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Presentation on theme: "Slide Show Intro Presentation Plus! United States Government: Democracy in Action Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Send all inquiries to:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Slide Show Intro Presentation Plus! United States Government: Democracy in Action Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Welcome to Presentation Plus!

4 Contents Chapter Focus Section 1Presidential PowersSection 1 Section 2Roles of the PresidentSection 2 Section 3Styles of LeadershipSection 3 Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to go to the corresponding content area. Press the ESC (escape) key at any time to exit the presentation.

5 Chapter Focus 1 Roles of the President Describe the seven major roles of the president. (Section 2)  Styles of Leadership Evaluate the leadership qualities important to the success of a president. (Section 3) Chapter Objectives Presidential Powers Summarize the historical changes in the powers of the presidency. (Section 1)  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

6 Chapter Focus 2 Section 2 Political Processes  Section 3 Cultural Pluralism Section 1 Constitutional Interpretations  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Concepts

7 Chapter Focus 3 The next slide is a political cartoon drawn during the Nixon presidency. Differing opinions between the executive and legislative branches were a source of conflict that led to the War Powers Act in Making It Relevant Transparency

8 Making It Relevant 9 Chapter Focus 4

9 End of Chapter Focus Click the mouse button to return to the Contents. End of Chapter Focus

10 Section 1-1a Find Out Why do presidential powers tend to grow in times of national emergency?  What are the sources of and limits to the powers of the president? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Key Terms mandate, forum  Presidential Powers

11 Section 1-1b Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Presidential Powers Understanding Concepts Constitutional Interpretations Within the scope of constitutional limitations and powers, why does each president define the office differently?  Section Objective Summarize the historical changes in the powers of the presidency.

12 Section 1-2 Presidential powers have developed over time, reflecting the changing needs of the nation and personalities of the presidents.  The sources and limitations of presidential power have interacted throughout the nation’s history. Introduction Many presidential powers are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

13 Section 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Introduction (cont.) The immediate needs of the nation, the personal energy and influence of each president, and the mandate, or expressed will of the people, have shaped the office of the presidency into its modern form.

14 Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Constitutional Powers Having revolted against the hated king of England, the Founders certainly did not want to create their own king.  At the same time, and for two major reasons, they did want a national government with a strong executive. The Founders made the president the head of the executive branch of the new national government. 

15 Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Need for a Strong Executive Second, many of the Founders distrusted direct participation by the people in decision making. First, the Founders knew that one of the main weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation was its lack of an independent executive to carry out the acts of Congress. 

16 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Need for a Strong Executive (cont.) Consequently, they wanted a strong executive branch that would protect liberty, private property, and businesses and would hold the legislative branch, which the people could influence, in check.

17 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Powers in Article II –As commander in chief of the armed forces, the president is mainly responsible for the nation’s security.  –As head of the executive branch, the president appoints–with Senate consent–heads of executive departments and conducts foreign policy. Article II of the Constitution grants the president broad but vaguely described powers. Sections 2 and 3 of Article II define these powers: 

18 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Powers in Article II (cont.) –Working with the legislature, the president ensures that the laws Congress passes are “faithfully executed.”  –The president delivers an annual State of the Union message to Congress, proposes legislation, and may call Congress into special session when necessary. –The president also has judicial powers–to appoint federal court judges, to pardon people convicted of federal crimes, and to reduce sentences. 

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20 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Informal Sources of Power Yet, since Washington’s time, the president’s powers have greatly expanded and come from several sources in addition to the Constitution. The Constitution’s list of presidential powers is brief and simple. 

21 Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Personal Exercise of Power In 1803 Thomas Jefferson made the decision to purchase the Louisiana Territory from France.  Nothing in the Constitution stated that a president had the power to acquire territory. Jefferson, however, believed Article II implied additional powers for the office. Several presidents have enlarged the powers of the presidency by their view and exercise of power. 

22 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Personal Exercise of Power (cont.) Theodore Roosevelt expressed the broad view of presidential power, explaining that it was both the president’s right and duty to “do anything that the needs of the Nation demanded, unless such action was forbidden by the Constitution or by the laws.” The Senate agreed with Jefferson and ratified the Louisiana Purchase treaty. 

23 Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Immediate Needs of the Nation For example, he suspended the writ of habeas corpus and jailed opponents of the Union without a trial or legal authority to do so.  Lincoln claimed the Constitution gave him the authority to do what was necessary to preserve the Union. In the end, the nation agreed. During the Civil War Abraham Lincoln took action that caused people to call him a dictator. 

