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DESERT SHIELD/ DESERT STORM. OVERVIEW Issues and Events Political Objectives Military Objectives and Strategy Military Technology and Technique The Call-Up.

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Presentation on theme: "DESERT SHIELD/ DESERT STORM. OVERVIEW Issues and Events Political Objectives Military Objectives and Strategy Military Technology and Technique The Call-Up."— Presentation transcript:

1 DESERT SHIELD/ DESERT STORM

2 OVERVIEW Issues and Events Political Objectives Military Objectives and Strategy Military Technology and Technique The Call-Up Airpower Opens the War The Last 100 Hours Lessons Learned The Future Issues and Events Political Objectives Military Objectives and Strategy Military Technology and Technique The Call-Up Airpower Opens the War The Last 100 Hours Lessons Learned The Future

3 ISSUES AND EVENTS Middle East –Part of the Ottoman Empire –French build Suez canal, 1859 –British gain financial control, 1875 –Industrial revolution, 1900, OIL! –Occupied by Britain during WWI –League of Nations mandate under UK administration, 1920 –Independence as a kingdom, ’32 as a "republic“, ‘58 –Actuality a series of military strongmen Middle East –Part of the Ottoman Empire –French build Suez canal, 1859 –British gain financial control, 1875 –Industrial revolution, 1900, OIL! –Occupied by Britain during WWI –League of Nations mandate under UK administration, 1920 –Independence as a kingdom, ’32 as a "republic“, ‘58 –Actuality a series of military strongmen

4 ISSUES AND EVENTS Saddam Hussein –Born 1937, near Takrit –Tyrannical stepfather, moved to Baghdad to live with Uncle, political activist, ‘47 –Political ruffian, thug, joins Baath party ~20, willing gunman on “hit” squads –Baath party; ’63-’64, ’68; Chief of Security (assassinations) –Military college honorary degree, ’70 –Saladin, drove Crusaders from Jerusalem, 1187 (Kurd) –Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, conquered Jerusalem, 507B.C. –Purges party and government, ’79 –Army important, but political loyalty more important than military competence –Not religious unless to his advantage Saddam Hussein –Born 1937, near Takrit –Tyrannical stepfather, moved to Baghdad to live with Uncle, political activist, ‘47 –Political ruffian, thug, joins Baath party ~20, willing gunman on “hit” squads –Baath party; ’63-’64, ’68; Chief of Security (assassinations) –Military college honorary degree, ’70 –Saladin, drove Crusaders from Jerusalem, 1187 (Kurd) –Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, conquered Jerusalem, 507B.C. –Purges party and government, ’79 –Army important, but political loyalty more important than military competence –Not religious unless to his advantage

5 ISSUES AND EVENTS Iran 89% Shiite, Iraq 65% Shiite, Saddam Hussein Sunni Worldwide: 15% Shiites; 85% Sunnis Shiites feel persecuted, their history of defeat and frequent subjugation has also led to a cult of death and martyrdom However, Sunnis can be very conservative; Saudi Arabia, Al Qaeda, etc. Iran 89% Shiite, Iraq 65% Shiite, Saddam Hussein Sunni Worldwide: 15% Shiites; 85% Sunnis Shiites feel persecuted, their history of defeat and frequent subjugation has also led to a cult of death and martyrdom However, Sunnis can be very conservative; Saudi Arabia, Al Qaeda, etc.

