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The meaning and usage in George Orwell’s Animal Farm 2014.

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1 The meaning and usage in George Orwell’s Animal Farm 2014

2  Propaganda is the use of a logical fallacy or an emotional appeal to shape the beliefs or actions of people. WHO uses propaganda?  Advertisers and public relation campaigns use propaganda techniques to promote a commercial product or shape the perception of an organization, person, or brand.  Governments and politicians use it to promote a set of political or nationalistic ideas.

3  These are mistakes in reasoning Or (more sinister…)  An argument based on bad reasoning.  Trivia: Aristotle was the first to start categorizing these! (He was a fan of Sophocles.)

4 Dicto Simpliciter or unqualified generalization Ex. Exercise is good. Therefore, everybody should exercise. (You must say usually. In some cases, it is not good.)  What are other examples of this type of propaganda example?

5  Making false connections. A occurred, then B occurred. Therefore, A caused B. More and more young people are attending high schools and colleges today than ever before. Yet there is more juvenile delinquency. This makes it clear that these young people are being corrupted by their education.  *if you use “this” you will be “this”…...

6 Ad hominem: “Argument against the man” Attacking the opponent personally instead of her ideas Sometimes known as “poisoning the well”

7  Ad nauseam Is the tireless repetition of an idea. i.e. slogans Where is this used in Animal Farm?

8  This technique works to associate an idea or person with another social value.  Ie. “_____ is As American as Apple Pie”  “Savior of the People”  Both are forms of oversimplification.

9  Words and phrases such as "reform", "courage", "democracy", "freedom", "hope", &"patriotism" are terms that people all over the world have powerful associations with, and they may have trouble disagreeing with them.reformcouragedemocracyfreedomhopepatriotism

10  Appeal to Authority Shows important people to support a position, idea, argument, or course of action.

11  Common man The "'plain folks'" or "common man" approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandist's positions reflect the common sense of the people.

12 Bandwagon: This technique reinforces people's natural desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best interest to join.

13  Strong emotions can subvert logical thinking.  When what we are being persuaded to do has insufficient connection with logic or what is arousing our emotion.

14  is when a speaker/marketer tries to win support for an argument or idea by exploiting his or her audience's feelings of pity or guilt.  Appeal to pity  Oh, Officer, There's no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed.

15  Appeal to fear  Using stories of torture, lies, gossip, to make others fear a concept or person

16  Appeal to Prejudice/Hatred Based on race, ethnicity, social- class to make others believe that a group is inferior

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18  Common media for getting across to people the propaganda messages include:  news reports  government reports  historical revision books  leaflets  movies  radio, television commercials and programs  s and blogs.

19 [I]t is a habit of mankind to entrust to careless hope what they long for, and to use sovereign reason to thrust aside what they do not desire. -- Thucydides (Greek Historian)

20  Old Major’s original speech (p.27-33)  Mystery of the milk (p 44, 52-53)  The apples for the pigs (p.52)  The military decorations given (p.59-60)  The debate over the windmill (p.63-66)  Squealer talking to the animals about Napoleon seizing control of the farm (p )  Squealer explaining the idea of the windmill being Napoleon’s idea. (p.71)

21  The sheep repeating “Four legs good, two legs bad” throughout the 2 nd half of the novel.  Animal Farm trading with humans (p.85)  The pigs moving into the farmhouse (pg.44)  Blaming Snowball for the ills of the farm (pg.46,51-53,59)  Ending the song of “Beasts of England” (pg.54)  Napoleon conferring a medal upon himself (pg.68)  Boxer being taken by the knacker (pg.81)

22 Examples of Propaganda from the early & mid 20 th century

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