24 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Immediate Needs of the Nation (cont.) At a time of severe economic depression, Roosevelt persuaded Congress to create many new social and economic programs and to set up new federal agencies to run them. Franklin D. Roosevelt used the power of the presidency to expand the role of the federal government in the nation’s economy. 

25 Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Most modern presidents have tried to act as strong leaders and have taken a broad view of presidential power. After Roosevelt’s administration, Americans came to expect the president to take a firm hand in directing the nation’s economic as well as political life.  Immediate Needs of the Nation (cont.)

26 Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Mandate of the People A mandate–strong popular support–is one of the greatest sources of power for a president.  The president’s popularity ratings change almost daily. Most modern presidents have learned, therefore, to use the media to communicate their message to the people and gain popular support. All presidents like to claim that their ideas and policies represent a mandate from the people. 

27 Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Mandate of the People (cont.) Roosevelt broadcast “fireside chats” to the American people on the radio. He talked informally about the nation’s problems and his proposed solutions for them.  Today, television gives presidents even greater power to convey their ideas and personalities directly to the American people. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to realize that radio had great potential for political use. 

28 Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Major newspapers and magazines also provide a forum, or medium for discussion, for presidential messages.  These media, in addition to television and radio networks, assign reporters to cover the president full time. People often judge a president’s ideas according to the personal appeal of the president on television, a fact presidents know very well and try to use to their advantage.  Mandate of the People (cont.)

29 Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Limits on Presidential Power Both Congress and the courts have powers that limit the president’s authority.  Other factors, not mentioned in the Constitution, also affect the president’s actions. The Founders built significant safeguards against the abuse of presidential power into the Constitution. 

30 Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Limitation by Congress In 1973 Congress overrode President Nixon’s veto of the War Powers Act that prevented presidents from committing troops to combat for more than 60 days without congressional approval.  Two other important limitations are the Senate’s confirmation power and Congress’s power of the purse. A congressional override of a veto may limit a president’s effectiveness in carrying out a legislative program or in using executive powers. 

31 Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Limitation by Congress (cont.) Congress also has the power to impeach a president. Impeachment is a drastic measure that has been used only three times in United States history.

32 Section 1-21 Limitation by the Federal Courts The case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the Supreme Court’s right to review legislative actions.Marbury v. Madison The federal courts have a constitutional power to limit a president.  Click the blue hyperlink to explore the Supreme Court case.

33 Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The president reported these events to Congress, but Congress failed to take action. Congress had provided procedures for dealing with similar situations in earlier cases. In 1952 President Truman, believing a strike by steelworkers could threaten national security, ordered his secretary of commerce to seize and operate most of the nation’s steel mills. 

34 Section 1-23 Justice Black, speaking for the majority, said that there was no statute which authorized the president to take possession of the mills. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer (cont.) Opposing the takeover, the steel mill owners sued Secretary Sawyer, and the case eventually reached the Supreme Court as Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer Click the blue hyperlink to explore the Supreme Court case.

35 Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The fact that Congress had not exercised its powers to seize the mills did not mean that the president could do so. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer (cont.)

36 Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Limitation by the Bureaucracy –failing to provide needed information.  –misinterpreting instructions.  –neglecting to complete a task properly.  Bureaucrats can obstruct presidents’ programs unintentionally by…  At times bureaucratic interpretations may not reflect the president’s priorities either intentionally or unintentionally.

37 Section 1-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Limitation by Public Opinion One of President Clinton’s announced goals in his first administration was to restructure the health-care system. The administration began a major study of health care.  Meanwhile, all the interest groups that would be affected began to raise questions, and public opinion eventually derailed the changes. Without favorable public opinion, a president cannot succeed in carrying out a political program. 

38 Section 1-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Limitation by Public Opinion (cont.) They expect presidents to always act with courage and dignity. However, the Founders could not build into the Constitution provisions for regulating the moral character of a president.  Public opinion, especially through the use of mass media, supports the checks and balances that serve to limit the powers of a president. The American people expect their presidents to be symbolic leaders of the nation. 