6 Iran-Iraq War The Iran-Iraq War –Iraq buys USSR weapons, 70s and 80s –French fighters –Invades Iran 1980, 8-year war of attrition, hundreds of thousands of casualties –U.S. actually sees Iraq more favorable than Iran –Both sides target cities with Scud missiles (terror) –Uses poison gas at least twice –Disastrous defeat, ’86, but Iran too exhausted to take advantage –Fortunate to exit this stage as well as they did Never demonstrated strategy Failed to concentrate or coordinate use of forces Amateurishly unrealistic in expectations –Rebuilds army, attacks in ’88 push Iran back to ~original borders, truce

7 ISSUES AND EVENTS The Iran-Iraq War –Fighting lasts 5 months, Iraq wins every battle, restores border –Renewed confidence –World’s 4 th largest army; 6 th largest air force, ’90 –Military budget $721 per Iraqi per year; average income, $1950 –Stockpiled poison gas and delivery systems –Technology to build nuclear weapons –1,200 Scud missiles –Believes he can unite Arabs by conquering some Arab states then “persuading” the others to join a Pan-Arab union, with him as leader –U.S. and others, including Arab neighbors, concerned The Iran-Iraq War –Fighting lasts 5 months, Iraq wins every battle, restores border –Renewed confidence –World’s 4 th largest army; 6 th largest air force, ’90 –Military budget $721 per Iraqi per year; average income, $1950 –Stockpiled poison gas and delivery systems –Technology to build nuclear weapons –1,200 Scud missiles –Believes he can unite Arabs by conquering some Arab states then “persuading” the others to join a Pan-Arab union, with him as leader –U.S. and others, including Arab neighbors, concerned

8 ISSUES AND EVENTS Warnings Ignored –Most significant defense issue in U.S. was reduction of armed forces and allocate the “peace dividend” –Israel attacks Iraqi nuclear development site, ’81 –U.S. declares region vital to national interests, but didn’t maintain large military presence in area –Central Command established 1983 $1B fuel, ammunition, and equipment in Oman, prepositioned ships Dozens of airfields/installations, Saudi Arabia –Iraq positions forces for attack on Kuwait –U.S. couldn’t move forces into region, diplomatic –Saudi Arabia, real worry, no match for military either –Iraq + Kuwait + Saudi Arabia = > ½ world’s oil –Rapid deployment of U.S. airpower to Saudi Arabia –Kuwait would give Iraq seaports –Needed Kuwait wealth for payment on $40M debt Warnings Ignored –Most significant defense issue in U.S. was reduction of armed forces and allocate the “peace dividend” –Israel attacks Iraqi nuclear development site, ’81 –U.S. declares region vital to national interests, but didn’t maintain large military presence in area –Central Command established 1983 $1B fuel, ammunition, and equipment in Oman, prepositioned ships Dozens of airfields/installations, Saudi Arabia –Iraq positions forces for attack on Kuwait –U.S. couldn’t move forces into region, diplomatic –Saudi Arabia, real worry, no match for military either –Iraq + Kuwait + Saudi Arabia = > ½ world’s oil –Rapid deployment of U.S. airpower to Saudi Arabia –Kuwait would give Iraq seaports –Needed Kuwait wealth for payment on $40M debt

9 ISSUES AND EVENTS The “Internal Look” Rehearsal, 17 July ‘90 –Computer based command post exercise –CIA reports 10,000 troops, 300 tanks on Kuwait border –Iraq assures Saudi Arabia and Egypt that they will not attack Kuwait Iraq Invades Kuwait, 2 Aug ’90 –Kuwait army overwhelmed –Royal family barely escapes –Iraq redeploys army against Saudi Arabia –Saudi ground forces <70,000 –U.N. passes resolution condemning attack –U.S. and USSR jointly call for withdrawal from Kuwait –Carriers move toward Middle East –Could not send Air Force without invite from King The “Internal Look” Rehearsal, 17 July ‘90 –Computer based command post exercise –CIA reports 10,000 troops, 300 tanks on Kuwait border –Iraq assures Saudi Arabia and Egypt that they will not attack Kuwait Iraq Invades Kuwait, 2 Aug ’90 –Kuwait army overwhelmed –Royal family barely escapes –Iraq redeploys army against Saudi Arabia –Saudi ground forces <70,000 –U.N. passes resolution condemning attack –U.S. and USSR jointly call for withdrawal from Kuwait –Carriers move toward Middle East –Could not send Air Force without invite from King

