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Analyzing Famous Speeches as Arguments Ms. Martin, M.ED.

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Presentation on theme: "Analyzing Famous Speeches as Arguments Ms. Martin, M.ED."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analyzing Famous Speeches as Arguments Ms. Martin, M.ED.

2 Which Appeal... Meany scientist believe we will have a very survey winter this year. In the past hot summers have been followed by cold winters. And This past summer We had record breaking temperatures. We have also be having a lot of rain over the summer and if that rain were to continue into the winter it would cause large fall of snow.

3 Which Appeal... Many people do believe this winter is going to be bad. But that doesn't mean we will fall be hide in school work or work in general. We have be able to get through many things such as super storm sandy and others. If snow comes it won't hurt are economy are us.

4 Which Appeal... I hope snow comes. The kids haven't played in the snow in such a long time. And when was that last time we had a white Christmas. We could use the Christmas spirit and so could the children. Winter time is always better with a little bit of snow to make it really feel like Christmas.

5 ANSWERS Logos approach: Meany scientist believe we will have a very survey winter this year. In the past hot summers have been followed by cold winters. And This past summer We had record breaking temperatures. We have also be having a lot of rain over the summer and if that rain were to continue into the winter it would cause large fall of snow. Ethos approach: Many people do believe this winter is going to be bad. But that doesn't mean we will fall be hide in school work or work in general. We have be able to get through many things such as super storm sandy and others. If snow comes it won't hurt are economy are us. Pathos approach : I hope snow comes. The kids haven't played in the snow in such a long time. And when was that last time we had a white Christmas. We could use the Christmas spirit and so could the children. Winter time is always better with a little bit of snow to make it really feel like Christmas.

6 APPEALS TO ETHOS, PATHOS and LOGOS

7 Appeal Types Analysis Ethos--credibility, reputation, or trustworthiness of a speaker. Ethos refers to the established personal credentials of speaker (e.g. Ph.D. or other degree in relevant field, professional in high office, etc.) and the credentials established by composing a well-argued text. Ethos is built in the text when a speaker cites relevant, intelligent sources, even taking on the best voices of opposing viewpoints the way a boxer builds credibility by taking on the most worthy opponents. Speakers also build credibility by keeping good company in the form of publishing in highly respected, refereed, and in the case or presentations, presenting at important conferences or marches at which other highly credentialed speakers are presenting as well. Examples: Religion – the desire to follow the rules and behavior of one’s faith Patriotism – the urge to place one’s country before personal needs Standards – the desire to be a good citizen, good student, good parent, etc… Humanitarianism – secular appeal to help others, save the environment, help the helpless, etc.

8 Pathos --emotional resonance (tone, significance). Pathos refers to appeals that get us worked up-- particularly when we become tearful, angry, or fearful. This approach can be an important way to remind an audience to feel deeply about a subject. It can also be abused, causing people to feel at the expense of reasoning through an issue. They use : creativity – may use humor, word play, etc. to invoke positive emotions moving stories and anecdotes that prove your opinion music, color, art using emotional language or “catchy words” to appeal to people’ s values or guilty consciences or vivid description. slanting. Omitting or not using information that may conflict with or weaken the author’s opinion. predicting extreme outcomes of events/dire predication in order to create a sense of urgency specific examples

9 Logos--logic and reason. Loosely defined, logos refers to the use of logic, reasons, facts, statistics, data, and numbers. Logical appeals are aimed at the mind of the audience, their thinking side. Very often, logos seems tangible and touchable. When a speaker or writer uses logical appeals, he or she will avoid inflammatory language, and the writer will carefully connect its reasons to supporting evidence.

10 Analytical Question... In a presidential speech when would a speaker use pathos, logos, ethos?

11 TONE AND DICTION

12 QUEEN ELIZABETH I – SPEECH AT TILBURY, 1588

13 My loving people, We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear. I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live and die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood even, in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.