39 Section 1-Assessment 1 Why do presidential powers tend to grow in times of national emergency? Congress has often granted a president special powers, especially during emergencies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

40 Section 1-Assessment 2 What are the sources of and limits to the powers of the president? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Sources: the Constitution needs of the nation influence of each president mandate of the people Limits: Congress federal courts federal bureaucracy public opinion

41 End of Section 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Section 1

42 Section 2-1a Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Find Out How do the presidential roles of head of state, chief diplomat, and commander in chief work together to provide leadership in foreign relations?  What is the president’s role in the growth and stability of the American economy? Key Terms executive order, impoundment, reprieve, pardon, amnesty, line-item veto, patronage, treaty, executive agreement  Roles of the President

43 Section 2-1b Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Roles of the President Understanding Concepts Political Processes How have presidents used their political power to increase their policy-making role?  Section Objective Describe the seven major roles of the president.

44 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. –head of state  –chief executive  –chief legislator  Introduction There are seven key duties of the president, five of which are constitutional. The president serves as:  Two additional duties of the president– economic planner and political party leader–are not even implied in the Constitution but have developed over time. –chief diplomat  –commander in chief 

45 Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Head of State –serving as host to visiting kings, queens, and heads of governments  –lighting the national Christmas tree  –giving awards and medals  –making public service statements on important issues  –meeting public figures  –throwing the first pitch of the baseball season As head of state, the president represents the nation and performs many ceremonial roles: 

46 Section 2-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. To millions around the world and to millions at home, the president is the United States–a living symbol of the nation. Head of State (cont.)

47 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chief Executive The executive branch employs more than 2 million people to enforce the many laws and programs Congress establishes.  The president is in charge of these employees and the federal departments and agencies for which they work. As the nation’s chief executive, the president sees that the laws of Congress are carried out. 

48 Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Tools of Influence Presidents issue executive orders to spell out many of the details of policies and programs Congress enacts.  Another tool is making presidential appointments. Besides appointing cabinet members, presidents appoint “with the advice and consent of the Senate” about 2,200 top-level federal officials. One tool presidents have to influence how laws are carried out is an executive order, or a rule that has the force of law. 

49 Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Tools of Influence (cont.) A third tool that presidents may use is the right to remove officials they have appointed. President Nixon, for example, fired his secretary of the interior for opposing his conduct of the war in Vietnam. Presidents try to appoint officials who share their political beliefs because they want these officials to carry out their policies. 

50 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This process is known as impoundment of funds. Impoundment means that the president puts aside, or refuses to spend, the money Congress has appropriated for a certain purpose.  Most impoundments have been for routine matters, and Congress usually agrees. A fourth tool, used for a variety of reasons, enables a president to refuse to allow a federal department or agency to spend the money Congress has appropriated for it.  Tools of Influence (cont.)

51 Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In addition, as chief executive the president appoints, with Senate approval, all federal judges, including the justices of the Supreme Court. Tools of Influence (cont.)

52 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Reprieves and Pardons A reprieve grants a postponement of legal punishment.  A pardon is a release from legal punishment. As chief executive, the president also can grant “reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States.” 

53 Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Amnesty Amnesty usually applies to military personnel. For example, Presidents Ford and Carter granted amnesty to men who fled the draft during the Vietnam War. Finally, the president may grant amnesty. Amnesty is a group pardon to people for an offense against the government. 

54 Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chief Legislator Congress expects the executive branch to propose legislation it wishes to see enacted.

55 Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The President’s Legislative Program The president has a large staff to help write legislation. This legislation determines much of what Congress will do each year.  The president’s office also presents to Congress a suggested budget and an annual economic report. Usually the president describes a legislative program, reflecting the president’s values and political beliefs, in the annual State of the Union message to Congress. 

56 Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The President’s Legislative Program (cont.) Presidents may hand out political favors to get congressional support, support the reelection efforts of members of Congress, or start a new federal project that will bring money and jobs to a member of Congress’s home state or district. When the president and the majority of Congress are from different political parties, however, the president must work harder to influence members of Congress to support a particular program. 

57 Section 2-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Each bill Congress passes is sent to the president for approval. The president may sign the bill, veto the bill, or lay it aside.  Presidents sometimes use the threat of a veto to force Congress to stop a bill or change it to fit presidential wishes. An important presidential tool in lawmaking is the veto power.  The President’s Legislative Program (cont.)

58 Section 2-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Tools of Presidential Lawmaking Presidents often meet with senators and representatives to share their views with them.  Presidents may hand out political favors, such as visiting the home state of a member of Congress to support his or her reelection, to get congressional support. When the president and the majority of Congress are from different political parties, the president must work harder to influence members of Congress to support a particular program. 

