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Who are we?  Naomi Fitzsimmons Parts replacement  Matt Lapolla Programming, Technical issues,

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Presentation on theme: "Who are we?  Naomi Fitzsimmons Parts replacement  Matt Lapolla Programming, Technical issues,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Who are we?  Naomi Fitzsimmons Parts replacement  Matt Lapolla Programming, Technical issues, Rules, etc.  John Robertson Policies, Technical Issues, Scoring  Bill Ryan Everything else

3 Overview  Terminology  Hardware Overview  Programming Languages  Installing Easy C  Programming example Defining Inputs Defining Outputs Input - Output Relationship Write Program Test Program Other Useful Functions  Appendix

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5 Terminology: Proportional or Non-Proportional Press to Play Proportional (Analog) Non-Proportional (Digital) Regular Light Switch Dimmer Light Switch

6 Servo vs Motor Transmitter Cortex Controller Servo Motor QUESTIONS ? Robot

7 Terminology: Programming software  Compile – changes your C program into object code that the linker understands.  Link – combines your program’s object code with the Intelitek library and other libraries to create code that is executable on the Cortex processor.  Download / Bootload – transfers the machine code version of your program from the PC to the Cortex where it will execute (the IFI/Intelitek Loader will perform the transfer via the PC USB cable)

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9 Hardware Overview: Joystick 2 XY analog joysticks 8 buttons on top Plug-in USB/ WiFi Key 4 Button on front-side Partner/ Buddy Control Support3 Axis Accelerometer (XY Tilt, XYZ Accel, Shake) Power switch 6 AAA rechargeable batteries

10 Hardware Overview: Joystick – What you will use 2 XY analog joysticks 8 buttons on top Plug-in USB/ WiFi Key 4 Button on front-side Partner/ Buddy Control Support3 Axis Accelerometer (XY Tilt, XYZ Accel, Shake) Power switch 6 AAA rechargeable batteries 3 Axis Accelerometer (XY Tilt)

11 Hardware Overview: Cortex Controller USB Analog in Digital in/out 2-wire motor Standard Serial Interfaces (UART, I2C) Speaker Out SP wire motor 3-wire PWM servo/motor ctrl 2 10

12 Hardware Overview: Cortex Controller – What you will use USB Analog in Digital in/out 2-wire motor Standard Serial Interfaces (UART, I2C) Speaker Out SP wire motor 3-wire PWM servo/motor ctrl 2 10 Digital in

13 Hardware Overview: Cortex Controller backup battery port for WiFi communications (9V) 75MHz crystal interface ports On/Off switch main battery port (7.2V) configuration switch (used for special procedures) This will only be important on Game Day. Install before each match. Remove after each match.

14 Hardware Overview: Cortex Controller – What you will use backup battery port for WiFi communications (9V) 75MHz crystal interface ports On/Off switch main battery port (7.2V) configuration switch (used for special procedures)

15 Hardware Overview: Cortex Controller Ground + 5V Signal/Control + Battery Power + Motor Power (for + control input) - Motor Power (for – control input)

16 Hardware Overview: DC Motors Do not solder to motors. Use spade connectors instead. Polarity is NOT marked on motors: positive(+), negative(-) Wiring and programming will determine clockwise or counter clockwise rotation for positive stick movement Mount motors with 8-32 machine screws Machine screws must be cut to proper length to avoid motor damage! max screw depth= ~1/8” (small motor) ~1/4” (large motor)

17 If using built-in motor controller(s) connect via 2-wire screw terminal cables (red/black) use motor ports 1 & 10 only If using external motor controller(s) connect via 3-wire external motor controller + 2-wire screw terminal cable use motor ports 2 thru 9 only Hardware Overview: DC Motors

18 Hardware Overview: 2 wire Motor connection Ports 1, 10 Port 1 and Port 10 Built-In Motor Controllers Connector is not keyed. Allows swapping polarity. Screw terminals for attaching motor wires

19 Hardware Overview: 3 wire Motor connection Ports External Motor Controller Standard 2-wire motor cable Standard 3-wire PWM connector Plug in to Motor Ports 2 thru 9 Suggest using a 4” wire tie or heat shrink tubing here Screw terminals for attaching motor leads

20 Hardware Overview: Servo – Electrical Connection Futaba S3003 or S3004 series Maximum 120 degree rotation (+60, -60) Connection to Cortex controller via 3-wire PWM + 2x3 pin header use motor ports 2 thru 9 only Servo horns may be modified 2x3 pin header servo horns (2) (1)

21 Hardware Overview: Servo – Electrical Connection Insert a 2x3 pin header Occupies 2 ports Converts VEX female port to male port Because Futaba servos have female connectors

22 Hardware Overview: Servo – Electrical Connection Servo connectors are keyed for proper insertion. (small tab shown) Servo Cables White= Data Red = +Batt Voltage Black = Gnd Second half of 2x3 pin header.