10 ISSUES AND EVENTS Iraq Invades Kuwait, 3 Aug ’90 –CENTCOM finishes air campaign plan to stop Iraq and eventually drive them from Kuwait –Operation Desert Shield proposed to Saudi Arabia 250,000 troops 500 aircraft Carriers and support ships Largest deployment since Vietnam –King Fahd agrees No war without King’s permission Withdrawal of all forces when over –Begins 5 month build-up of U.S. forces in Saudi Arabia Iraq Invades Kuwait, 3 Aug ’90 –CENTCOM finishes air campaign plan to stop Iraq and eventually drive them from Kuwait –Operation Desert Shield proposed to Saudi Arabia 250,000 troops 500 aircraft Carriers and support ships Largest deployment since Vietnam –King Fahd agrees No war without King’s permission Withdrawal of all forces when over –Begins 5 month build-up of U.S. forces in Saudi Arabia

11 POLITICAL OBJECTIVES The Commitment –Secure the immediate, unconditional, and complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait –Restoring the legitimate government of Kuwait –Assuring the security and stability of the region –Protecting American lives –Military objectives and means were permitted to match the clarity of the political objectives, REMOVAL OF SADDAM NOT INCLUDED The Execution –Modern technology delivered to region Precision guided munitions Intelligence collection Communications Space assets –Complemented by almost unbroken string of incorrect decisions by Iraqis The Commitment –Secure the immediate, unconditional, and complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait –Restoring the legitimate government of Kuwait –Assuring the security and stability of the region –Protecting American lives –Military objectives and means were permitted to match the clarity of the political objectives, REMOVAL OF SADDAM NOT INCLUDED The Execution –Modern technology delivered to region Precision guided munitions Intelligence collection Communications Space assets –Complemented by almost unbroken string of incorrect decisions by Iraqis

12 MILITARY OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY Objectives –Air campaign to paralyze the government/military –Strategic targets; military command and control, production/delivery systems for WMD Technology –Stealth –Night-fighting capability –Missile defense –Satellites Imagery Missile warning Weather GPS Communications Objectives –Air campaign to paralyze the government/military –Strategic targets; military command and control, production/delivery systems for WMD Technology –Stealth –Night-fighting capability –Missile defense –Satellites Imagery Missile warning Weather GPS Communications

13 THE CALL-UP Building Up –F-15s, AWACS, 82 nd Airborne Div elements; 8 Aug –5 fighter squadrons in less than 1 week –82 nd and 24 th Mechanized Infantry Div by fast sealift –Egyptian and Moroccan troops, 11 Aug –Etc., Etc., Etc. Interesting facts –6,000 volunteers on active duty augmenting Military Airlift Command –6% of forces were women Helicopter, reconnaissance and refueling pilots Truck drivers and mechanics Commanded units up to brigade/group 2 captured by Iraq –Civil Reserve Air Fleet activated; 18 airliners; 20 cargo planes with crews, 24x7 Building Up –F-15s, AWACS, 82 nd Airborne Div elements; 8 Aug –5 fighter squadrons in less than 1 week –82 nd and 24 th Mechanized Infantry Div by fast sealift –Egyptian and Moroccan troops, 11 Aug –Etc., Etc., Etc. Interesting facts –6,000 volunteers on active duty augmenting Military Airlift Command –6% of forces were women Helicopter, reconnaissance and refueling pilots Truck drivers and mechanics Commanded units up to brigade/group 2 captured by Iraq –Civil Reserve Air Fleet activated; 18 airliners; 20 cargo planes with crews, 24x7

