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AP Psychology Exam Info

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1 AP Psychology Exam Info
Monday, May 5 (afternoon session) Bring photo ID, pens/pencils, & DO NOT BE LATE 2 hour, 10 minute exam Part 1: Multiple choice 100 questions (A-E) 70 minutes ANSWER EVERY QUESTION! GUESS GUESS GUESS! 10 minute break Part 2: Free response 2 questions 50 minutes ANSWER DIRECTLY!

2 AP Psychology Exam Info
150 total possible points (100 multiple choice, 50 free response) Composite Score AP Grade (approx.) 96-150 5 74-95 4 55-73 3 36-54 2 0-35 1

3 Unit 1 Review Topics Important People to Know John Locke
Terms/Ideas psychology phrenology structuralism introspection functionalism Gestalt perceptual units psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory unconscious behaviorism humanistic psychology cognitive psychology social psychology nature vs. nurture psychology vs. psychiatry Important People to Know John Locke Rene Descartes Hippocrates Wilhelm Wundt William James Sigmund Freud

4 Unit 2 Review Topics random assignment reliability
Terms/Ideas hypothesis theory operational definition population sample (random sampling) Descriptive research case study surveys naturalistic observation Correlational research correlation coefficient (r) direction and size of correlations drawbacks? Experimental research independent & dependent variables experimental & control conditions confounds Terms/Ideas, cont. random assignment reliability validity (internal & external) demand characteristics placebo effect double-blind design Descriptive statistics measures of central tendency measures of variability Inferential statistics statistical significance meta-analysis informed consent debriefing Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

5 Unit 3 Review Topics Terms/Ideas glial cells Terms/Ideas, cont. Neuron
cell body/soma nucleus dendrites axon myelin sheath Nodes of Ranvier terminal buttons/terminal branches resting potential action potential threshold (“all or none law”) synapse/synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters vescicles receptors reuptake Terms/Ideas, cont. agonists & antagonists Nervous system central and peripheral PNS = Skeletal and autonomic ANS = sympathetic and parasympathetic Endocrine system hormones pituitary gland Mapping Brain Functions EEG CT scan PET scan MRI & fMRI

6 Unit 3 Review Topics Terms/Ideas, cont. Terms/Ideas Forebrain, cont.
cerebral cortex frontal lobe parietal lobe temporal lobe occipital lobe corpus callosum plasticity Important People to Know Phineas Gage H.M. Terms/Ideas Hindbrain medulla pons reticular formation cerebellum Midbrain thalamus Forebrain limbic system hippocampus hypothalamus amygdala

7 Unit 4 Review Topics Terms/Ideas sensation vs. perception
bottom-up & top-down processing absolute threshold just-noticeable difference (JND) Weber’s Law priming sensory adaptation transduction Visual Sensation & Perception amplitude & frequency of light waves parts of the eye theories of color vision trichromatic theory opponent-process theory (afterimages) feature detector neurons Terms/Ideas, cont. Visual Sensation & Perception, cont. cues to depth perception (monocular vs. binocular) motion perception stroboscopic effect phi phenomenon change blindness Stroop task Auditory Sensation & Perception amplitude & frequency of sound waves parts of the ear pitch theories (place theory, frequency theory) cocktail party effect gate-control theory of pain synesthesia

8 Unit 5 Review Topics Terms/Ideas
consciousness (normal/waking vs. altered states) Sleep circadian rhythm (roles of hypothalamus, pineal gland, melatonin) stages of sleep brain wave activity Why do we sleep? Why do we dream? Freud (manifest vs. latent content) sctivation-synthesis theory memory consolidation Terms/Ideas, cont. Sleep, cont. sleep disorders insomnia narcolepsy (hypocretin) sleep apnea night terrors Hypnosis absorption applications of hypnosis Psychoactive drugs addiction, tolerance, & withdrawal 3 classes: depressants stimulants hallucinogens Near-death experiences

9 Unit 6 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Terms/Ideas, cont.
Classical conditioning 4 aspects: unconditioned stimulus (US) conditioned stimulus (CS) unconditioned response (UR) conditioned response (CR) acquisition extinction reacquisition spontaneous recovery stimulus discrimination stimulus generalization biological preparedness taste aversion (Garcia & Koelling study) systematic desensitization Terms/Ideas, cont. Operant conditioning Law of Effect shaping positive & negative reinforcement 4 schedules of partial reinforcement: fixed ratio variable ratio fixed interval variable interval positive & negative punishment Other types of learning besides conditioning latent learning insight learning social/observational learning (modeling) mirror neurons

10 Unit 6 Review Topics Important People to Know Ivan Pavlov John Watson
Edward Thorndike BF Skinner Wolfgang Kohler Albert Bandura

11 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)
1. A college guy spends a summer going down to the football field every day, scattering birdseed all over the field while blowing a whistle, then walking off. Fall arrives, and the school’s first home game starts. The referee walks out and blows his whistle - and the game has to be delayed half an hour to remove the birds who flocked when they heard the sound of the whistle.