23 Hardware Overview: Servo – Mounting Hardware Futaba 3003/3004 Servos 4 per Kit Mounting Hardware for each To eliminate damage to mounting holes Servo Mounting Hardware Rubber grommet (2) Brass spacer (4) Mounting screw (4) Note: There are 16 of each screw, spacer, grommet in the Return Kit.

24 Hardware Overview: Servo – Mounting Hardware 1. No h/w attached2. Attach rubber grommets 3. Insert brass spacers4. Secure servo with screws

25 Hardware Overview: Digital Input/Output Use for switches Connect to Cortex digital inputs using 2-wire sensor screw terminal cables (white/black wires) sensor screw terminal cable Connect to switch Connect to Cortex digital input port

26 Hardware Overview: Digital Input / Output must program digital port for proper direction (input) Open: Program reads as ‘1’ ; Closed: Program Reads as ‘0’ use digital ports 1 thru 12 sensor cable connector is keyed

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28 Programming Languages  Best Inc provides 3 different programming languages: Simulink by The Mathworks Robot C by Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Academy Easy C by Intelitek

29 Programming Languages: Simulink  Is a graphical simulation/programming environment  Links with Easy C for compiling and programming  OK BEST support will be limited by our lack of knowledge. We haven’t even been given a copy of the software to test.

30 Programming Languages: Robot C  Created by Carnegie Mellon University Leader in the robot world  Has debugging feature  OKBEST has a copy of the software  Support will be limited – our introduction webinar is scheduled for September 8 th and lasts 6 weeks.  Website available best/ best/ Look for items containing Cortex Controller

31 Programming Languages: Easy C  A graphical programming language  Still need a basic understanding of programming in C  Good for rapid simple programming  Applicable for most teams needs  Highly supportable by OKBEST staff

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33 Installing Easy C: What you will need  Minimum System Requirements Windows XP/Vista/Win7, Mac not supported PIII-450MHz+, 256MB+ RAM, 120MB Hard Disk Space Administrator Access on the PC 1 USB port available for Cortex programming  Software & Installation Software provided on CD Installer auto runs from CD 4-month license begins at installation, 3 seats Updates available at

34 Installing Easy C: What is installed  Prolific USB to Serial Driver  EasyC Integrated Development Environment  IFI/Intelitek Loader  EasyC libraries  IFI VEXnet firmware upgrade*  Many example projects  14 Integrated Tutorials *Note:Firmware upgrade requires administrator mode on Windows VISTA. Right click on “IFI VEXnet Firmware Upgrade” in Programs Menu and select “Run as administrator”.

35 Installing Easy C: What you will need  Projects and Libraries are added here My Documents\Intelitek\easyC V4 for Cortex

36 Installing Easy C: Installing Application  Must be in the administrator account (or administrator mode)  Run the easyC_V4_for_Cortex4001.exe program  Follow the on screen instructions  Check the “Install Prolific USB to Serial adapter driver“ checkbox before clicking the Finish button, the driver installer will startup after a few seconds  Sample files copied into a “Intelitek” subfolder in the Documents (or My Documents in XP) folder  Sample files must be copied to each users folder if the software will be shared by multiple users on the same machine.

37 Installing Easy C: Installing Application  On the first startup of the software, there will a prompt for registration code  Enter the registration code provided with your CD

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39 Programming Example: Steps to creating a program Open new Easy C workspace Define Inputs Define Outputs Define Input to Output relationship Write a program Compile Program Download Test Program

40 Programming Example: Open Easy C

41 Programming Example: Open New Project

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43 Programming Example: Save your New Program

44 Programming Example

45 Defining Inputs: Joystick, Switches and Digital Signals Joystick Input Options Proportional Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Tilt X Tilt Y Digital Inputs Channel 5 Up, Down Channel 6 Up, Down Channel 7 U, D, R, L Channel 8 U, D, R, L Controller Input Options Digital 1 Digital 2 Digital 3 Digital 4 Digital 5 Digital 6 Digital 7 Digital 8 Digital 9 Digital 10 Digital 11 Digital 12  What are the Inputs?

