4 Character: A character can be a person, animal, or imaginary creature There are usually 1 or 2 main characters in a narrativeThere can be many secondary characters in a narrative
5 Characterization: the technique an author uses to present and develop a character Direct CharacterizationThe author makes straight forward comments describing the charactersExample: “Oh Martha’s wonderful. She would even hum to you.” (page 207)Indirect CharacterizationThe reader draws conclusions based on words and actions of all charactersExample: “She grabbed me by the hair and yanked me from the chair. She punched me in the side of the head and threw me to the floor.” (page 45)
6 Antagonist Protagonist The central character in a literary workExample: Jennings is the protagonist in They Cage the Animals at Night.The character or force that opposes the protagonist in a work of literatureExample: The “system” is the antagonist in They Cage the Animals at Night.
7 Setting refers to where the story takes place. The time (ex. future, past, present)The place (ex. outer space, Jones Beach, Julie’s house
8 Plot: the series of related events in a literary work; often follows a pattern The plot must:have a beginning, middle, and endtell events in a logical orderContain EXPOSITION, RISING ACTION, a PROBLEM or CONFLICT, a CLIMAX, FALLING ACTION, and a RESOLUTION
10 Definitions:EXPOSITION: A fancy word for the beginning of the story. This is where the characters and setting are introduced.RISING ACTION: In this part of the story the conflict(s) occur, tension builds, and the story moves toward the climax.CONFLICT: The problem or struggle between opposing forces. There can be many conflicts leading up to the climaxCLIMAX: The pivotal moment in a story when the protagonist is faced with a choice which will effect the outcome of the story.FALLING ACTION: The events that happen after the climax which usually wrap up the action and lead to the resolution.RESOLUTION: The conclusion of the story in which we see the outcome of the main conflict.
11 Congratulations!You have successfully completed your introduction to the essential elements of a narrative.