**Election of 1824** MA (N) Carolinas & TN (S & W) * son of former president *professional/political family *Harvard-educated * orphan *poor farming family (frontier) *self-educated * US Congress *Sec. of State (Monroe) [Adams-Onis Trty. – 1821] * US Congress *military leader (Gen.) [Indians, 1812, FL] NATIONAL REPUBLICAN (later: “WHIG”) DEMOCRATIC- REPUBLICAN (later: “DEMOCRAT”) * strong FED. govt. *supported bank/tariffs *govt. support of business, arts, sciences, transportation * strong STATE govts. *opposed bank/tariffs *govt. support of agriculture (small farms), common ppl.
Chapter 12, Section 1 The Dispute Over the Election of 1824 The Candidates all “Republicans” John Quincy Adams (support in New England) Andrew Jackson (support in the west) Henry Clay (support in the West) William Crawford (support in the South) The Election William Crawford became too ill to campaign (still had 3 rd most electoral votes) Andrew Jackson won the popular vote. No candidate won a MAJORITY (more than half) of the electoral vote; the election went to the House of Representatives: Jackson, Adams, Crawford (too ill to be elected) The House named John Quincy Adams President. Hard feelings In the electoral vote, Henry Clay finished 4th; he was out of the running when the election went to the House. Clay was Speaker of the House; he urged House members to vote for Adams. Later, Adams named Clay his Secretary of State Jackson and his supporters said that Adams and Clay had worked together to steal the election. (“CORRUPT BARGAIN”) more than 1/2
Chapter 12, Section 1 John Quincy Adams Was an Unpopular President Adams’ PlanHow Most Americans Reacted The federal government should promote economic growth. It should pay for roads and canals to help farmers transport goods to market. The government should promote the arts and sciences by building a national university and an observatory. These programs cost too much money. These programs would make the federal government too powerful. What Jackson’s Supporters SaidWhat Adams’ Supporters Said Adams had made a “corrupt bargain” in the 1824 election; should not be reelected in 1828 Adams was a member of the upper class - the “elite” - not a common person like farmers of the South and West. Jackson was a dangerous “military chieftain.” If Jackson won the election of 1828, he could easily become a dictator like Napoleon.
National Republicans + Federalists [J. Adams] Democratic Republicans + Common ppl. [Jefferson] New Political Parties National Republicans, known as WHIGS (Last of the old-line Federalists) People who supported Adams and his programs for national growth became known as WHIGS. Supporters included the “elite”: eastern business people, some southern planters, former Federalists Wanted the federal government to spur the economy through support of manufacturing & trade DEMOCRATS Jackson and his supporters called themselves DEMOCRATS. Supporters included the common people: frontier farmers, eastern factory workers, new immigrants Wanted the government to support “common people” (farmers, family-owned businesses)
Chapter 12, Section 1 The United States was growing rapidly. Many new states were in the west, between the Appalachians and the Mississippi (KY, TN, OH, IL, IN, MS, AL, LA)
Chapter 12, Section 1 ELECTION OF 1828: J. Q. ADAMS (Whig) vs. A. JACKSON (Democrat)
Chapter 12, Section 1 Growing Spirit of Equality Suffrage ExpandsPolitical Parties Change The “ Common Man ” Rises US expanding rapidly Frontier life encouraged democratic spirit More white men are eligible to vote - property qualifications for voters end Before 1828: voter turnout @28% 1828: voter turnout @58% 1840: voter turnout @80% [Anyone not a white male still denied suffrage…] The caucus system ends (private meetings) Nominating conventions are held to choose presidential candidates (open to more people) ppl. choose political candidates through conventions The spoils system lets ordinary citizens participate in government Ideas about social classes change right to vote private meeting to choose political candidates open/public meeting in which delegates from all states choose political candidates
Chapter 12, Section 2 Andrew Jackson – elected 1828 Strong-willed Tough Complex Quick temper Ability to inspire and lead others A man of his word A champion of the common people
self-educated; lawyer; land broker; US Congressman; military leader
Jackson Takes Over When he took office, Jackson fired many government employees and replaced them with his supporters. Critics accused Jackson of rewarding Democrats for helping to elect him instead of choosing men who were qualified. Jackson said he was serving democracy by letting more citizens take part in government; he felt that ordinary Americans were capable of doing government jobs. A Jackson supporter explained, “ To the victor belong the spoils. ” The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs became known as the spoils system. Jackson rewarded a number of supporters with Cabinet jobs. Few of them were qualified. So, Jackson relied on unofficial advisers. He met with them in the White House kitchen. The group became known as the “ kitchen cabinet. ”
rewarding supporters with govt. jobs ”To the victor belong the spoils” AJ’s group of informal advisors met in the kitchen of the White House *appointing “ordinary citizens” to govt. jobs *pushing for states’ rights *allowing “common ppl.” to serve
*unconstitutional *undemocratic (supported the wealthy, not the common ppl.) *too powerful (controlled $$ supply) *controlled production (minting/printing) of $$ *controlled & limited loans by state banks NICHOLAS BIDDLE President of the Bank of the United States
Chapter 12, Section 2 President Jackson vs. the Bank of the United States The Bank of the United States had great power because it controlled the loans made by state banks. – President Jackson thought the Bank was undemocratic. – He felt that Bank president Nicholas Biddle chose his rich friends to receive loans. Whigs persuaded Biddle to try to renew the Bank ’ s charter before the 1832 election. – They thought that if Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the charter, he would anger voters and lose the election. When the bill to renew the Bank ’ s charter reached the President, AJ vetoed it. – 1 st : Bank was unconstitutional. – 2 nd : Bank helped aristocrats at the expense of the common people. Jackson reelected (his supporters didn’t like the bank, either!) Jackson ordered the Secretary of the Treasury to stop putting federal money in the Bank of the United States. The bank closed in 1836.