46 Defining Inputs: Joystick, Switches and Digital Signals  Channel 1 Drive: Turn Right Left  Channel 2 Drive: Forward/Reverse Joystick Input Options Proportional Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Tilt X Tilt Y Digital Inputs Channel 5 Up, Down Channel 6 Up, Down Channel 7 U, D, R, L Channel 8 U, D, R, L Controller Input Options Digital 1 Digital 2 Digital 3 Digital 4 Digital 5 Digital 6 Digital 7 Digital 8 Digital 9 Digital 10 Digital 11 Digital 12

47 Defining Inputs: Joystick, Switches and Digital Signals  Channel 1 Drive: Turn Right Left  Channel 2 Drive: Forward/Reverse  Channel 3 Arm: Raise and Lower Joystick Input Options Proportional Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Tilt X Tilt Y Digital Inputs Channel 5 Up, Down Channel 6 Up, Down Channel 7 U, D, R, L Channel 8 U, D, R, L Controller Input Options Digital 1 Digital 2 Digital 3 Digital 4 Digital 5 Digital 6 Digital 7 Digital 8 Digital 9 Digital 10 Digital 11 Digital 12

48 Defining Inputs: Joystick, Switches and Digital Signals  Channel 1 Drive: Turn Right Left  Channel 2 Drive: Forward/Reverse  Channel 3 Arm: Raise and Lower  Digital 1 Arm: Upper Limit  Digital 2 Arm: Lower Limit Joystick Input Options Proportional Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Tilt X Tilt Y Digital Inputs Channel 5 Up, Down Channel 6 Up, Down Channel 7 U, D, R, L Channel 8 U, D, R, L Controller Input Options Digital 1 Digital 2 Digital 3 Digital 4 Digital 5 Digital 6 Digital 7 Digital 8 Digital 9 Digital 10 Digital 11 Digital 12

49 Defining Inputs: Joystick, Switches and Digital Signals  Channel 1 Drive: Turn Right Left  Channel 2 Drive: Forward/Reverse  Channel 3 Arm: Raise and Lower  Digital 1 Arm: Upper Limit  Digital 2 Arm: Lower Limit  Channel 5 Up Wrist: Rotate Up  Channel 5 Down Wrist: Rotate Down Joystick Input Options Proportional Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Tilt X Tilt Y Digital Inputs Channel 5 Up, Down Channel 6 Up, Down Channel 7 U, D, R, L Channel 8 U, D, R, L Controller Input Options Digital 1 Digital 2 Digital 3 Digital 4 Digital 5 Digital 6 Digital 7 Digital 8 Digital 9 Digital 10 Digital 11 Digital 12

50 Programming Example

51 Defining Outputs: Motors and Servos Motor / Servo Output Options Proportional Channel 1* Channel 2# Channel 3# Channel 4# Channel 5# Channel 6# Channel 7# Channel 8# Channel 9# Channel 10* * Can drive motor Direct, No servo control # Can drive servo Direct, Motor with speed controller

52 Defining Outputs: Motors and Servos Motor / Servo Output Options Proportional Channel 1* Channel 2# Channel 3# Channel 4# Channel 5# Channel 6# Channel 7# Channel 8# Channel 9# Channel 10* * Can drive motor Direct, No servo control # Can drive servo Direct, Motor with speed controller

53 Defining Outputs: Motors and Servos Motor / Servo Output Options Proportional Channel 1* Channel 2# Channel 3# Channel 4# Channel 5# Channel 6# Channel 7# Channel 8# Channel 9# Channel 10* * Can drive motor Direct, No servo control # Can drive servo Direct, Motor with speed controller  What are the outputs?

54 Defining Outputs: Motors and Servos  Channel 1 (Motor Large) Right Drive Motor  Channel 10 (Motor Large) Left Drive motor Motor / Servo Output Options Proportional Channel 1* Channel 2# Channel 3# Channel 4# Channel 5# Channel 6# Channel 7# Channel 8# Channel 9# Channel 10* * Can drive motor Direct, No servo control # Can drive servo Direct, Motor with speed controller

55 Defining Outputs: Motors and Servos  Channel 1 (Motor Large) Right Drive Motor  Channel 10 (Motor Large) Left Drive motor  Channel 2 (Motor Small) Raise and Lower Arm Motor / Servo Output Options Proportional Channel 1* Channel 2# Channel 3# Channel 4# Channel 5# Channel 6# Channel 7# Channel 8# Channel 9# Channel 10* * Can drive motor Direct, No servo control # Can drive servo Direct, Motor with speed controller