59 Section 2-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Tools of Presidential Lawmaking (cont.) Unlike state governors, the president does not have the power to veto selected items in a bill.  Congress did attempt to give the president some power over individual items by the Line Item Veto Act of In Clinton v. City of New York the Supreme Court struck down the law as unconstitutional.Clinton v. City of New York An important presidential tool in lawmaking is the veto power. Presidents sometimes use the threat of a veto to force Congress to stop a bill or change it to fit their wishes. 

60 Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Economic Planner The Employment Act of 1946 directed the president to submit an annual economic report to Congress and created a Council of Economic Advisers to help prepare the report. The president’s role as chief economic planner has grown rapidly since Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. 

61 Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Since 1946 Congress has continued to pass laws giving presidents more power to deal with economic problems.  Economic Planner (cont.) The president supervises the preparation of the federal budget and spends many months with budget officials deciding what government programs to support and what programs to cut back.

62 Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Party Leader The president may give speeches to help party members running for office or may attend fund-raising activities to help raise money for the party.  The president also selects the party’s national chairperson and appoints party members to available government jobs. The president’s political party expects the chief executive to be a party leader. 

63 Section 2-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Being a political party leader can be a difficult role for a president because people expect a president, as head of the government, to represent all Americans.  Political parties, however, expect presidents to provide leadership for their own political party. Sometimes these conflicting roles cause problems. Political patronage, or appointment to political office, rewards those persons who support the president and the party during an election.  Party Leader (cont.)

64 Section 2-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chief Diplomat The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the State Department, the Defense Department, and the National Security Council (NSC) constantly give the president the latest information needed to make key foreign-policy decisions. The president directs the foreign policy of the United States, making key decisions about the relations the United States has with other countries in the world. 

65 Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In addition, the ability to take decisive action has greatly added to the power of the presidency in foreign affairs.  In a national emergency, the responsibility for action rests with the president. Skilled presidents use this information to plan and justify actions they want to take, while members of Congress, who lack access to this information, often find it difficult to challenge the president’s decisions.  Chief Diplomat (cont.)

66 Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Power to Make Treaties As part of the constitutional system of checks and balances, however, two-thirds of the Senate must approve all treaties before they can go into effect. As chief diplomat the president has sole power to negotiate and sign treaties– formal agreements between the governments of two or more countries. 

67 Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Power to Make Executive Agreements These agreements have the same legal status as treaties, but they do not require Senate consent.  Most executive agreements involve routine matters. Some presidents have used executive agreements to conclude more serious arrangements with other countries. The president also has the authority to make executive agreements–pacts between the president and the head of a foreign government. 

68 Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Power to Make Executive Agreements (cont.) To prevent this, Congress passed a law in 1950 requiring the president to make public all executive agreements signed each year.  Some presidents have ignored this law and kept secret those agreements they considered important to national security. Some presidents have kept executive agreements secret. 

69 Section 2-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Recognition of Foreign Governments This power means the president determines whether the government will acknowledge the legal existence of another government and have dealings with that government. As chief diplomat, the president decides whether the United States will recognize governments of other countries. 

70 Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Recognition of Foreign Governments (cont.) For example, since 1959, presidents have refused to recognize the Communist government of Cuba, indicating the United States’s displeasure with the policies of the Cuban government.

71 Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Commander in Chief The Constitution makes the president commander in chief of the armed forces of the United States. Presidents can back up their foreign- policy decisions with military force when needed. 

72 Section 2-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Power to Make War President Bush received congressional approval to make war on Iraq before he ordered a massive air strike in January  His actions prevented a serious constitutional question that could have divided the nation if the president had sent troops without congressional approval as he was prepared to do. The president shares with Congress the power to make war. 

73 Section 2-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The issue could become critical in the future if Congress demands withdrawal of troops from an area of actual or threatened combat, and the president refuses to do so. Power to Make War (cont.)

74 Section 2-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Military Operations and Strategy Some presidents without extensive military experience have had to become involved in military operations. For example, Presidents Johnson and Nixon made the key military decisions in the Vietnam War.  As commander in chief, the president has the authority to order the use of atomic weapons, a daunting responsibility. Generals, admirals, and other military leaders run the armed forces on a day- to-day basis. The president, however, is responsible for key military decisions. 

