2Definitions:Abiotic - a nonliving condition or thing that influences or affects an ecosystem.Biotic - a living thing like a plant or an animal, something that was alive or something that has the potential for life that influences or affects an ecosystem
3Primary Succession - the development of plant and animal communities over time in an area where no soil had existed
4Secondary Succession - the development of plant and animal communities over time in an area where there was a disturbance but the soil was still present
5Ecological Succession - the gradual replacement of one type of ecological community by another in the same area over time
6Climax Community – an ecological community where plant and animal populations remain stable and exist in balance.
7Definitions:Environment – the biotic and abiotic surroundings or conditions in which a person, plant or animal lives or operates.Habitat - the area or environment where an organism or ecological community normally lives or occursMicrohabitat – a small, specialized environment such as a schoolyard or a clump of grass
8Population - a group of individuals of the same species that live together in the same area at the same timeSpecies - a group of organismsthat share common attributesand have the same name
9Surface Water – water found on the surface of the earth, such as rivers, streams, lakes, creeks, etc.Groundwater - water found beneath the surface of the earth (underground) it is supplied by run-off. It is the source of water in springs and wells.
10Porosity – the measure of a rock’s ability to hold water Permeability – is a measure of the ease with which water can move through a porous rock.
11Definitions:Sustainability - a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged.Biodiversity - the interaction between living and nonliving organisms, how they are different and how they relate to each other in their natural habitat
12Give 3 examples of pioneer species and identify them for Primary or Secondary Succession Primary Succession -Lichens, mossesSecondary Succession -Weeds, grasses and wildflowers
13For primary succession order these: RockLichens/BacteriaWildflowersShrubsPine treesHardwood treesForest
14For secondary succession order these: CrabgrassHorseweedsShrubsPine treesPine forestHardwood treesFor secondary succession order these:
15Answer the following questions: What is the goal of ecological succession?Equilibrium
16After a geologic event, bare rock is exposed to the environment. 2. List the steps in primary succession.After a geologic event, bare rock is exposed to the environment.Stage 1:Pioneer organisms, such as lichens, are the firstto inhabit the area.Lichens give off acid, which breaks the rockdown into soil.
17Stage 2:Once a small amount of soil is present, moss maystart to grow on in the area.As moss dies and decays, organic matter is added to to soil.The soil progressivelybecomes thicker andcontains morenutrients.
18Stage 3:Ferns begin to grow. As they diethey are decomposed andadded to the soil.Weeds, wildflowers and grasseswill start to grow when thesoil is thick enough.As grasses and weeds die,they are decomposedand added to the soil.
19Stage 4:When soil is thick enough,bushes and small treeswill start to grow.Pine trees are the first type of trees to grow in an area since theyrequire lesswater andfewer soilnutrients.
20Stage 5:When the soil becomes richenough, deciduous treesstart to grow.Deciduous trees have the abilityto grow taller than pine trees.Leaves fall each year and decompose to add nutrients to the soil.After a period of time, deciduous trees take over the area since they grow taller and have better ability to get light energy for photosynthesis.
21Climax Forest - The End of Succession Eventually a mature temperate deciduous forestforms.Wild flowers andsmall shrubsadapted to livingwith low amountsof light may growon the forest floor.
233. List the steps in secondary succession. Occurs in areas where there was a disturbance, soil is exposed to the environment.Steps:Because soil is present, weeds will first start to grow.Grasses and wildflowers will follow the weeds.Then shrubs and small trees will begin to grow.Pine trees and then deciduous trees will grow.Eventually a climax forest will regrow.
244. How does biodiversity affect the sustainability of an ecosystem? The more biodiversity in an ecosystem, the moresustainable it is.More (Higher) biodiversity = more sustainabilityLess (Lower) biodiversity = less sustainabilityThe more biodiverse an ecosystem means there are a greater variety of species and the ecosystem is better able to carry out natural processes in the face of external stress.
25What are three negative effects excess (TOO MUCH) fertilizer can have on the environment?Too much fertilizer isn’t helpful! It just runs off in the next rain….runs off into the watershed and pollutes thewateraquatic plants like algae will be overstimulatedwith results like algae bloomcauses respiratory diseases in animals andpeople who drink contaminated water
266. What are some of the effects on a community if it uses more groundwater than it replaces?Overuse of groundwater can cause wells to dry up. This can lead to expensive and often futile attempts to keep up with the dropping water table by drilling deeper and deeper wells.
27When too much water is withdrawn from the ground, the land can collapse, a process called subsidence. When groundwater fills spaces in the soil, it supplies part of the internal strength of the ground. When the water is removed, leaving openings filled only with air, the weight of the overlying earth compacts and crushes the spaces.In this photograph of California's San Joaquin Valley, the dates on the pole mark the former heights of the ground. In the span of 50 years, water pumping for irrigation led to nearly 30 feet of subsidence.
28Removing too much groundwater can leave underground holes, leading to sinkholes A sinkhole opened in the middle of a Florida highway, near a residential area in 2004The sinkhole appeared in downtown Guatemala City, swallowing a three-story building
297. List 3 ways humans negatively impact. groundwater 7. List 3 ways humans negatively impact groundwater. Describe the effects.Over fertilization of crops can lead to runoff and seepage into groundwater supplies, polluting the waterLitter and trash – pollute surface and groundwater suppliesOveruse of ground water – removing too much ground water can lead to sink holes and subsidence, as well as deplete the resource
30Fire, Floods, Tsunamis, Tornadoes, etc. Human disruption 8. List 2 ways an area can be disrupted to the point that secondary succession will occur.Natural disruptionFire, Floods, Tsunamis, Tornadoes, etc.Human disruptionBuilding a shopping mall, house, roadMiningFarming