56 Defining Outputs: Motors and Servos  Channel 1 (Motor Large) Right Drive Motor  Channel 10 (Motor Large) Left Drive motor  Channel 2 (Motor Small) Raise and Lower Arm  Channel 3 (Servo) Wrist: Rotate Up/Down Motor / Servo Output Options Proportional Channel 1* Channel 2# Channel 3# Channel 4# Channel 5# Channel 6# Channel 7# Channel 8# Channel 9# Channel 10* * Can drive motor Direct, No servo control # Can drive servo Direct, Motor with speed controller

57 Programming Example

58 Input – Output Relationship: Flow Chart, Pseudo-code Channel 1 Channel 2 Arcade Mixing Motor 1 (Right) Motor 10 (Left) InputsOutputsProgram Channel 3 If not at limit Digital 1 Digital 2 Motor 2 (Arm) Channel 5 Up Channel 5 Down Up = Rotate Up Down = Rotate Down Servo 3 (Wrist)

59 Programming Example

60 Write Program: Set Up Input / Output The Controller Configuration window is used to identify what the various interfaces will be used for and whether the digital interfaces are configured as inputs or outputs. The Controller Configuration window can be accessed via the Project menu. The example shown is the BEST default program.

61 Write Program: COMMENT..COMMENT!!!! Drag

62 Write Program: COMMENT..COMMENT!!!!

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64 Write Program: Endless Loop Drag 1 = Always

65 Write Program: Endless Loop Most of your program will be inside the endless loop

66 Write Program: Drive Motors Channel 1 Channel 2 Arcade Mixing Motor 1 (Right) Motor 10 (Left) InputsOutputsProgram

67 Write Program: Drive Motors Drag

68 Write Program: Drive Motors

69 Drag

70 Write Program: Drive Motors Always Joystick #1 Set Right Motor to Motor/Servo Port 1 Set Left Motor to Motor/Servo Port 10

71 Write Program: Drive Motors

72 Write Program: Arm Raise/Lower Channel 1 Channel 2 Arcade Mixing Motor 1 (Right) Motor 10 (Left) InputsOutputsProgram Channel 3 If not at limit Digital 1 Digital 2 Motor 2 (Arm)

73 Write Program: Arm Raise/Lower Drag

74 Write Program: Arm Raise/Lower Drag

75 Write Program: Arm Raise/Lower Always Joystick #1 Channel 3 Motor/Servo 2 Limit Switch Input 1 Limit Switch Input 2

76 Write Program: Arm Raise/Lower

77 Write Program: Wrist Rotate Channel 1 Channel 2 Arcade Mixing Motor 1 (Right) Motor 10 (Left) InputsOutputsProgram Channel 3 If not at limit Digital 1 Digital 2 Motor 2 (Arm) Channel 5 Up Channel 5 Down Up = Rotate Up Down = Rotate Down Servo 3 (Wrist)

78 Write Program: Wrist Rotate

79 Servo Port 3 Joystick Channel 5 Select Down Button Select Up Button Set Servo Value

80 Programming Example

81 Compile and Download: Build and Download

82 Compile and Download: Verify Compile with No Errors

83 Compile and Download: Download Program to Cortex  When you see the following message connect your Cortex Controller to the PC using the supplied USB A-A cable.  Then click on the YES button.

84 Compile and Download: Download Program to Cortex  Hopefully you will see this.  Then click on the OK button.

85 Programming Example

86 Test Program  Ensure your robot is ‘safe’ to operate: Can’t move or fall off table (use a jack-stand) All team members clear of moving parts  Connect either WiFi keys or tether cable between the joystick and the Cortex controller.  Make sure Cortex switch is in OFF position.  Attach a charged battery.  Turn on joystick (if not using tether).  Turn Cortex switch to ON position.  For WiFi comm, link should establish in ~10 sec  Test robot operations with transmitter.

87 Programming Example

88 Other Useful Functions  Program Flow If Conditional Else-IFConditional ElseConditional While LoopWhile condition is True … For LoopRepeat for X number of times CommentPLEASE COMMENT!