*asked bank pres. to apply for early renewal in time for election of 1832 *hoped AJ would veto bank & lose election *vetoed bank *ppl. approved *AJ reelected in 1832 *ordered Sec. of Treas. to use state banks – NOT Nat. Bank *Sec. Treas. stopped putting $$ in Nat. Bank; Nat. Bank closed in 1836
The Tariff Crisis and the Nullification Act *it raised the prices of imported goods (highest in US history) *thought it was unconstitutional *unfairly targeting South In 1828, Congress passed the highest tariff in the history of the nation. Southerners called it the Tariff of Abominations. Northern manufacturers favored the tariff; it protected them from foreign competition. Southern planters were against the tariff; it raised the cost of the manufactured goods they bought from Europe.
The Tariff Crisis and the Nullification Act Vice President John C. Calhoun (S) fought against the tariff by introducing the idea of nullification. – Calhoun (S) claimed that a state had the right to nullify (cancel) a federal law that it considered unconstitutional. – Daniel Webster (N) attacked the idea of nullification. **violation of Article VI (National Supremacy) – Const. unites ppl. & states **if states can choose to nullify fed. laws, the US will fall apart AJ believed in states’ rights, but he disagreed with NULLIFICATION. Calhoun believed so strongly in nullification, he resigned as VP Calhoun was then elected Senator from SC
The Tariff Crisis and the Nullification Act of 1832 Congress passed a lower tariff in 1832, but South Carolina was not satisfied. The state passed the Nullification Act, declaring the new tariff illegal. – SC threatened to secede (withdraw from the Union); this could lead to civil war – Jackson asked Congress to pass the Force Bill. – The FORCE BILL allowed the President to use the army to enforce fed. laws (tariff) – South Carolina repealed (did away with) the Nullification Act The Nullification Crisis again brought up states’ rights: the power of states to limit the power of the federal government.
Native Americans Are Forced From Their Homeland The Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Seminole nations lived in the Southeast. Settlers wanted the Indian lands for growing cotton. President Jackson sided with the settlers. The federal government set aside lands beyond the Mississippi and had begun to persuade/force Indians to move there. GA ordered the Cherokees to move west. – The Cherokees went to court, arguing that they were a sovereign nation not bound by the laws of GA. Treaties with the federal government protected their rights and their property (the US government only makes treaties with sovereign nations) – When the case reached the Supreme Court, the Court agreed that the Cherokees were an independent nation not bound by the laws of GA (Worcester v. GA) President Jackson refused to enforce the Court ’ s decision [In the Cherokee case, he backed states ’ rights]. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. It forced many Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi (in direct violation of the Supreme Court’s decision) 1838: Jackson ordered the United States Army to force more than 15,000 Cherokees westward. – Thousands perished during the march. – The long, sad journey west became known as the Trail of Tears.
**lands chosen by US govt.; no water, not good for farming/hunting move W of Miss. River **became known as TRAIL OF TEARS (5,000+ died)
Native Americans Are Forced From Their Homelands (continuation) 1817-1818 - First Seminole War: In Florida, the Seminole Indians resisted removal; they fought against the United States Army 1835-1842 - The Second Seminole War: continuing conflicts with the US army 1845-1858 – The Third Seminole War: Seminoles were finally defeated. The federal government forced most Seminoles to leave Florida.
Martin Van Buren (AJ’s VP – 2 nd term) – elected in 1836 Martin Van Buren faced the worst economic crisis the nation had known: the Panic of 1837: The federal government sold off millions of acres of land in the West. – Speculators borrowed money from state banks to buy up the land. – To make the loans, state banks printed a lot of paper money. – To slow down the wild buying, Jackson (1836) ordered that anyone buying public land had to pay with gold or silver. – Buyers rushed to the banks to exchange paper money for gold and silver – Many banks did not have enough gold & silver; banks had to close down. The panic became worse when cotton prices fell. – Cotton planters had borrowed money to plant crops.; too much cotton on the market – When prices fell, they could not repay their loans. – As a result, more banks failed. The nation plunged into a deep economic depression (period when business declines and many people lose their jobs). Many people blamed Van Buren.
**state bank loans to land speculators **drop in cotton prices **printing of paper $$ not backed by gold/silver **banks closing **tried to set up more stable banking system **cut govt. expenses**LAISSEZ FAIRE economics (“let it alone”)
The Campaign of 1840 Democrat: Martin Van Buren vs. Whig: William Henry Harrison * candidates traveling & making public speeches*rallies*gifts * parades*banquets*entertainments*MUDSLINGING
Most people blamed VanBuren for the economic depression Harrison was a war hero (Battle of Tippecanoe, War of 1812) Harrison was easily elected Harrison died 1 month after inauguration VP John Tyler became president