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AP Psychology Exam Info  Monday, May 5 (afternoon session) Bring photo ID, pens/pencils, & DO NOT BE LATE  2 hour, 10 minute exam Part 1: Multiple choice.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Exam Info  Monday, May 5 (afternoon session) Bring photo ID, pens/pencils, & DO NOT BE LATE  2 hour, 10 minute exam Part 1: Multiple choice."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Psychology Exam Info  Monday, May 5 (afternoon session) Bring photo ID, pens/pencils, & DO NOT BE LATE  2 hour, 10 minute exam Part 1: Multiple choice ○ 100 questions (A-E) ○ 70 minutes ○ ANSWER EVERY QUESTION! GUESS GUESS GUESS! 10 minute break Part 2: Free response ○ 2 questions ○ 50 minutes ○ ANSWER DIRECTLY!

2 AP Psychology Exam Info Composite ScoreAP Grade (approx.) total possible points (100 multiple choice, 50 free response)

3 Unit 1 Review Topics  Important People to Know John Locke Rene Descartes Hippocrates Wilhelm Wundt William James Sigmund Freud  Terms/Ideas psychology phrenology structuralism introspection functionalism Gestalt ○ perceptual units psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory ○ unconscious behaviorism humanistic psychology cognitive psychology social psychology nature vs. nurture psychology vs. psychiatry

4 Unit 2 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. random assignment reliability validity (internal & external) demand characteristics placebo effect double-blind design Descriptive statistics ○ measures of central tendency ○ measures of variability Inferential statistics ○ statistical significance ○ meta-analysis informed consent debriefing Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)  Terms/Ideas hypothesis theory operational definition population sample (random sampling) Descriptive research ○ case study ○ surveys ○ naturalistic observation Correlational research ○ correlation coefficient (r) ○ direction and size of correlations ○ drawbacks? Experimental research ○ independent & dependent variables ○ experimental & control conditions ○ confounds

5 Unit 3 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. agonists & antagonists Nervous system ○ central and peripheral ○ PNS = Skeletal and autonomic ○ ANS = sympathetic and parasympathetic Endocrine system ○ hormones ○ pituitary gland Mapping Brain Functions ○ EEG ○ CT scan ○ PET scan ○ MRI & fMRI  Terms/Ideas glial cells Neuron ○ cell body/soma ○ nucleus ○ dendrites ○ axon ○ myelin sheath ○ Nodes of Ranvier ○ terminal buttons/terminal branches resting potential action potential threshold (“all or none law”) synapse/synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters ○ vescicles ○ receptors ○ reuptake

6 Unit 3 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Forebrain, cont. ○ cerebral cortex frontal lobe parietal lobe temporal lobe occipital lobe ○ corpus callosum plasticity  Important People to Know Phineas Gage H.M.  Terms/Ideas Hindbrain ○ medulla ○ pons ○ reticular formation ○ cerebellum Midbrain ○ thalamus Forebrain ○ limbic system hippocampus hypothalamus amygdala

7 Unit 4 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Visual Sensation & Perception, cont. ○ cues to depth perception (monocular vs. binocular) ○ motion perception stroboscopic effect phi phenomenon ○ change blindness ○ Stroop task Auditory Sensation & Perception ○ amplitude & frequency of sound waves ○ parts of the ear ○ pitch theories (place theory, frequency theory) ○ cocktail party effect gate-control theory of pain synesthesia  Terms/Ideas sensation vs. perception bottom-up & top-down processing absolute threshold ○ just-noticeable difference (JND) ○ Weber’s Law priming sensory adaptation transduction Visual Sensation & Perception ○ amplitude & frequency of light waves ○ parts of the eye ○ theories of color vision trichromatic theory opponent-process theory (afterimages) ○ feature detector neurons

8 Unit 5 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Sleep, cont. ○ sleep disorders insomnia narcolepsy (hypocretin) sleep apnea night terrors Hypnosis ○ absorption ○ applications of hypnosis Psychoactive drugs ○ addiction, tolerance, & withdrawal ○ 3 classes: depressants stimulants hallucinogens Near-death experiences  Terms/Ideas consciousness (normal/waking vs. altered states) Sleep ○ circadian rhythm (roles of hypothalamus, pineal gland, melatonin) ○ stages of sleep brain wave activity ○ Why do we sleep? ○ Why do we dream? Freud (manifest vs. latent content) sctivation-synthesis theory memory consolidation

9 Unit 6 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Operant conditioning ○ Law of Effect ○ shaping ○ positive & negative reinforcement ○ 4 schedules of partial reinforcement: fixed ratio variable ratio fixed interval variable interval ○ positive & negative punishment Other types of learning besides conditioning ○ latent learning ○ insight learning ○ social/observational learning (modeling) ○ mirror neurons  Terms/Ideas Classical conditioning ○ 4 aspects: unconditioned stimulus (US) conditioned stimulus (CS) unconditioned response (UR) conditioned response (CR) ○ acquisition ○ extinction ○ reacquisition ○ spontaneous recovery ○ stimulus discrimination ○ stimulus generalization ○ biological preparedness ○ taste aversion (Garcia & Koelling study) ○ systematic desensitization

10 Unit 6 Review Topics  Important People to Know Ivan Pavlov John Watson Edward Thorndike BF Skinner Wolfgang Kohler Albert Bandura

11 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)  1. A college guy spends a summer going down to the football field every day, scattering birdseed all over the field while blowing a whistle, then walking off. Fall arrives, and the school’s first home game starts. The referee walks out and blows his whistle - and the game has to be delayed half an hour to remove the birds who flocked when they heard the sound of the whistle.