89 Other Useful Functions  Inputs Digital Input…Gets Status of Digital Input  Outputs Motor Module…Directly send value to motor Servo Module…Directly send value to servo

90 Other Useful Functions  Joystick Arcade – 2 Motor ○ Use Arcade style joystick inputs and drive 2 motors Tank-2 Motor ○ Use Tank style joystick inputs and 2 drive motors Joystick to Motor ○ Take input from 1 joystick and send it to motor

91 Other Useful Functions  Joystick Joystick to Motor & Limit ○ Take joystick value straight to motor if not at limit Joystick to Servo ○ Take a joystick value and send it to a servo Joystick Digital to Motor ○ Select 2 speeds for a motor based on joystick buttons pressed Joystick Digital to Motor & Limit ○ Select 2 speeds for a motor based on joystick buttons pressed, unless limit is reached

92 Other Useful Functions  Joystick Joystick Digital to Servo ○ Select one of 2 positions of a servo based on 2 buttons on the joystick Get Joystick to Analog ○ Retrieves a joystick value to a variable Get Joystick to Digital ○ Retrieves a joystick button to a variable

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94 Appendix: Resources  php Not all information is relevant to BEST competition  Robot C for Cortex controller s/teaching_robotc_cortex/index.html

95 Appendix: Re-sync Controller 1.Turn off Cortex and Joystick 2.Connect A-A USB cable to Cortex and Joystick 3.Turn on Joystick OR Cortex 4.Wait for Green Vexnet Light on both Joystick and Cortex 5.Turn off both Joystick and Cortex 6.Disconnect cables

96 Appendix - Status Lights joystick battery status robot battery status comm. link status Game status (not used by BEST) Green battery – good charge Yellow battery - dying Red battery – dead Green VEXnet – comm. established Yellow VEXnet – searching Lights on the controller and the joystick are the same

97 Appendix – Team Tips  Tin motor wires with solder before attaching to screw terminals since frayed stranded wires can cause a short.  Do NOT solder wires to Cortex connectors!  Sensor cables, servo wires, and servo extensions are all keyed in correct orientation; insert and remove carefully to avoid destroying connectors.  Tighten screws on motor and sensor connector cables so that wires are not loose and do not pull out.  Mount Cortex to robot using #8 screws through holes provided; be careful not to over tighten.  Avoid “hot insertion” of USB Keys.  You may operate tethered by removing the USB WiFi key and connecting a USB A-A cable between joystick and Cortex.

98 Appendix - Joystick Calibration  If the motors hum or creep (sticks not returning to zero), the joystick may need to be recalibrated  Calibration procedure (as extracted from the easyC help file) 1) The Joystick must be "Linked" to the Cortex Microcontroller using the VEXnet Keys. 2) Hold the "6U" Back Switch depressed. 3) While the "6U" Back Switch is depressed, use a small Allen Wrench (1/16" or smaller) or similar small straight tool to depress and hold the CONFIG Switch. 4) Hold both Switches depressed until you see the Joystick LED Flash RED and GREEN - you can now release both Switches. a.There is a 10 second time limit to complete the following steps 5 and 6. 5) Now move both Joystick Pots to the maximum position desired in all 4 directions - Up, Back, Left, and Right. a.If a movement is not detected in all 4 directions, a timeout will occur after about 10 seconds and the Cal Mode will be discontinued and the VEXnet LED will briefly Flash Red. b.The Joystick LED will continue to Flash RED and GREEN during the calibration process. 6) After movement is detected in all 4 directions, the Joystick LED will be ON and Solid GREEN. a.To "Save" the Calibration, depress and release the "8U" Top Switch Button. b.If the calibration is accepted and Saved, the Joystick LED will start Flashing Fast GREEN for a few seconds. c. If the Calibration is not Saved, a timeout will occur after about 10 seconds and the Cal Mode will be discontinued and the VEXnet LED will briefly Flash Red. d.To cancel a calibration, depress and release the "7U" Top Switch Button. The Cal Mode will be discontinued and the VEXnet LED will briefly Flash Red. e.If the Cal Mode is discontinued or saved, the Joystick LEDs will resume their normal function after the VEXnet LED briefly Flashes.

99 Appendix – Default Program Motor/Servo Output Joystick Channel Motor Limits Positive Direction Negative Direction Motor 1 (Arcade Right) Channel 1 (Lt, Rt) Channel 2 (Fwd/Rev) None Motor 2Channel 1Digital Input 1Digital Input 2 Motor 3Channel 2Digital Input 3Digital Input 4 Motor 4Channel 3Digital Input 5Digital Input 6 Motor 5Channel 4Digital Input 7Digital Input 8 Motor 6Channel 3None Motor 7Channel 3 InverseNone Motor 8Channel 4None Motor 9Channel 4 InverseNone Motor 10 (Arcade Left) Channel 1 (Lt, Rt) Channel 2 (Fwd/Rev) None


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