14 THE CALL-UP Efforts Continue to Build a Coalition –38 nations; 8 Arab The Forces Square Off –Iraq has 160,000 troops and 1,000 tanks in Kuwait, 16 Aug –Iraq detains British and Americans in Iraq as human shields –Iraq increases forces in Kuwait to 430,000 Full mobilization = 1M men, 75% between 18 and 24 –U.S. forces increase to ~240,000 in Nov; 500,000 by Jan –Spring weather (rain), religious holidays in March = Jan start –Iraqi combat engineers lay minefields, mound berms, dig trenches and build underground bunkers –Iraq has 150,000 troops in Kuwait, 900,000 overall 3,000 artillery, multiple rocket launchers 750 fighter, bomber and armed trainer aircraft/200 support aircraft 16,000 SAMs, 7,000 anti-aircraft guns, 1,200 scuds –Iraq announces Kuwait as 19 th province –Bush ultimatum for 15 Jan; 17 Jan attack begins Efforts Continue to Build a Coalition –38 nations; 8 Arab The Forces Square Off –Iraq has 160,000 troops and 1,000 tanks in Kuwait, 16 Aug –Iraq detains British and Americans in Iraq as human shields –Iraq increases forces in Kuwait to 430,000 Full mobilization = 1M men, 75% between 18 and 24 –U.S. forces increase to ~240,000 in Nov; 500,000 by Jan –Spring weather (rain), religious holidays in March = Jan start –Iraqi combat engineers lay minefields, mound berms, dig trenches and build underground bunkers –Iraq has 150,000 troops in Kuwait, 900,000 overall 3,000 artillery, multiple rocket launchers 750 fighter, bomber and armed trainer aircraft/200 support aircraft 16,000 SAMs, 7,000 anti-aircraft guns, 1,200 scuds –Iraq announces Kuwait as 19 th province –Bush ultimatum for 15 Jan; 17 Jan attack begins

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17 AIRPOWER OPENS THE WAR H-hour –3 AM in Baghdad F-117s, B-52s(ALCMs), TLAMs AWACs, E-2Cs, RC-135s (electronic collections), drones, U-2s, TR-1s –The Opening Attack Western Iraqi air defenses (radar sites, control vans, scud sites, command posts) –The Main Attack communications, electric production, airfields, naval facilities, coastal defenses, military installations, troop concentrations, chemical/ biological/nuclear production and storage sites, SAMs, AAA 400 strike aircraft, 250 support aircraft, 116 cruise missiles H-hour –3 AM in Baghdad F-117s, B-52s(ALCMs), TLAMs AWACs, E-2Cs, RC-135s (electronic collections), drones, U-2s, TR-1s –The Opening Attack Western Iraqi air defenses (radar sites, control vans, scud sites, command posts) –The Main Attack communications, electric production, airfields, naval facilities, coastal defenses, military installations, troop concentrations, chemical/ biological/nuclear production and storage sites, SAMs, AAA 400 strike aircraft, 250 support aircraft, 116 cruise missiles

18 THE LAST 100 HOURS Beginning of the End –6-week air offensive –Communications and supply lines cut –½ of armor destroyed –½ of troops along border killed –Minefields, barbed wire, trenches w/ oil eliminated –Poorest troops in front so Allies could expend momentum killing them Worked; but not as Iraq hoped; took troops, equipment and supplies to care for thousands of surrendering Iraqis Successful Deception –6 divisions guarded Kuwait coast –200,000 troops, 65,000 vehicles, fuel, ammunition, spare parts, food moved west Beginning of the End –6-week air offensive –Communications and supply lines cut –½ of armor destroyed –½ of troops along border killed –Minefields, barbed wire, trenches w/ oil eliminated –Poorest troops in front so Allies could expend momentum killing them Worked; but not as Iraq hoped; took troops, equipment and supplies to care for thousands of surrendering Iraqis Successful Deception –6 divisions guarded Kuwait coast –200,000 troops, 65,000 vehicles, fuel, ammunition, spare parts, food moved west