12 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)
2. This story is from the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. MaryBeth Garrigan of the University of Minnesota recalls a bird-watching assignment there during explosives testing. “Looking through my binoculars, I saw a pair of red-tailed hawks sitting on a telephone pole, and as the bombing started, I expected the birds to fly away in a panic. Instead they flew to a platform closer to the explosions!” She made sense of this when the bombing subsided, and the hawks began flying slowly over the field, diving down and picking up what looked like shell-shocked mice and rabbits.

13 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)
3. It’s your first day of college! Ah yes, your first experiences with dorm life. You are standing in the shower, trying to wake up, when you hear someone flush the toilet, then a few seconds later the shower water turns scaldingly hot! You yell and jump out of the way. After the water temperature returns to normal, you resume the shower, but someone else flushes the toilet, the water gets hot, you jump again. Sooner or later (sooner, I hope!), you begin to jump out of the way as soon as you hear a toilet flush without waiting to get burned.

14 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)
4. While crossing an intersection, you are nearly run down by a car. The next time you approach that intersection, you find yourself feeling nervous (e.g. palms sweating, heart racing, etc.)

15 In-Class Assignment: Classical Conditioning (5 pts.)
5. In order to punish your cat even when you’re not close enough to reach him, you have paired the sound of a clicker with getting squirted with water. Now the sound of the clicker causes him to startle.

16 Unit 7 Review Topics Memory, cont. Terms/Ideas Memory
3 steps to forming a memory (encoding, storage, retrieval) Atkinson & Shiffring (1968): 3 Stage Model of Memory sensory memory  short-term (working) memory  long-term memory rehearsal chunking levels/depth of processing primacy & recency effects types of memories explicit vs. implicit episodic, semantic Terms/Ideas, cont. Memory, cont. retrograde & anterograde amnesia long-term potentiation flashbulb memories memory interference (proactive & retroactive) repression mnemonic devices

17 Unit 7 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Thinking
linguistic relativity (Whorf) algorithms vs. heuristics heuristics: availability, representativeness, anchor & adjust confirmation bias Language phonemes, morphemes grammar (syntax, semantics) Broca’s aphasia, Wernicke’s aphasia Important People to Know Hermann Ebbinghaus Elizabeth Loftus Benjamin Whorf Noam Chomsky

18 Unit 8 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Terms/Ideas, cont. Motivation Emotion
drive-reduction theory law of optimal arousal (aka. Yerkes-Dodson Law) hunger (lateral & ventromedial hypothalamus) anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa evolutionary perspective on mating habits flow Terms/Ideas, cont. Emotion catharsis 3 important theories of emotion 1. James-Lange 2. Cannon-Bard 3. two-factor theory (Schacter & Singer) polygraph tests Important People to Know Abraham Maslow Paul Ekman Schacter & Singer

19 Unit 9 Review Topics 5 REVIEW DAYS LEFT! Psychosocial Development
Terms/Ideas, cont. Psychosocial Development attachment styles critical period/imprinting Baumrind’s parenting styles Erikson’s stage model Moral Development Kohlberg’s stage model dementia/Alzheimer’s Disease Important People to Know Jean Piaget Harry Harlow Mary Ainsworth Konrad Lorenz Lawrence Kohlberg Erik Erikson Terms/Ideas Physical/Prenatal Development zygote  embryo  fetus teratogens Cognitive Development schemas (assimilation & accomodation) Piaget’s stage model object permanence conservation egocentrism/theory of mind autism

20 Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control?
1. authoritarian style impose rules, expect unquestioning obedience & conformity high expectations, but no explanation of rules (“Why? Because I said so.”) most likely to use physical punishment kids: low in social competence rarely take initiative, look to others for what is right lack spontaneity competence: parents always choosing how kid should act, rather than self-directed

21 Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control?
2. permissive style warm, but lax, style submit to children’s wishes, make few demands, use little punishment, few rules kids: selfish, impulsive, aggressive, insecure, low achievers often lacking in social responsibility

22 Child Rearing Practices: Level of Control?
3. authoritative style both demanding & responsive set rules & enforce them... ...but explain reasons for rules ...and explain why punishment is happening encourage independence kids: high self-esteem, independence ability to reason, form own opinions & arguments

