Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Exam Info"— Presentation transcript:
1AP Psychology Exam Info Monday, May 5 (afternoon session)Bring photo ID, pens/pencils, & DO NOT BE LATE2 hour, 10 minute examPart 1: Multiple choice100 questions (A-E)70 minutesANSWER EVERY QUESTION! GUESS GUESS GUESS!10 minute breakPart 2: Free response2 questions50 minutesANSWER DIRECTLY!
2AP Psychology Exam Info 150 total possible points (100 multiple choice, 50 free response)Composite ScoreAP Grade (approx.)96-150574-95455-73336-5420-351
3Unit 1 Review Topics Important People to Know John Locke Terms/IdeaspsychologyphrenologystructuralismintrospectionfunctionalismGestaltperceptual unitspsychodynamic/psychoanalytic theoryunconsciousbehaviorismhumanistic psychologycognitive psychologysocial psychologynature vs. nurturepsychology vs. psychiatryImportant People to KnowJohn LockeRene DescartesHippocratesWilhelm WundtWilliam JamesSigmund Freud
4Unit 2 Review Topics random assignment reliability Terms/Ideashypothesistheoryoperational definitionpopulationsample (random sampling)Descriptive researchcase studysurveysnaturalistic observationCorrelational researchcorrelation coefficient (r)direction and size of correlationsdrawbacks?Experimental researchindependent & dependent variablesexperimental & control conditionsconfoundsTerms/Ideas, cont.random assignmentreliabilityvalidity (internal & external)demand characteristicsplacebo effectdouble-blind designDescriptive statisticsmeasures of central tendencymeasures of variabilityInferential statisticsstatistical significancemeta-analysisinformed consentdebriefingInstitutional Review Boards (IRBs)
5Unit 3 Review Topics Terms/Ideas glial cells Terms/Ideas, cont. Neuron cell body/somanucleusdendritesaxonmyelin sheathNodes of Ranvierterminal buttons/terminal branchesresting potentialaction potentialthreshold (“all or none law”)synapse/synaptic cleftNeurotransmittersvesciclesreceptorsreuptakeTerms/Ideas, cont.agonists & antagonistsNervous systemcentral and peripheralPNS = Skeletal and autonomicANS = sympathetic and parasympatheticEndocrine systemhormonespituitary glandMapping Brain FunctionsEEGCT scanPET scanMRI & fMRI
7Unit 4 Review Topics Terms/Ideas sensation vs. perception bottom-up & top-down processingabsolute thresholdjust-noticeable difference (JND)Weber’s Lawprimingsensory adaptationtransductionVisual Sensation & Perceptionamplitude & frequency of light wavesparts of the eyetheories of color visiontrichromatic theoryopponent-process theory (afterimages)feature detector neuronsTerms/Ideas, cont.Visual Sensation & Perception, cont.cues to depth perception (monocular vs. binocular)motion perceptionstroboscopic effectphi phenomenonchange blindnessStroop taskAuditory Sensation & Perceptionamplitude & frequency of sound wavesparts of the earpitch theories (place theory, frequency theory)cocktail party effectgate-control theory of painsynesthesia
8Unit 5 Review Topics Terms/Ideas consciousness (normal/waking vs. altered states)Sleepcircadian rhythm (roles of hypothalamus, pineal gland, melatonin)stages of sleepbrain wave activityWhy do we sleep?Why do we dream?Freud (manifest vs. latent content)sctivation-synthesis theorymemory consolidationTerms/Ideas, cont.Sleep, cont.sleep disordersinsomnianarcolepsy (hypocretin)sleep apneanight terrorsHypnosisabsorptionapplications of hypnosisPsychoactive drugsaddiction, tolerance, & withdrawal3 classes:depressantsstimulantshallucinogensNear-death experiences
10Unit 6 Review Topics Important People to Know Ivan Pavlov John Watson Edward ThorndikeBF SkinnerWolfgang KohlerAlbert Bandura
11In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.) 1. A college guy spends a summer going down to the football field every day, scattering birdseed all over the field while blowing a whistle, then walking off.Fall arrives, and the school’s first home game starts. The referee walks out and blows his whistle - and the game has to be delayed half an hour to remove the birds who flocked when they heard the sound of the whistle.
12In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.) 2. This story is from the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. MaryBeth Garrigan of the University of Minnesota recalls a bird-watching assignment there during explosives testing.“Looking through my binoculars, I saw a pair of red-tailed hawks sitting on a telephone pole, and as the bombing started, I expected the birds to fly away in a panic. Instead they flew to a platform closer to the explosions!”She made sense of this when the bombing subsided, and the hawks began flying slowly over the field, diving down and picking up what looked like shell-shocked mice and rabbits.