12 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)  2. This story is from the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. MaryBeth Garrigan of the University of Minnesota recalls a bird-watching assignment there during explosives testing. “Looking through my binoculars, I saw a pair of red-tailed hawks sitting on a telephone pole, and as the bombing started, I expected the birds to fly away in a panic. Instead they flew to a platform closer to the explosions!” She made sense of this when the bombing subsided, and the hawks began flying slowly over the field, diving down and picking up what looked like shell-shocked mice and rabbits.

13 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)  3. It’s your first day of college! Ah yes, your first experiences with dorm life. You are standing in the shower, trying to wake up, when you hear someone flush the toilet, then a few seconds later the shower water turns scaldingly hot! You yell and jump out of the way. After the water temperature returns to normal, you resume the shower, but someone else flushes the toilet, the water gets hot, you jump again. Sooner or later (sooner, I hope!), you begin to jump out of the way as soon as you hear a toilet flush without waiting to get burned.

14 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)  4. While crossing an intersection, you are nearly run down by a car. The next time you approach that intersection, you find yourself feeling nervous (e.g. palms sweating, heart racing, etc.)

15 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)  5. In order to punish your cat even when you’re not close enough to reach him, you have paired the sound of a clicker with getting squirted with water. Now the sound of the clicker causes him to startle.

16 Unit 7 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Memory, cont. ○ retrograde & anterograde amnesia ○ long-term potentiation ○ flashbulb memories ○ memory interference (proactive & retroactive) ○ repression ○ mnemonic devices  Terms/Ideas Memory ○ 3 steps to forming a memory (encoding, storage, retrieval) ○ Atkinson & Shiffring (1968): 3 Stage Model of Memory sensory memory  short-term (working) memory  long-term memory ○ rehearsal ○ chunking ○ levels/depth of processing ○ primacy & recency effects ○ types of memories explicit vs. implicit episodic, semantic

17 Unit 7 Review Topics  Important People to Know Hermann Ebbinghaus Elizabeth Loftus Benjamin Whorf Noam Chomsky  Terms/Ideas Thinking ○ linguistic relativity (Whorf) ○ algorithms vs. heuristics heuristics: availability, representativeness, anchor & adjust ○ confirmation bias Language ○ phonemes, morphemes ○ grammar (syntax, semantics) ○ Broca’s aphasia, Wernicke’s aphasia

18 Unit 8 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Emotion ○ catharsis ○ 3 important theories of emotion 1. James-Lange 2. Cannon-Bard 3. two-factor theory (Schacter & Singer) ○ polygraph tests  Important People to Know Abraham Maslow Paul Ekman Schacter & Singer  Terms/Ideas Motivation ○ drive-reduction theory ○ law of optimal arousal (aka. Yerkes-Dodson Law) ○ hunger (lateral & ventromedial hypothalamus) anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa ○ evolutionary perspective on mating habits ○ flow

19 Unit 9 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Psychosocial Development ○ attachment styles ○ critical period/imprinting ○ Baumrind’s parenting styles ○ Erikson’s stage model Moral Development ○ Kohlberg’s stage model dementia/Alzheimer’s Disease  Important People to Know Jean Piaget Harry Harlow Mary Ainsworth Konrad Lorenz Lawrence Kohlberg Erik Erikson  Terms/Ideas Physical/Prenatal Development ○ zygote  embryo  fetus ○ teratogens Cognitive Development ○ schemas (assimilation & accomodation) ○ Piaget’s stage model object permanence conservation egocentrism/theory of mind ○ autism 5 REVIEW DAYS LEFT!

20 Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control?  1. authoritarian style  impose rules, expect unquestioning obedience & conformity  high expectations, but no explanation of rules (“Why? Because I said so.”)  most likely to use physical punishment  kids: low in social competence  rarely take initiative, look to others for what is right  lack spontaneity

21 Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control?  2. permissive style  warm, but lax, style  submit to children’s wishes, make few demands, use little punishment, few rules  kids: selfish, impulsive, aggressive, insecure, low achievers  often lacking in social responsibility

22 Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control?  3. authoritative style  both demanding & responsive  set rules & enforce them... ...but explain reasons for rules ...and explain why punishment is happening  encourage independence  kids: high self-esteem, independence  ability to reason, form own opinions & arguments

23 Unit 10 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Trait approach ○ factor analysis ○ five-factor theory of personality (“the Big Five”) learned helplessness  Important People to Know Sigmund Freud Anna O. Carl Jung Gordon Allport  Terms/Ideas Psychoanalytic theory (aka. psychodynamic) ○ the unconscious ○ accessing the unconscious: dreams (manifest vs. latent content) free association hypnosis projective tests ○ id, superego, & ego ○ Freud’s stage model of psychosexual development ○ Oedipus complex ○ defense mechanisms: repression, projection, regression, reaction formation, sublimation 4 REVIEW DAYS LEFT!

