4Character: A character can be a person, animal, or imaginary creature There are usually 1 or 2 main characters in a narrativeThere can be many secondary characters in a narrative
5Characterization: the technique an author uses to present and develop a character Direct CharacterizationThe author makes straight forward comments describing the charactersExample: “Oh Martha’s wonderful. She would even hum to you.” (page 207)Indirect CharacterizationThe reader draws conclusions based on words and actions of all charactersExample: “She grabbed me by the hair and yanked me from the chair. She punched me in the side of the head and threw me to the floor.” (page 45)
6Antagonist Protagonist The central character in a literary workExample: Jennings is the protagonist in They Cage the Animals at Night.The character or force that opposes the protagonist in a work of literatureExample: The “system” is the antagonist in They Cage the Animals at Night.
7Setting refers to where the story takes place. The time (ex. future, past, present)The place (ex. outer space, Jones Beach, Julie’s house
8Plot: the series of related events in a literary work; often follows a pattern The plot must:have a beginning, middle, and endtell events in a logical orderContain EXPOSITION, RISING ACTION, a PROBLEM or CONFLICT, a CLIMAX, FALLING ACTION, and a RESOLUTION
10Definitions:EXPOSITION: A fancy word for the beginning of the story. This is where the characters and setting are introduced.RISING ACTION: In this part of the story the conflict(s) occur, tension builds, and the story moves toward the climax.CONFLICT: The problem or struggle between opposing forces. There can be many conflicts leading up to the climaxCLIMAX: The pivotal moment in a story when the protagonist is faced with a choice which will effect the outcome of the story.FALLING ACTION: The events that happen after the climax which usually wrap up the action and lead to the resolution.RESOLUTION: The conclusion of the story in which we see the outcome of the main conflict.
11Congratulations!You have successfully completed your introduction to the essential elements of a narrative.