2The US Emerges as a World Power The US emerged from the Spanish- American War as a world power, with an empire that stretched from the Caribbean to the South China Sea.Two important consequences of US expansion were:The US assumed a new international role as a world power.A heated nationwide debate over the correctness of the US acquiring and ruling people in other territories began.
3The Philippines Becomes a US Colony President McKinley decided that the Filipinos were “unfit for self-government.”He did not want to return the island to Spain; In his opinion the best choice was for the US to educate and uplift the Filipino peoplesThe Filipino people, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, believed the US had promised independence for their help in defeating Spain - they were wrong.In February 1899, the Filipinos led by Aguinaldo revolted.A three year conflict ensued until the US declared the revolt crushed in 1901
4Two Very Different Wars! The Spanish-American WarWar in the Philippines (The Filipino Insurrection)A declared WarUS supported a revolution to bring independence to CubansShort (almost 4 months) and popular warVery few military and civilian casualtiesEasy victory over an uninspired enemyAn undeclared warUS put down a revolution to deny independence to FilipinosLong (almost 3 years), unpopular and divisive warMany military (4,000 US/20,000 Filipino) and civilian (220,000) casualtiesDifficult jungle guerilla warfare against a determined enemy
5Anti-ImperialismAnti-imperialists included both Democrats and Republicans and members of all social classes.Some were driven by moral and humanitarian sentiment (questioned Social Darwinism)Some feared that US intervention (even trading) abroad would lead to war with such powers as JapanImperialism was un-democratic!How could we claim to be a democracy - founded on equality and freedoms outlined in the Constitution and Declaration of Independence - yet rule people in other countries, denying them these basic principles of democracy?
6Racism in Anti-Imperialism Some that dark-skinned peoples from US colonies would detract from our white Anglo-Saxon “purity” and never embrace democracyLabor unions feared that labor from peoples in the new territories– either abroad or imported to the US – might reduce the wages of the American worker
7The Anti-Imperialism League Shortly after the war with Spain, well known US leaders organized the Anti-Imperialism League. (Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Jane Addams)The league opposed US control of the PhilippinesThe league continued to fight against the imperialists policies throughout the early 1900
9US Influence GrowsAs a result of the Spanish-America War US influence in Latin America and Asia grew considerablyThe foreign policies of presidents Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson increased US involvement in the affairs of Latin American and Asian countries
10Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Policy Roosevelt pushed for greater US involvement in world affairs to promote American prosperity and influenceHis foreign policy is best summarized by the West African proverb: “Speak softly and carry and big stick.”This meant that the US should use diplomacy (“speak softly”), yet back it up with a strong military – especially naval – presence (the “big stick”)This led to an aggressive foreign policy in Latin America and growing dislike of America in these countries
13Roosevelt CorollaryRoosevelt’s “big stick” policy led the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, in which TR stated that the US had a right to act as international police in Latin AmericaFrom 1900 – 1917, the Roosevelt Corollary was used to justify US involvement in the Dominican Republic, Panama, Cuba, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico, and HaitiUS “involvement” included sending troops, controlling governmental budgets, running elections, and the construction of the Panama Canal
15The Panama CanalThe Spanish American War created a need for a quick route between the Pacific and Atlantic OceanA French company started the project, but was unable to finish. They offered the project to the US for $100 million and the US accepted the offer for $40 million
18Panamanian RevoltPanama was a province of Columbia and the Columbian government wanted to wait until the French lease expired on the land and charge more money for the canalTeddy Roosevelt was outraged and worked with an official from the French company to start a revoltThe US recognized the independent Panama and in return Panama gave the US a land grant
20Peace AgreementIn 1905, TR mediated The Portsmouth Treaty – A peace agreement between Japan and Russia ending the Russo-Japanese WarHis successful efforts in negotiating the treaty and ending the war won him the 1906 Nobel Peace PrizeA good example of the US’s new international role!
22“Open Door” PolicyRoosevelt policy encouraged an “open door” FREE TRADE policy in Asia – specifically China (every country should have the right to sell their goods in China)It also demanded that all countries respect China’s independence
23Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy” Taft’s foreign policy was called “Dollar Diplomacy,”It encouraged US businesses to invest $$$$ in foreign countries in Asia and Latin America.Taft believed that dollars, not bullets, would increase US influence and prosperity as well as promote worldwide stabilityHe ordered troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico, arguing that the use of force was necessary to teach certain nations how to establish law and order
25Wilson’s “Missionary Diplomacy” Wilson’s foreign policy was called “Missionary Diplomacy”It said the US had a responsibility not to recognize any Latin American government that was oppressive, undemocratic or hostile to US interestsHe wanted to protect US economic interests as well as promoted democracyWilson policy was tested when he sent troops against the Mexican presidents wishes to capture rebel leader “Pancho” Villa who was blamed for killing 19 Americans