19 THE LAST 100 HOURS The Ground Battle begins –Air/artillery/helicopter strikes –1 st Marines breach first 2 lines –JFC-E seizes initial objectives –Naval ships, USS Wisconsin –Weather, wind blows northwest pushing smoke from oil fires –Densest minefields/obstacles –Iraqi artillery ineffective –U.S counterbattery fire highly effective –JFC-N difficulty crossing barriers, especially fire trenches –1 st Cav feint into Kuwait, forcing 4 Iraqi divisions attention to South –101 st leapfrogs into Iraq, 80 miles, prep for Euphrates to cut off retreat –24 th Mech Inf Div drives for Hwy 8, then right towards Basrah –Etc., etc., etc. –Chemical attacks would have complicated attack…stockpiles of chemical weapons were found, but not used –8,000 prisoners The Ground Battle begins –Air/artillery/helicopter strikes –1 st Marines breach first 2 lines –JFC-E seizes initial objectives –Naval ships, USS Wisconsin –Weather, wind blows northwest pushing smoke from oil fires –Densest minefields/obstacles –Iraqi artillery ineffective –U.S counterbattery fire highly effective –JFC-N difficulty crossing barriers, especially fire trenches –1 st Cav feint into Kuwait, forcing 4 Iraqi divisions attention to South –101 st leapfrogs into Iraq, 80 miles, prep for Euphrates to cut off retreat –24 th Mech Inf Div drives for Hwy 8, then right towards Basrah –Etc., etc., etc. –Chemical attacks would have complicated attack…stockpiles of chemical weapons were found, but not used –8,000 prisoners

20 THE LAST 100 HOURS Day Two of the Ground Battle –101 st Air Assault Div blocks Hwy 8 –Marines push towards Kuwait City –Navy decoys along coast The Rout –Iraq falls back into Kuwait City –Commandeer any vehicle available Loaded with stolen goods TVs, Refrigerators, Clothes, Jewelry Each vehicle tracked on J-Stars radar F-15Es with targeting pods stop convoy –Target front and back of column U.S. LossesCoalition Losses –148 battlefield deaths99 battlefield deaths –145 non-battlefield deaths –467 wounded434 wounded Day Two of the Ground Battle –101 st Air Assault Div blocks Hwy 8 –Marines push towards Kuwait City –Navy decoys along coast The Rout –Iraq falls back into Kuwait City –Commandeer any vehicle available Loaded with stolen goods TVs, Refrigerators, Clothes, Jewelry Each vehicle tracked on J-Stars radar F-15Es with targeting pods stop convoy –Target front and back of column U.S. LossesCoalition Losses –148 battlefield deaths99 battlefield deaths –145 non-battlefield deaths –467 wounded434 wounded

21 THE LAST 100 HOURS The End and the Aftermath –517 oil wellhead fires burning in Kuwait –Hussein wanted war of attrition, but got technology war –Largest tank battle since 1943 on 27 Feb –One of last Scud missiles fired hit billeting facility in Dhahran 28 dead, 100 wounded Lessons Learned –Iraq was ideal location for war Good weather, flat terrain, no jungle Iraq had central source of supply with 1 railroad and only a few good roads 5 months to build forces in area Saudi Arabia supplied concrete, food, water, and transportation It probably won’t be this perfect again any time soon The End and the Aftermath –517 oil wellhead fires burning in Kuwait –Hussein wanted war of attrition, but got technology war –Largest tank battle since 1943 on 27 Feb –One of last Scud missiles fired hit billeting facility in Dhahran 28 dead, 100 wounded Lessons Learned –Iraq was ideal location for war Good weather, flat terrain, no jungle Iraq had central source of supply with 1 railroad and only a few good roads 5 months to build forces in area Saudi Arabia supplied concrete, food, water, and transportation It probably won’t be this perfect again any time soon

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23 CONCLUSION Issues and Events Political Objectives Military Objectives and Strategy Military Technology and Technique The Call-Up Airpower Opens the War The Last 100 Hours Issues and Events Political Objectives Military Objectives and Strategy Military Technology and Technique The Call-Up Airpower Opens the War The Last 100 Hours


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