75 Section 2-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. During a war the president takes actions at home that will support the war effort, such as price controls, gas and food rationing, and government control of industries needed to produce goods to conduct the war. President Nixon said, “I can walk into my office, pick up the telephone, and in twenty minutes 70 million people will be dead.”  Military Operations and Strategy (cont.)

76 Section 2-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The roles as head of state, chief executive, chief legislator, economic planner, party leader, chief diplomat, and commander in chief give the president broad powers.  Today, the president of the United States is the most powerful single individual in the world. Presidents have used federal troops to put down rioting in American cities and to distribute supplies in the case of a natural disaster.  Military Operations and Strategy (cont.)

77 Section 2-Assessment 1 How do the presidential roles of head of state, chief diplomat, and commander in chief work together to provide leadership in foreign relations? As head of state, the president represents the nation. As chief diplomat, the president directs foreign policy. As commander in chief, the president backs up foreign-policy decisions with military force when necessary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

78 Section 2-Assessment 2 What is the president’s role in the growth and stability of the American economy? The president must prepare the budget and submit an annual economic report to Congress and has the power to control prices and wages. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

79 End of Section 2 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Section 2

80 Section 3-1a Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Find Out Why are communication skills so important to being an effective president?  What leadership quality do you think is most important to the success of a president? Explain why. Key Terms de facto, covert  Styles of Leadership

81 Section 3-1b Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Additional lecture notes appear on the following slides. Styles of Leadership Understanding Concepts Cultural Pluralism Why is it important for the president to be accessible to all of the diverse groups in the country?  Section Objective Evaluate the leadership qualities important to the success of a president.

82 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. For example, President Reagan focused on what his aides called the “big picture.”  He let others in the cabinet, the EOP, and the White House Office work out the details of his policies. Introduction Every president has a unique style of leadership. 

83 Section 3-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Introduction (cont.) He spent many hours studying the complex details of policies and often became directly involved with his assistants in handling those details.  Both presidents had the same tools of power available to them, but each chose to use those tools differently in exercising their leadership responsibilities. President Carter, Reagan’s predecessor, took a different approach. 

84 Section 3-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Increased Responsibilities The president was to be the nation’s chief administrator and, in time of war, its commander in chief.  Instead, over the years the powers and duties of the president have grown steadily. When the Founders wrote the Constitution, they anticipated that Congress, not the president, would lead the nation. 

85 Section 3-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Public opinion surveys clearly show that Americans look to the president to exercise strong leadership, to keep the peace, and to solve economic and social problems. Increased Responsibilities (cont.)

86 Section 3-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Leadership Qualities and Skills Many presidents generally exhibit more than one of these qualities and skills.  Several great presidents have had them all. Several specific leadership qualities common to all good administrators are necessary for a president to exercise leadership. 

87 Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Understanding the Public Public support, in turn, can give a president real leverage in influencing lawmakers.  As a representative body, Congress is very sensitive to the amount of public support a president can generate. The most successful presidents have had a genuine feel for the hopes, fears, and moods of the nation they seek to lead. 

88 Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Failure to understand the public mood can bring disaster to a president.  President Herbert Hoover’s failure to understand the mood and fears of the people cost him the 1932 presidential election. He lost to Franklin D. Roosevelt in a landslide. When a president is popular, presidential proposals and policies are better received by Congress than when the public holds a president in low regard.  Understanding the Public (cont.)

89 Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ability to Communicate A president who cannot communicate effectively may have difficulty exercising leadership.  President Carter, for example, had problems in winning public support for his policies. Successful presidents must be able to communicate effectively–to explain their policies clearly and to present their ideas in a way that inspires public support. 

90 Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. President Reagan, on the other hand, was dubbed “the Great Communicator” by the press because of his ability to sell his ideas to the public. Ability to Communicate (cont.)

91 Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Sense of Timing Skillful presidents often use their assistants or cabinet secretaries to test a position on a controversial issue. One way is to deliberately leak information to the press.  Another device is to have a cabinet secretary or an aide make a statement about the issue or give a speech about it. A successful president must know when the time is right to introduce a new policy or to make a key decision as well as when to delay doing so. 

92 Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. If reaction is unfavorable, the idea may be quietly dropped, or the president may begin a campaign to shape public opinion on the issue. If public and congressional responses are favorable, the president then supports the position and may implement the policy.  Sense of Timing (cont.)