24 Unit 11 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. stereotype threat  Important People to Know Charles Spearman Howard Gardner Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon Lewis Terman  Terms/Ideas Intelligence ○ general intelligence (g) ○ emotional intelligence ○ convergent vs. divergent thinking (creativity?) ○ crystallized vs. fluid intelligence Intelligence testing ○ Intelligence quotient (IQ) ○ famous IQ tests: Binet-Simon Stanford-Binet WAIS/WISC ○ standardization ○ reliability (test-retest, split-half) ○ validity (criterion)

25 Stray Topic #1: Hans Selye  General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) 3 stage model of reactions to stress: ○ 1. Alarm (fight-or-flight, sympathetic NS, prepare body) ○ 2. Resistance (remain physically “ready”; can deplete energy if too long) ○ 3. Exhaustion (parasympathetic NS) more vulnerable to disease, illness in Exhaustion stage

26 Stray Topic #2: Opponent-Process Theory  Not just for color vision… also opposing processes in emotions, addiction Emotions & skydivers ○ inexperienced = more scared before, less pleasure upon landing ○ experienced = less scared before, more pleasure upon landing

27 Stray Topic #3: A Few Misc. Names  Carol Gilligan refined Kohlberg’s stage theory ○ men = absolute in their morality ○ women = more likely to take situation into account  Hubel & Wiesel feature detector neurons  Robert Rescorla Contingency model of classical conditioning (aka. Rescorla- Wagner model) ○ Pavlov = contiguity model (more pairings = more learning) ○ Rescorla = contingency model (more CONSISTENT pairings = more learning) Expectations/cognition matter in conditioning  Schacter & Singer: two-factor theory of emotion

28 Unit 12 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Mood disorders ○ Major depressive disorder (MDD) Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) ○ Bipolar disorder (BD) Schizophrenia ○ delusions, hallucinations, language disruptions Personality disorders ○ especially borderline (BPD) and antisocial (APD)  Important People to Know David Rosenhan  Terms/Ideas Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th edition (DSM-IV) ○ 5 axes Anxiety Disorders ○ Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) ○ Panic disorder (PD) ○ Agoraphobia ○ Phobias ○ Social anxiety disorder (SAD) (aka. social phobia) ○ Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) ○ Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

29 Unit 13 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Types of Medication ○ antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety, mood-stabilizers “Alternative” Therapies ○ electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), rTMS, EMDR, lobotomy  Important People to Know Sigmund Freud Carl Rogers  Terms/Ideas Psychoanalytic Therapy ○ resistance ○ transference Humanistic Therapy ○ client-centered therapy ○ active listening Behavioral therapy ○ counterconditioning ○ token economies ○ systematic desensitization Cognitive therapy/cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT)

30 Stray Topic #4: Types of Intelligence Tests  aptitude tests: ability, what you can do  achievement tests: knowledge, what you have learned

31 Stray Topic #5: Somatoform Disorders  experiencing physical problems in the absence of any physical cause hypochondriasis: frequent physical complaints for which doctors cannot find cause ○ minor problems indicative of major problems? conversion disorder: severe physical problems with no apparent biological reason (paralysis, blindness)  Due to unresolved unconscious conflicts? Reinforced behaviors?

32 Stray Topic #6: Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy  Specific type of CBT  Developed by Albert Ellis  Aims to expose, confront dysfunctional thoughts of clients

33 Stray Topic #7: Group Dynamics  besides social facilitation, social loafing  group polarization: groups make more extreme decisions than they would individually  groupthink: group members suppress concerns about ideas that group supports false unanimity (missing important flaws in idea?)

34 Unit 14 Review Topics  Terms/Ideas, cont. Stereotypes, prejudice, & discrimination ○ Explicit vs. implicit attitudes (IAT) ○ outgroup homogeneity, ingroup favoritism Persuasion ○ Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) ○ persuasion techniques: foot-in-the-door door-in-the-face Attraction & relationships ○ mere exposure effect ○ halo effect ○ Sternberg’s triangle theory Group processes ○ social facilitation, social loafing  Terms/Ideas Hindsight bias Fundamental attribution error Social roles (Stanford Prison Study) Cognitive dissonance Conformity ○ Informational & normative social influence Obedience to authority Helping behavior ○ Bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility Terror Management Theory

35 Unit 14 Review Topics  Important People to Know Phil Zimbardo Leon Festinger Solomon Asch Stanley Milgram


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