13In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.) 3. It’s your first day of college! Ah yes, your first experiences with dorm life. You are standing in the shower, trying to wake up, when you hear someone flush the toilet, then a few seconds later the shower water turns scaldingly hot! You yell and jump out of the way.After the water temperature returns to normal, you resume the shower, but someone else flushes the toilet, the water gets hot, you jump again.Sooner or later (sooner, I hope!), you begin to jump out of the way as soon as you hear a toilet flush without waiting to get burned.
14In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.) 4. While crossing an intersection, you are nearly run down by a car. The next time you approach that intersection, you find yourself feeling nervous (e.g. palms sweating, heart racing, etc.)
15In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.) 5. In order to punish your cat even when you’re not close enough to reach him, you have paired the sound of a clicker with getting squirted with water. Now the sound of the clicker causes him to startle.
16Unit 7 Review Topics Memory, cont. Terms/Ideas Memory 3 steps to forming a memory (encoding, storage, retrieval)Atkinson & Shiffring (1968): 3 Stage Model of Memorysensory memory short-term (working) memory long-term memoryrehearsalchunkinglevels/depth of processingprimacy & recency effectstypes of memoriesexplicit vs. implicitepisodic, semanticTerms/Ideas, cont.Memory, cont.retrograde & anterograde amnesialong-term potentiationflashbulb memoriesmemory interference (proactive & retroactive)repressionmnemonic devices
17Unit 7 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Thinking linguistic relativity (Whorf)algorithms vs. heuristicsheuristics: availability, representativeness, anchor & adjustconfirmation biasLanguagephonemes, morphemesgrammar (syntax, semantics)Broca’s aphasia, Wernicke’s aphasiaImportant People to KnowHermann EbbinghausElizabeth LoftusBenjamin WhorfNoam Chomsky
18Unit 8 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Terms/Ideas, cont. Motivation Emotion drive-reduction theorylaw of optimal arousal (aka. Yerkes-Dodson Law)hunger (lateral & ventromedial hypothalamus)anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosaevolutionary perspective on mating habitsflowTerms/Ideas, cont.Emotioncatharsis3 important theories of emotion1. James-Lange2. Cannon-Bard3. two-factor theory (Schacter & Singer)polygraph testsImportant People to KnowAbraham MaslowPaul EkmanSchacter & Singer
19Unit 9 Review Topics 5 REVIEW DAYS LEFT! Psychosocial Development Terms/Ideas, cont.Psychosocial Developmentattachment stylescritical period/imprintingBaumrind’s parenting stylesErikson’s stage modelMoral DevelopmentKohlberg’s stage modeldementia/Alzheimer’s DiseaseImportant People to KnowJean PiagetHarry HarlowMary AinsworthKonrad LorenzLawrence KohlbergErik EriksonTerms/IdeasPhysical/Prenatal Developmentzygote embryo fetusteratogensCognitive Developmentschemas (assimilation & accomodation)Piaget’s stage modelobject permanenceconservationegocentrism/theory of mindautism
20Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control? 1. authoritarian styleimpose rules, expect unquestioning obedience & conformityhigh expectations, but no explanation of rules (“Why? Because I said so.”)most likely to use physical punishmentkids: low in social competencerarely take initiative, look to others for what is rightlack spontaneitycompetence: parents always choosing how kid should act, rather than self-directed
21Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control? 2. permissive stylewarm, but lax, stylesubmit to children’s wishes, make few demands, use little punishment, few ruleskids: selfish, impulsive, aggressive, insecure, low achieversoften lacking in social responsibility
22Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control? 3. authoritative styleboth demanding & responsiveset rules & enforce them......but explain reasons for rules...and explain why punishment is happeningencourage independencekids: high self-esteem, independenceability to reason, form own opinions & arguments
23Unit 10 Review Topics 4 REVIEW DAYS LEFT! Terms/Ideas Psychoanalytic theory (aka. psychodynamic)the unconsciousaccessing the unconscious:dreams (manifest vs. latent content)free associationhypnosisprojective testsid, superego, & egoFreud’s stage model of psychosexual developmentOedipus complexdefense mechanisms:repression, projection, regression, reaction formation, sublimation4 REVIEW DAYS LEFT!Terms/Ideas, cont.Trait approachfactor analysisfive-factor theory of personality (“the Big Five”)learned helplessnessImportant People to KnowSigmund FreudAnna O.Carl JungGordon Allport