93 Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Openness to New Ideas Presidents who are flexible are willing to engage in informal give-and-take sessions with their advisers.  Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and John Kennedy liked to hear their staffs argue differing positions.  In contrast, President Ronald Reagan did not tolerate serious dissension among his staff. Good leadership also requires the capacity to be flexible and open to new ideas. 

94 Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ability to Compromise Presidents who will not compromise risk accomplishing nothing at all. The nature of politics is such that even the president must often be willing to give up something in order to get something in return. 

95 Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Political Courage President Lincoln made the greatest of such decisions during the Civil War.  The early years of the war went very badly for the North–the casualty list was horrendous, and the war’s end seemed nowhere in sight. To be great leaders, presidents must at times have the courage to make decisions they know will be unpopular with the voters. 

96 Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Political Courage (cont.) Despite his belief that his decision would cause him to be defeated for reelection in 1864, Lincoln decided to continue the war and to preserve the Union. As time passed, the war became increasingly unpopular, and the president came under intense public and political pressure to negotiate a peace with the South. 

97 Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Isolation As presidents have become more dependent on the White House staff, however, the danger that they may become isolated from the information and advice they need has increased. Information and realistic advice are key ingredients for successful decision making. 

98 Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Special Treatment In such an atmosphere, it is easy for presidents to see themselves as deserving only praise and to consider their ideas as above criticism. Modern presidents get very special treatment. 

99 Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Voicing Opinions No matter how well they know the president as a person, the office of president awes almost all staff advisers.  A close adviser and friend of President Kennedy put the feeling this way:  Presidents may discourage staff members from disagreeing with them or giving them unpleasant advice.  –“I saw no halo, I observed no mystery. And yet I found that my own personal, highly informal relationship with him changed as soon as he entered the Oval Office.”

100 Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Voicing Opinions (cont.) Such feelings can make it difficult for staff to present unpleasant news or voice criticism, which may mean that the president sometimes receives one-sided views of an issue.

101 Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Access to the President Top members of the White House staff are closer to the president than any other government officials.  Presidents have different styles of managing staff. Franklin Roosevelt liked having competitive staff full of differing ideas, but Lyndon Johnson was less open to different ideas or dissent. A veteran political observer once noted that “power in Washington is measured in access to the president.” 

102 Section 3-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Dangers of Isolation President Reagan at first depended heavily on several top advisers.  During his second term, however, his new chief of staff, Donald Regan, severely restricted access to the president. Not only do top staffers have easy access to the president, but they also use their closeness to control others’ access. 

103 Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Dangers of Isolation (cont.) Like Nixon before Watergate, President Reagan became increasingly isolated.  This isolation may explain why the president apparently was unaware of the covert, or secret, activities his National Security Council staff in the Iran-contra affair were conducting. One Reagan staffer called Regan the de facto president, meaning that although Regan did not legally hold the office, he exercised power as though he was president. 

104 Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Staying in Touch Keeping in direct touch with the public can be very difficult, if not impossible, for a modern president.  The need for cabinet members to protect the interests of their departments and the constituent groups they serve always influences the advice they give. Most political observers caution that despite a president’s best intentions, power will inevitably drift toward the White House. 

105 Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Use of Executive Privilege To keep White House discussions and policy making confidential, modern presidents have sometimes used executive privilege.  Executive privilege is the right of the president and other high-ranking executive officers, with the president’s consent, to refuse to provide information to Congress or a court. Presidents do not want the information from their advisers to become public knowledge. 

106 Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Congress has disputed executive privilege, claiming that its oversight powers give it the right to obtain necessary information from the executive branch. Although the Constitution does not mention executive privilege, the concept rests on the principle of separation of powers.  The Use of Executive Privilege (cont.)

107 Section 3-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Limits of Executive Privilege They argue that executive privilege is necessary if they are to get frank opinions and advice from their assistants.  Until recently, neither Congress nor the courts had much need to question members of the White House staff. These presidential aides traditionally had little to do with making policy. Presidents have long claimed that executive privilege also protects their communication with other members of the executive branch. 

108 Section 3-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Because more policy making has been taking place in the Executive Office of the President, however, the constitutionality and limits of executive privilege have become an important question. The various cabinet departments made key policy decisions, and Congress could call department heads to testify as part of its oversight function.  Limits of Executive Privilege (cont.)

