2 Where does the energy to fuel food webs come from?ProducersSunlightThe AtmosphereConsumers
3 For ecosystems,the major sourceof energy is sunlight.Energy enteringecosystems as sunlightis transferred by producersinto chemical energy through photosynthesis. That energy then passes from organism to organism in food webs.
4 2. Draw a food pyramid with 3 levels and label the organisms in each one.A.B.SecondaryConsumersSecondaryConsumersPrimaryConsumersProducersPrimaryConsumersProducersC.PrimaryConsumersD.ProducersSecondaryConsumersPrimaryConsumersSecondaryConsumersProducers
5 3. How do decomposers benefit an ecosystem? A. an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic materialB. an animal in the food chain that eats other animals or meat for foodC. an animal in the food chain that eats grass and other plants for foodD. an organism like a green plant and certain bacteria that can produce their own fuel through photosynthesis
7 4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid. Which is a network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships?Food webFood chainEnergy pyramidAll of the above
8 4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid. Which is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition?Energy pyramidFood webFood chainD. None of the above
9 The arrows in a food chain show the flow of energy A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutritionThe arrows in a food chain show the flow of energyA network of many food chains is called a food web.
10 An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community. The different levels represent different groups of organisms that might compose afood chain. From the bottom-up, they are as follows:Producers — use energy from the sun.Primary consumers — eat the producers, whichmakes them herbivores in most communities.Secondary consumers — eat the primary consumers,which makes them carnivores:some eat producers and consumers, these are omnivores.Tertiary consumers — eat the secondary consumers, theseare usually carnivores.
11 1) models are not alive, Some limitations of a model are the 5. List 3 limitations of a model.Some limitations of a model are the1) models are not alive,2) models do not act exactly like theobject they model,3) depending on the model could bethings like size, distance,temperature, color, etc.
12 The bottom of the curve is called the _______ A. VolumeB. CylinderC. WatermarkD. Meniscus
13 6. Explain how you read the fluid in graduated cylinder. When measuring liquid volume it is important to read the graduated cylinder correctly. Your eye should be level with the top of the liquid and you should read the bottom of the curve.
14 7. What are the main objects in our Solar System? stars, 8 planets, 5+ dwarf planets,asteroids, and cometsB. planets, dwarf planets, moons,C. 1 star, 8 planets, 5+ dwarf planets,many moons, asteroids, and cometsD. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter,Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
15 8. What is the difference between a Planet and a dwarf planet? Is Pluto a Planet?It orbits around the Sun.It has sufficient mass for its self-gravity so that it assumes a spherical shape.It has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.More information atAnd at
16 9. Describe the process of photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of glucose. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make glucose.6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) yields C6H12O6 + 6O2
17 9. Describe the process of photosynthesis? OxygenPhotosynthesis is the process in which living organisms, most typically plants (but also algae), use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into organic material (i.e., carbohydrates) that is used for sustenance. Photosynthesis occurs in organelles called chloroplasts. The byproduct of this process is oxygen.
18 10. Why are plants green? Chloroplasts Turgor Pressure Chlorophyll PhotosynthesisGreen plants are green because they contain a pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants.
19 11. Why do plants always grow up? PhototropismGeotropismBoth of the aboveNeither of the above
20 12. What is work? Work is applying a force to an object and the object moving in the direction the force is applied.Ex. When you apply an upward force to a box andmove the box upward you have done work.However, once you start walking with that box, thebox is moving forward but you are applyingthe force upwards, so you are not doing work.The force and motion must be in the same direction.
21 12. How do you calculate work? Work = Force x DistanceW = F x dThe SI Unit for force is NewtonThe SI Unit for distance is meterThe SI Unit for work is Joule
22 12. How do you calculate work? A little girl applies a force of 2,550 newtons to her dog that is sitting on her legs but is unable to move him.How much work does she do?2,550 J255 J25 J0 J
23 12. How do you calculate work? If it takes a force of 68 newtons to move a chair 10 meters across the room. How much work do you do?6,880 J680 J68.0 J0 J
24 13. What should you do if someone in your lab group breaks a piece of equipment?tell your lab partneruse it carefully anywayuse someone else’s equipmenttell the teacher
25 14. What is this piece of equipment? spring scale C. Balance ScaleTriple beam balance D. Balance
26 14. A Triple Beam Balance measures _________ in _________grams in massforce in Newtonsmass in gramsweight in grams
27 15. What do the following instruments measure and in what units? Triple Beam Balance -Graduated Cylinder - used to accurately measure the volume of a liquid in ml. All are read by measuring the lowest portion of the meniscus.measures the mass of an object.The unit of measurement is a gram
28 15. What do the following instruments measure and in what units? Pipette -Meter Stick -is used to transfer small amounts(< 1 ml) of liquids1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mmThe meter "Stick" measures distance, more specifically it measures distance in units of meters.
