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Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 1 Submitted by Lt Col Brian McGrain & MSgt Rich Sambuchino (PA-931) -----Original Message-----

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Presentation on theme: "Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 1 Submitted by Lt Col Brian McGrain & MSgt Rich Sambuchino (PA-931) -----Original Message-----"— Presentation transcript:

1 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 1 Submitted by Lt Col Brian McGrain & MSgt Rich Sambuchino (PA-931) -----Original Message----- From: PA-931 Sent: Wednesday, January 10, :03 PM To: Ledbetter Roger D Civ AFOATS/CRJD Subject: Yugoslavia Lesson--Global and Cultural Studies course Mr Ledbetter, Just thought I would pass along a powerpoint lesson I prepared for Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (Lesson 4). Brian Cathedral Preparatory School (814) x. 260 Brian McGrain, SASI, Rich Sambuchino, ASI,

2 Air Force Junior ROTC PA-931 Cathedral Preparatory School Erie, PA Global and Cultural Studies

3 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 3 Europe in Transition Lesson 4 – Nationalism, Conflict, and Immigration Introductory Video (12:30) Assignment Read pages Complete the written assignment on pages

4 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 4 Introduction The emerging democracies in Central and Eastern Europe and the growth of the European Union (EU) A relatively optimistic picture of continental peace and eventual prosperity Tensions between different Ethnic Religious And cultural groups Lead to violence

5 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 5 Some of the Hotspots We Will Look At The former Yugoslavia Northern Ireland Cyprus Spain And … persecution of the Roma and tensions between Europeans and immigrant groups

6 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 6

7 7 Nation, Nationalism, and Ethnic Cleansing Nationalism can be a force of fragmentation as well as unification A NATION is a group of people who see themselves ethnically, culturally, linguistically, or otherwise related Loyalty to one’s national group could be good or evil … the promotion of its CULTURE and interests over those of other national groups might not be in the best interests of a nation … this is NATIONALISM When nationalism is carried to its darkest extreme, it can lead to violent acts against other national groups … ETHNIC CLEANSING is a campaign to eradicate another ethnic group through forced migration, imprisonment, suppression of culture, and murder

8 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 8 The Holocaust in Germany It is a question of existence, thus it will be a racial struggle of pitiless severity, in the course of which 20 to 30 million Slavs and Jews will perish through military actions and crises of food supply. Heinrich Himmler, June 1941

9 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 9 Nationalism in Former Yugoslavia Home to some of the most volatile ethnic conflicts on the continent The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, united under the Serbian king, was one of seven new independent states created in the wake of World War I

10 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 10

11 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 11 Between World War I and II Internal rivalries between its several nationalities Primarily between the Serbs and Croats Leader of Croat Peasant Party shot on the floor of the National Assembly in 1928 King Alexander I dissolved parliament and took control of the government … changed the name of his kingdom to Yugoslavia (land of the south Slavs)

12 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 12 Yugoslavia During World War II Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1941 It installed a puppet Croatian government in the Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia portions of Yugoslavia This government killed as many as 400,000 Serbs Two opposing forces within Yugoslavia Chetniks … loyalists who sought the return of monarchy Communist … led by Josip Tito

13 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 13 Tito’s Yugoslavia Following World War II, Tito and the communists assumed power in Yugoslavia Six republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia Watch This

14 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 14 Tito became the first communist leader to reject Moscow’s directions in 1948 He had attained power with little help from Russia Remained politically non-aligned during the Cold War Needed to suppress ethnic conflict … and did with some limited success In 1974, each republic demanded that power be shifted from the central government to each of the 6 republics Regions began competing with each other and the entire Yugoslav economy suffered Marshall Tito

15 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 15 Tito’s Death in 1980 Rotating presidency between leaders of each republic When in control – set policies that favored that republic at the expense of the others Political and economic uncertainty 1986 … Slobodan Milosevic (Serb nationalist) became the leader of Serbia’s communist party President of Serbia in 1989 Called for Serb pride to keep Yugoslavia together and to end what he called the oppression of Serbs living in the other Yugoslav republics 1991  Slovenia and Croatia declare independence, followed by Macedonia, and then Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992

16 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 16 Escape is Not Easy for … Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina Home to many Serbs Would come to bloody warfare

17 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 17 War in Croatia Demands for creation of a multiparty system became apparent in 1989 Election in 1990 put a staunch Croatian nationalist in charge of the republic The Serb minority feared repression The passage of a new constitution  did not protect the rights of the minority Serbs Croatians demanded greater sovereignty, however politicians in Serbia were unwilling to consider Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence on June 25, 1991 Open warfare erupted when the Yugoslav army moved in to “protect” the ethnic Serbs in Croatia … nearly 1/3 rd of Croatia was militarily occupied by Yugoslavia … by 1998, Croatia had regained all its lost lands

18 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 18 War War in Bosnia Bosnia and Herzegovina is among the most evenly divided in terms of its ethnic makeup (Serbs, Croats, and Bosnian Muslims) Under Tito, these communities lived apart but with relatively few problems As Croatia and Slovenia pulled away, B/H also aspired to independence A referendum in 1992 was opposed by ethnic Serbs residing in the region (and supported by fellow Serbs in Serbia) Armed resistance with the idea of carving up B/H further along ethnic lines Non-Serbs (particularly Muslims) became the targets of ethnic cleansing

19 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 19 Behind Enemy Lines – the movie

20 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 20 United Nations intervention in 1992 was aimed to ensure the supply of humanitarian relief made its way to the right places The Serb nationalists conquered more than 70% of B/H NATO air strikes began in 1994 Serbian aggression continued 350 UN peacekeepers were taken hostage and eventually released Serbs overran the UN-protected Muslim enclave of Srebrenica, killing thousands of Muslims and causing thousands more to flee

21 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 21 Srebrenica

22 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 22 The Dayton Peace Agreement U.S. led negotiations resulted in a cease-fire in October 1995 Leaders from Serbia, Bosnia, and Croatia met for 3 weeks at Wright- Patterson Base in Dayton, Oh in November A final treaty was signed in Paris on December 14 A division of lands along ethnic lines to be enforced by NATO troops Federation of Bosnia Bosnian Serb Republic Mainly Croats and Muslims Primarily Serbs United under a single central government with a three-person rotating presidency, composed of a Muslim, a Croat, and a Serb

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24 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 24 Conflict in Kosovo ProvinceKosovo Kosovo came under Serb control in the 12 th century In 1389, the site of a historic battle in which the advancing Ottoman Empire crushed the Serb army At the creation of the Yugoslav republic after WW 2, Kosovo (with its Albanian ethnic majority) became an autonomous province within Serbia Schools, courts, police, provincial assembly, etc 1989 – Milosevic revoked the autonomous status

25 Global and Cultural Studies - Europe in Transition (unit 4) 25 By 1995, unrest led to the creation of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) Took up arms against Serb troops and police in Kosovo Milosevic responded with repression and ethnic cleansing By early 1998 – fighting and ethnic cleansing had escalated Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and the US imposed economic sanctions and issued stern warnings A subsequent truce was broken In March 1999, air strikes against Yugoslavia Continued killing of Albanians Large push of refugees into Albania and Macedonia June 1999, Milosevic accepted a peace plan to end the conflict


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