14 QUEEN ELIZABETH I – SPEECH AT TILBURY, 1588 I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the meantime, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

15 Queen Elizabeth I’s Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, Queen Elizabeth I is sending her men to fight the Spanish Armada. What do you know about the audience based on the information in the speech? How does she take the audience into account? 2.How does Queen Elizabeth I use the audience’s faith and belief in God as a way to convince them to believe and agree with her? Why is it a good idea for her to remind them of her divine right as a ruler before sending them into battle?

16 Queen Elizabeth I’s Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, Identify the tone(s) of the passage. How does she set the tone(s)? 4.At one point she says that she is going to fight beside them, and then she says she will not. Explain what she means and what she is doing here. How is she manipulating her audience? 5.Identify an appeal to pathos. How is it effective?

17 Queen Elizabeth I’s Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, One appeal to logos she makes is when she reminds them that she will be paying them money to fight. To which audience is she specifically speaking when she mentions this? 7.One effective rhetorical device in this speech is her manipulation of diction. Provide one example of effective word choice and discuss its contribution to the quality of the argument.

18 While Listening to the clip... s/clinton-sin.htm s/clinton-sin.htm Think about how the particular moment in history and the national audience contribute to the rhetorical choices made by the speaker. What is the purpose and intent? What are the claims and appeals? Consider how the author manipulates the audience using tone, diction, and Literary devices.

19 While Listening to the clip... What rhetorical devices aided the author’s manipulation of his audience? Discuss a particular rhetorical device that the President used and the purpose it served. Identify areas where the author uses rhetorical devices such as anecdotes to fill spaces they may be lacking facts.

20 CHOOSE A SPEECH FROM THE BAG

21 Analysis of Speech What is the rhetorical situation? What occasion gives rise to the need or opportunity for persuasion? What is the historical occasion that would give rise to the composition of this text? Who is the author/speaker? How does he or she establish ethos (personal credibility)? Does he/she come across as knowledgeable? fair? Does the speaker's reputation convey a certain authority? What is his/her intention in speaking? To attack or defend? To exhort or dissuade from certain action? To praise or blame? To teach, to delight, or to persuade?

22 Analysis of Speech Color coded looking for examples of rhetorical devices and annotate for argumentative structure. Determine the purpose behind the rhetorical devices. How does it add to manipulation of the audience? Diction: Analyze the author’s word choices. – First discuss the work in general: is the diction informal, formal, non-standard, neutral, or colloquial? Explain and give an example. – Does the author use much imagery? Metaphoric and/or ironic devices? – Concrete or Abstract? – Is the language plain? Flowery? Concise? Strong? Lyrical? – Does diction indicate social status, education, region? – How much dialogue is used? – How different is the dialogue from the narrative voice?

23 POWERPOINT PRESENTATION What is going on in the world during the time period that is significant to the understanding of the speech’s significance and impact? (Refer to Guided Questions) What is his/her intention in speaking? To attack or defend? To exhort or dissuade from certain action? To praise or blame? To teach, to delight, or to persuade? Identify rhetorical devices in the speech that are significant, such as ethos, pathos, logos as well as other rhetorical devices such as repetition, parallelism, etc... Then pull out the excerpts that show the type of rhetorical device and explain how they are significant and how they are used as a tool of persuasion.

24 POWERPOINT REQUIREMENTS Minimum of 8 slides, Maximum of 14 Slides Each slide can have no more than one visual. Avoid making a visual an entire background because it may be difficult to view. A print out must be brought to class. The printout must be in handout format, no more than 2 slides per page. PowerPoint must be on a jump drive ready to present. Bullets are desired not paragraphs, with the exception of the quote. Points will be deducted for solely reading from the slide without any expounding.

25 Rhetorical Essay Moments in history, social views, and the national audience contribute to the rhetorical choices made by the speaker. Authors use rhetorical devices as a manipulation technique. What rhetorical devices aided the author’s manipulation of his audience? Consider tone, diction, appeals, anecdotes and other literary devices. (Include content from multiple (2-3) secondary sources that effectively and actively support your thesis. You must have a Works Cited page in MLA format that includes the speech and additional sources.

26 Due Date: 1/7/13


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