response to water. planet – an object orbiting a star that is large enough to be rounded, or shaped, by its own gravitational force and has cleared it’s orbital neighborhood..


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