109 Section 3-29 United States v. Nixon President Nixon had secretly tape-recorded his conversations with key aides about the Watergate cover-up.  In United States v. Nixon, the Court unanimously ruled that the president had to surrender the tapes to the special prosecutor investigating the scandal. The Court also ruled, however, that executive privilege was constitutionally based.United States v. Nixon In 1974 the Supreme Court issued a major decision on executive privilege.  Click the blue hyperlink to explore the Supreme Court case.

110 Section 3-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. They fear that the privilege may enable presidents to possibly hide misdeeds. As yet, this fear has not been realized.  Although the president’s right of executive privilege is legally recognized, the question of how far it extends to presidential advisers remains unanswered. Some argue that by defending the constitutional basis of executive privilege, the Court has opened the way for even more secrecy in the White House.  United States v. Nixon (cont.)

111 Section 3-Assessment 1 Why are communication skills so important to being an effective president? Communication skills are needed to explain policies clearly and to inspire public support. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

112 Section 3-Assessment 2 What leadership quality do you think is most important to the success of a president? Explain why. Several leadership qualities are important, including understanding the public, the ability to communicate, a sense of timing, openness to new ideas, the ability to compromise, and political courage. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

113 End of Section 3 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Section 3

114 Chapter Assessment (1) Identify the five constitutional roles or duties of the president. 1.head of state: represents the nation and performs many ceremonial roles 2.chief executive: sees that the laws of Congress are carried out 3.chief legislator: proposes a legislative program for the nation 4.chief diplomat: directs the foreign policy 5.commander in chief: directs the armed forces Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

115 Chapter Assessment (2) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. 1.limitations by Congress 2.federal courts 3.federal bureaucracy 4.public opinion What are four limits on presidential power?

116 Chapter Assessment (3) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What is the president’s role as party leader? The president helps party members who are running for office, helps to raise funds for the party, selects the national chairperson, and helps plan election strategies.

117 Chapter Assessment (4) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The president may lose public support. Without the leverage of public support, relations with Congress will be difficult and the president’s effectiveness will diminish. Why can failing to understand the public’s mood weaken a president’s power?

118 Chapter Assessment (5) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Most information comes through close aides who screen out what they do not want the president to hear. Thus, the flow of information and ideas to the president may be severely limited. Also, presidents may isolate themselves by discouraging opposing opinions or unwanted advice. How do presidents become isolated?

119 Chapter Assessment (6) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Congress could have prevented Jefferson’s purchase by refusing to ratify the treaty or refusing to raise the money for the purchase of the Louisiana Territory. How could Congress have prevented President Jefferson from purchasing the Louisiana Territory?

120 Chapter Bonus Which president holds the record for writing the most (3,522) executive orders? Chapter Bonus Question Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Franklin D. Roosevelt, who also served the longest as president, holds the record by writing 3,522 executive orders.

121 End of Chapter Assessment Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of Chapter Assessment

122 Goto Contents

123 Important 1 Big Decisions The president of the United States is the most powerful person on earth. The president can determine where our armed forces are sent and who gets pardoned from federal crimes. Presidential appointments in the executive and judicial branches affect our lives every day. The Chapter 9 video lesson Presidential Leadership will show you how the president makes important decisions and leads our nation. Click the forward button or press the space bar to access the Democracy In Action preview and activities.

124 Important 2 Click the Forward button to view the discussion questions and other related slides. Presidential Leadership Click inside this box to play the preview.

125 Important 3 Recognize key events associated with exemplary presidents.  Realize that a president’s effectiveness is not always recognized during his or her time in office. Objectives Identify key characteristics of effective presidents.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Leadership

126 Important 4 Activity List the personal characteristics the video presents as contributing to the greatness of these presidents: Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Roosevelt, John Kennedy, Ronald Reagan. Abraham Lincoln: Franklin Roosevelt: John Kennedy: Ronald Reagan: Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Presidential Leadership determination, perseverance flexibility, determination rebounded from failure, willing to take risks ability to move people with words (the “great communicator”), ability to simplify issues

127 Important 5 Activity What three problems did John Kennedy have to overcome as president? 1.a narrow electoral margin 2.suspect as a Roman Catholic 3.youth Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Presidential Leadership

128 End of Important Click the mouse button to return to the Contents. End of Why It’s Important

129 Government Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the United States Government: Democracy in Action Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to gov.glencoe.com

130 Section Focus Transparency 9-1 (1 of 2) Section Focus Transparency 1

131 Section Focus Transparency 1 (Answers) Section Focus Transparency 9-1 (2 of 2) 1.President Richard M. Nixon 2.Possible answers include: These words represent the opposite extremes of absolute power and powerlessness. 3.Answers will vary, but students may conclude that the situation has not really changed.

