Rule # 1 – add an “s” Girl – girls Book – books Toy – toys Street- streets Student - students
Rule # 2 Nouns that end with s, z, ch, sh, x Add “es” Dress – dresses Box – boxes Dish – dishes Bench - benches
Rule # 3 Nouns that end with a vowel and a “Y” – add “s” Valley – valleys Turkey - turkeys
Rule # 4 Nouns that end with a consonant and a “Y” Change the y to i and add “es” City- cities Lady – ladies Puppy- puppies
Rule # 5 Nouns that end in f or fe Change the f to a v and add “s” or “es” Life- lives Calf – calves leaf - leaves
Rule # 6 Nouns that end in a vowel plus “o” add “s” Radio – radios Stereo - stereos
Rule # 7 Nouns that end with a consonant plus “o” add “es” Hero – heroes Tomato - tomatoes
Exceptions Solo – solos Piano - pianos
Rule # 8 Change the word Foot- feet Man- men Mouse – mice Child- children
Rule # 9 Nouns that stay the same Trout Salmon Deer Sheep moose
Possessive Nouns Nouns that show ownership are called Possessive Nouns- they own something
Possessive Nouns The dog’s scarf was red. Sara’s hat and mittens match. The sun’s rays were very hot today.
Remember: nouns can be singular or plural SingularPlural boyboys dogclasses bookmen
You either add: add’s or s’
Step number 1 Look at the noun. Decide if the noun is singular or plural.
If the noun is singular, add ’ s Examples: boyThe boy’s coat hatThe hat’s brim girlThe girl’s dress bookThe book’s cover brotherMy brother’s desk pencilThe pencil’s tip
If the noun is Plural look at the ending If the noun ends in s – add only an apostrophe dressesThe dresses’ ruffles berriesThe berries’ stems leavesThe leaves’ colors booksThe books’ covers
If the noun is Plural look at the ending If the noun DOES NOT end in s – add apostrophe s menThe men’s coats feetThe feet’s smells womenThe women’s shoes teethThe teeth’s color
? Ask yourself- is the noun singular or plural then, decide what to do My __ eyes are beautiful. Dog This store sells__ shoes. Boys We are going to __ after school. Mary The ___ bottle was on the floor. child
Appositives A group of words that explains – set off by commas Mary, my best friend, is moving to a new town. My dog, Katey, is a Golden Retriever. I have a beautiful dog, Katey.