23 Unit 10 Review Topics 4 REVIEW DAYS LEFT! Terms/Ideas
Psychoanalytic theory (aka. psychodynamic) the unconscious accessing the unconscious: dreams (manifest vs. latent content) free association hypnosis projective tests id, superego, & ego Freud’s stage model of psychosexual development Oedipus complex defense mechanisms: repression, projection, regression, reaction formation, sublimation 4 REVIEW DAYS LEFT! Terms/Ideas, cont. Trait approach factor analysis five-factor theory of personality (“the Big Five”) learned helplessness Important People to Know Sigmund Freud Anna O. Carl Jung Gordon Allport

24 Unit 11 Review Topics Terms/Ideas, cont. stereotype threat
Intelligence general intelligence (g) emotional intelligence convergent vs. divergent thinking (creativity?) crystallized vs. fluid intelligence Intelligence testing Intelligence quotient (IQ) famous IQ tests: Binet-Simon Stanford-Binet WAIS/WISC standardization reliability (test-retest, split-half) validity (criterion) Terms/Ideas, cont. stereotype threat Important People to Know Charles Spearman Howard Gardner Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon Lewis Terman

25 Stray Topic #1: Hans Selye
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) 3 stage model of reactions to stress: 1. Alarm (fight-or-flight, sympathetic NS, prepare body) 2. Resistance (remain physically “ready”; can deplete energy if too long) 3. Exhaustion (parasympathetic NS) more vulnerable to disease, illness in Exhaustion stage

26 Stray Topic #2: Opponent-Process Theory
Not just for color vision… also opposing processes in emotions, addiction Emotions & skydivers inexperienced = more scared before, less pleasure upon landing experienced = less scared before, more pleasure upon landing

27 Stray Topic #3: A Few Misc. Names
Carol Gilligan refined Kohlberg’s stage theory men = absolute in their morality women = more likely to take situation into account Hubel & Wiesel feature detector neurons Robert Rescorla Contingency model of classical conditioning (aka. Rescorla-Wagner model) Pavlov = contiguity model (more pairings = more learning) Rescorla = contingency model (more CONSISTENT pairings = more learning) Expectations/cognition matter in conditioning Schacter & Singer: two-factor theory of emotion

28 Unit 12 Review Topics Terms/Ideas, cont. Mood disorders
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) 5 axes Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Panic disorder (PD) Agoraphobia Phobias Social anxiety disorder (SAD) (aka. social phobia) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Terms/Ideas, cont. Mood disorders Major depressive disorder (MDD) Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Bipolar disorder (BD) Schizophrenia delusions, hallucinations, language disruptions Personality disorders especially borderline (BPD) and antisocial (APD) Important People to Know David Rosenhan

29 Unit 13 Review Topics Terms/Ideas, cont. Types of Medication
Psychoanalytic Therapy resistance transference Humanistic Therapy client-centered therapy active listening Behavioral therapy counterconditioning token economies systematic desensitization Cognitive therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Terms/Ideas, cont. Types of Medication antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety, mood-stabilizers “Alternative” Therapies electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), rTMS, EMDR, lobotomy Important People to Know Sigmund Freud Carl Rogers

30 Stray Topic #4: Types of Intelligence Tests
aptitude tests: ability, what you can do achievement tests: knowledge, what you have learned

31 Stray Topic #5: Somatoform Disorders
experiencing physical problems in the absence of any physical cause hypochondriasis: frequent physical complaints for which doctors cannot find cause minor problems indicative of major problems? conversion disorder: severe physical problems with no apparent biological reason (paralysis, blindness) Due to unresolved unconscious conflicts? Reinforced behaviors?

32 Stray Topic #6: Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
Specific type of CBT Developed by Albert Ellis Aims to expose, confront dysfunctional thoughts of clients

33 Stray Topic #7: Group Dynamics
besides social facilitation, social loafing group polarization: groups make more extreme decisions than they would individually groupthink: group members suppress concerns about ideas that group supports false unanimity (missing important flaws in idea?)

34 Unit 14 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Hindsight bias
Terms/Ideas, cont. Stereotypes, prejudice, & discrimination Explicit vs. implicit attitudes (IAT) outgroup homogeneity, ingroup favoritism Persuasion Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) persuasion techniques: foot-in-the-door door-in-the-face Attraction & relationships mere exposure effect halo effect Sternberg’s triangle theory Group processes social facilitation, social loafing Terms/Ideas Hindsight bias Fundamental attribution error Social roles (Stanford Prison Study) Cognitive dissonance Conformity Informational & normative social influence Obedience to authority Helping behavior Bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility Terror Management Theory

35 Unit 14 Review Topics Important People to Know Phil Zimbardo
Leon Festinger Solomon Asch Stanley Milgram

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