24Unit 11 Review Topics Terms/Ideas, cont. stereotype threat Intelligencegeneral intelligence (g)emotional intelligenceconvergent vs. divergent thinking (creativity?)crystallized vs. fluid intelligenceIntelligence testingIntelligence quotient (IQ)famous IQ tests:Binet-SimonStanford-BinetWAIS/WISCstandardizationreliability (test-retest, split-half)validity (criterion)Terms/Ideas, cont.stereotype threatImportant People to KnowCharles SpearmanHoward GardnerAlfred Binet & Theodore SimonLewis Terman
25Stray Topic #1: Hans Selye General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)3 stage model of reactions to stress:1. Alarm (fight-or-flight, sympathetic NS, prepare body)2. Resistance (remain physically “ready”; can deplete energy if too long)3. Exhaustion (parasympathetic NS)more vulnerable to disease, illness in Exhaustion stage
26Stray Topic #2: Opponent-Process Theory Not just for color vision…also opposing processes in emotions, addictionEmotions & skydiversinexperienced = more scared before, less pleasure upon landingexperienced = less scared before, more pleasure upon landing
27Stray Topic #3: A Few Misc. Names Carol Gilliganrefined Kohlberg’s stage theorymen = absolute in their moralitywomen = more likely to take situation into accountHubel & Wieselfeature detector neuronsRobert RescorlaContingency model of classical conditioning (aka. Rescorla-Wagner model)Pavlov = contiguity model (more pairings = more learning)Rescorla = contingency model (more CONSISTENT pairings = more learning)Expectations/cognition matter in conditioningSchacter & Singer: two-factor theory of emotion
28Unit 12 Review Topics Terms/Ideas, cont. Mood disorders Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV)5 axesAnxiety DisordersGeneralized anxiety disorder (GAD)Panic disorder (PD)AgoraphobiaPhobiasSocial anxiety disorder (SAD) (aka. social phobia)Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Terms/Ideas, cont.Mood disordersMajor depressive disorder (MDD)Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)Bipolar disorder (BD)Schizophreniadelusions, hallucinations, language disruptionsPersonality disordersespecially borderline (BPD) and antisocial (APD)Important People to KnowDavid Rosenhan
29Unit 13 Review Topics Terms/Ideas, cont. Types of Medication Psychoanalytic TherapyresistancetransferenceHumanistic Therapyclient-centered therapyactive listeningBehavioral therapycounterconditioningtoken economiessystematic desensitizationCognitive therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)Terms/Ideas, cont.Types of Medicationantipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety, mood-stabilizers“Alternative” Therapieselectroconvulsive therapy (ECT), rTMS, EMDR, lobotomyImportant People to KnowSigmund FreudCarl Rogers
30Stray Topic #4: Types of Intelligence Tests aptitude tests: ability, what you can doachievement tests: knowledge, what you have learned
31Stray Topic #5: Somatoform Disorders experiencing physical problems in the absence of any physical causehypochondriasis: frequent physical complaints for which doctors cannot find causeminor problems indicative of major problems?conversion disorder: severe physical problems with no apparent biological reason (paralysis, blindness)Due to unresolved unconscious conflicts? Reinforced behaviors?
32Stray Topic #6: Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy Specific type of CBTDeveloped by Albert EllisAims to expose, confront dysfunctional thoughts of clients
33Stray Topic #7: Group Dynamics besides social facilitation, social loafinggroup polarization: groups make more extreme decisions than they would individuallygroupthink: group members suppress concerns about ideas that group supportsfalse unanimity (missing important flaws in idea?)
34Unit 14 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Hindsight bias Terms/Ideas, cont.Stereotypes, prejudice, & discriminationExplicit vs. implicit attitudes (IAT)outgroup homogeneity, ingroup favoritismPersuasionElaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)persuasion techniques:foot-in-the-doordoor-in-the-faceAttraction & relationshipsmere exposure effecthalo effectSternberg’s triangle theoryGroup processessocial facilitation, social loafingTerms/IdeasHindsight biasFundamental attribution errorSocial roles (Stanford Prison Study)Cognitive dissonanceConformityInformational & normative social influenceObedience to authorityHelping behaviorBystander effect, diffusion of responsibilityTerror Management Theory
35Unit 14 Review Topics Important People to Know Phil Zimbardo Leon FestingerSolomon AschStanley Milgram