132 Section Focus Transparency 9-2 (1 of 2) Section Focus Transparency 2

133 Section Focus Transparency 2 (Answers) Section Focus Transparency 9-2 (2 of 2) 1.Answers will vary but should show an understanding of the requirements of the various roles. 2.Answers will vary but should be based on thought and reason. 3.Answers will vary but students may mention support staff, agencies, and advisers.

134 Section Focus Transparency 9-3 (1 of 2) Section Focus Transparency 3

135 Section Focus Transparency 3 (Answers) Section Focus Transparency 9-3 (2 of 2) 1.John F. Kennedy, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, Ronald Reagan 2.They all represent issues Clinton has faced. 3.These former presidents each faced an issue similar to the ones Clinton faced.

136 When physically unimpressive President James K. Polk entered a room, he sometimes went unnoticed. His wife, Sarah, decided to ensure him of a president’s welcome by requesting the marine band to play “Hail to the Chief,” an old Scottish anthem, when he arrived. The tradition of playing the tune upon arrival of the president has lasted to this day. Hail to the Chief LPP 1

137 DYK 1 Psychologists often use five significant characteristics– neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness–to classify personality types. Using the characteristics to measure presidents, some psychologists ranked Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt first and second respectively in extroversion, with Bill Clinton as third. The ranked Richard Nixon as the most neurotic, Thomas Jefferson as the most open to experience, and James Madison and Abraham Lincoln as the most agreeable. George Washington was rated the most conscientious.

138 SoW 1 Virginia is the birthplace of eight presidents, more than any other state. Born there were George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, and Woodrow Wilson. Ohio is second with seven presidents: Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding. New York and Massachusetts each have had four presidents. New York claims Martin Van Buren, Millard Fillmore, and Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt. Massachusetts was home to John Adams, John Quincy Adams, John F. Kennedy, and George Bush. Births and Birthplaces

139 Marbury v Madison This case established one of the most significant principles of American constitutional law. In this case, the Supreme Court held that it is the Court itself that has the final say on what the Constitution means. It is also the Supreme Court that has the final say in whether or not an act of government–legislative or executive at the federal, state, or local level–violates the Constitution. Marbury v. Madison (1803) Click the Section Start button to return to the lecture notes.

140 Clinton v NY Click the Section Start button to return to the lecture notes. This case consolidated two challenges to line-item vetoes President Clinton issued in The Court ruled 6 to 3 in favor of New York City hospitals and Idaho’s Snake River Potato Growers, who challenged separate vetoes. Justice Stevens said Congress could not endow the president with power to alter laws without amending the Constitution. Clinton v. City of New York (1998)

141 Youngstown v Sawyer This case arose when a nationwide strike of steelworkers threatened to shut down the industry at the height of the Korean War. (Steel production was essential to the war effort.) To avert the strike, President Truman ordered the secretary of commerce to take over the steel mills and keep them running. The Supreme Court held that the president must relinquish control of the mills because he had exceeded his constitutional authority. The Court specifically held that the president’s authority as commander in chief did not justify his action. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer (1952) (Continued) Click the Section Start button to return to the lecture notes.

142 Youngstown v Sawyer 2 The Court explained that only Congress could “nationalize” an industry; if Congress did so, the president, who is constitutionally required to execute the law, would be authorized to seize and operate the mills. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer (cont.) Click the Section Start button to return to the lecture notes.

143 US v Nixon This case made it clear that the president is not above the law. In the early 1970s, President Nixon was named as an unindicted coconspirator in the criminal investigation that arose in the aftermath of a break-in at the offices of the Democratic Party in Washington, D.C. A federal judge had ordered President Nixon to turn over tapes of conversations he had had with his advisers; Nixon resisted the order, claiming that the conversations were entitled to absolute confidentiality by Article II of the Constitution. United States v. Nixon (1974) (Continued) Click the Section Start button to return to the lecture notes.

144 US v Nixon 2 The Supreme Court disagreed and held that only those presidential conversations and communications that relate to performing the duties of the office of president are confidential and protected from a judicial order of disclosure. United States v. Nixon (cont.) Click the Section Start button to return to the lecture notes.

145 End of Custom Shows (Do not remove.) End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

146 End of Slide Show Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide. End of the Slide Show


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