29 15. You can use a spring scale to measure which of these? liquidsvolumeforcestress
30 15. A spring scale uses which of the following? metersJoulesNewtonsmilliliter
31 19. This picture is of…graduated cylinderstest tubesbeakersspring scales
32 Vocabulary You Should Know! These are not in any particular order and there may be a few extra to help you!
33 1. Ecosystems can be both large and small. A. True B. False
34 An ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment.(All LIVING and NONLIVING)can be as small as a drop of water oras large as a forestsome (like caves) have clear boundaries,others (like forests) do notprovides the organisms that live in it whatthey need to survive: food (energy),water and shelterruns on energy from the sunenergy moves through the food web
35 2. an organism that makes its own food/ fuel through the process of photosynthesis.ConsumerProducerHerbivoreHeterotroph
36 3. What are the different types of weathering Mechanical and PhysicalPhysical and ErosionMechanical and ChemicalChemical and Erosion
37 mechanical – the physical break down of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces.Examples: abrasion, ice wedging, plants and animalschemical – the chemical break down ofrocks and minerals into new substances.Examples: water, acid in precipitation, acid in ground water, acid in living things.
38 4. an organism that must eat other organisms in a food chain for fuel. consumerProducerEcosystemautotroph
39 5. An opening in the Earth’s crust where lava, ash and gases come out 5. An opening in the Earth’s crust where lava, ash and gases come out. A mountain that forms when molten rock is forced to theEarth’s surface.CanyonMagma ChamberVolcanoMountain
40 6. an animal in the food chain that only eats other animals. ConsumerCarnivoreHerbivoreDecomposer
41 7. an animal in the food chain that only eats grass and other plants. CarnivoreB. DecomposerC. All of the AboveD. None of the Above
42 8. pressure exerted by water inside the cell on the cell wall. PhotosynthesisB. Chloroplast PressureC. Turgor PressureD. Water Pressure
43 9. an animal in the food chain that. consumes both plants and other 9. an animal in the food chain that consumes both plants and other organisms.AutotrophB. OmnivoreC. All of the AboveD. None of the Above
44 10. an organism that gets fuel from the 10. an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material.ProducerB. HerbivoreC. DecomposerD. None of the Above
45 11. the process by where rock, soil, and 11. the process by where rock, soil, and sediment are moved from one location to another by natural forces such as wind, water, and ice.Mechanical WeatheringB. Physical WeatheringC. ErosionD. Deposition
47 12. a push or pull.NewtonB. ForceC. JouleD. None of the above
48 13. the breaking down of rocks into smaller 13. the breaking down of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces but the pieces remain in the same place.Mechanical WeatheringB. Physical WeatheringC. WeatheringD. None of the Above
49 14. a community of organisms and their abiotic (nonliving) environment. ecoregionB. regionC. ecosystemD. ecology
50 15. the laying down or accumulation of rock, 15. the laying down or accumulation of rock, soil and sediment after it has been moved from another location by natural forces.Mechanical WeatheringPhysical WeatheringErosionDeposition
51 DefinitionsConsumer (Heterotroph) – an organism that must eat other organism in a food chain for fuelProducer (Autotroph) – an organism like a green plant and certain bacteria that can produce their own fuel through photosynthesisDecomposer – an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material
52 Ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment. (All LIVING and NONLIVING)Earthquake - shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane or from volcanic activityVolcano – an opening in the earths crust in which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected
53 Carnivore – an animal in the food chain that eats other animals or meat for food Herbivore – an animal in the food chain that eats grass and other plants for foodOmnivore– an animal in the food chain that consumes both plants and other organisms.
54 Weathering - the breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by natural processes Erosion - process by which wind and water move sediment from one place to anotherDeposition – the process of laying down or the accumulation of rock, soil and sediment after it has been moved from one place to another
55 Photosynthesis – a process used by plants to change light energy captured by the sun to chemical energy that can be used as fuelTurgor Pressure – pressure exerted by water inside the cell on the cell wallForce – is a push or pull. Unbalanced force causes motion.
56 Rotation – the spinning motion of a body, such as a planet about an internal axis Revolution - The amount of time that each planet takes to travel around the sun. It is the length of a year on that planet.
57 Phototropism- when a plants stem. and leaves grow towards the sunlight Phototropism- when a plants stem and leaves grow towards the sunlight. (positive phototropism)Gravitropism or Geotropism- when roots grow towards the center of Earth (positive gravitropism)Ex. Roots show positive geotropismStems show negative geotropism
58 Hydrotropism is a change in the growth of a plant in response to water Hydrotropism is a change in the growth of a plant in response to water. planet – an object orbiting a star that is large enough to be rounded, or shaped, by its own gravitational force and has cleared it’s orbital neighborhood..