Presentation on theme: "Objectives Understand the setbacks that the Allies faced in and 1918."— Presentation transcript:
1ObjectivesUnderstand the setbacks that the Allies faced in and 1918.Discover how American forces contributed to the Allied victory.Explain the agreement that ended the fighting.
2Terms and Peopleconvoy– a large group of merchant vessels sailing togetherJohn J. Pershing– Commander of the American Expeditionary ForceVladimir Lenin– Bolshevik leader who seized control of Russia’s government in 1917
3Terms and People (continued) communism– an economic and political system based on the idea that social classes and the right to private property should be eliminatedarmistice– a halt in fighting that allows peace talks to begin
4How did the arrival of American troops in Europe affect the course of the war? After Congress declared war, it took over a year for the U.S. to engage in major battles.American soldiers quickly helped bring about an overwhelming Allied victory.
5In 1917, U. S. forces prepared to go overseas. The U. S In 1917, U.S. forces prepared to go overseas. The U.S. Army chose John J. Pershing to lead American troops in Europe.He wanted American troops to fight in separate units under U.S. command.This would show the world that the U.S. could stand on its own.
6Meanwhile, German submarines attacked ships bringing supplies from the U.S. to the Allies. More than 11 million tons of Allied shipments were destroyed and nearly 14,000 people were killed.
7Allied naval leaders had destroyers sail in convoy with supply ships for protection. Allied ship losses fell dramatically.
8The Italians were defeated by the Central Powers at Caparetto. U.S. troops joined the Allies in June 1917, but the Allies continued to face setbacks.The Italians were defeated by the Central Powers at Caparetto.Russia withdrew from the war and made peace with Germany.In March 1918, Germany broke through the Allied lines.
9The new leader, Vladimir Lenin, embraced the ideas of communism. On November 7, 1917, a radical group called the Bolsheviks seized control of Russia.The new leader, Vladimir Lenin, embraced the ideas of communism.Social classes and private property should be eliminated.Workers should unite to overthrow the ruling class.
10Losing Russia was a huge setback for the Allies. Lenin pulled Russia out of the war and made peace with Germany.Russia gave Germany land on the Western Front.Germany moved many troops into its new territory.
11In March 1918, Germany began a series of attacks called the “peace offensive.” In June, the Germans broke through Allied lines in Belgium and France.Pershing pledged that U.S. troops would now fight under French command.U.S. troops arrived to reinforce the Allies.
12In the summer of 1918, U.S. troops helped turn the tide for the Allies. In July, the Allies defeated the Germans in France.The Allies began an offensive.By November, they were advancing on Germany.
13France and Britain wanted to impose a harsh settlement. Germany’s leaders realized that their cause was lost. They decided to seek an armistice.France and Britain wanted to impose a harsh settlement.President Wilson proposed a peace plan based on international cooperation.France and Britain dictated the terms of the armistice.
14The terms of the armistice were harsh. Germany was forced to: Cancel its peace treaty with RussiaPull back its troops from the Western FrontHand over all of its U-boatsPresident Wilson also demanded that Germany’s leader, Kaiser Wilhelm II, step down.The Kaiser fled, and Germany became a republic.
15The armistice took effect at 11 A.M. on November 11, 1918. The war had ended. Soldiers could hardly believe it.Soldiers returned home. Millions had been severely wounded.
16World War I was the most destructive war history had yet seen. It cost the lives of 10 million military personnel.Some historians believe just as many civilians died.
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