Presentation on theme: "Learning from four to six 15.2. Experiences in everyday life Reading –Phoneme – the smallest individual sound in a word –Alliteration – the repetition."— Presentation transcript:
Learning from four to six 15.2
Experiences in everyday life Reading –Phoneme – the smallest individual sound in a word –Alliteration – the repetition of certain sounds –Bilingual – able to speak two languages – may make it easier to learn how to read –Choosing books
Help children learn cont… Art and music –Creating artwork –Composing music Finger play – a song or chant with accompanying hand motions (The itsy, bitsy spider; I’m a little teapot)
Parenting skills How much television is too much? –From ages four to six, children’s brains are rapidly developing. Watching television may affect their brain development. When children watch television, they are missing out on other experiences, like forming relationships, getting exercise and using their imagination. Children who spend a lot of time watching television are less active.. This can lead to weight problems and other health problems. Researchers suspect that attention deficit disorders and weak problem solving skills among children are related to watching too much television. Watching more television is associated with poorer academic performance, especially in reading. While watching television is no substitute for reading, challenging activities, some programs for children are educational and interactive. For example, many public television programs encourage imaginative play and pose questions for children to answer. There are also educational videos available to help reinforce language or math skills. Parents should restrict their children’s viewing of programs that depict violence or that contain material that is not appropriate to a child’ level of development.
The developing brain Language builds the brain –Children between birth and six years old are at the ideal age to learn their own first language as well as other languages. Exposure to more than one language rewires the neurons in the still developing brain in such as way that a child’s overall language abilities increase greatly. Science inquiry –Adults typically do not learn new languages as easily as children. What might explain this?
Speech Development Can use adjectives Vocabulary increases 2,500 words Sentences more complex Articulation (distinct speech) improves and by 6 they can say 90% of words they know Speech difficulties –Trouble hearing –Trouble saying (pronunciation) –Physical issue
Learning through play Playing grown up –Between the ages of two and nine, children often engage in imaginative play or make believe. This kind of play aids intellectual development in many ways. In imaginative play, children act out imaginary situations. They often imitate what they see in the adult world. After watching an adult bake a cake, a child may pretend to bake a cake for a favorite stuffed animal. After visiting a parent’s workplace, a child may play in a pretend office or store. Children might also use fantasy play by drawing images from stories or films, perhaps acting out an explorer’s voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. Most children show and interest in imaginative play at some time. Adults who provide opportunities for imaginative play do children a great favor.
The school experience Preparing for school –Get physical exam and make sure immuniztions are current –Readiness Communicate with adults –Talk with adults other than his parents and be understood Manage personal needs –Put on and take off coat and shoes and use bathroom without help Complete a task Listen attentively Follow directions and take turns Be patient
The school experience Making the transition – bigger school, longer day, riding bus…kindergarten is a big step –Be sure the child knows his or her full name, address and telephone number –Explain what to expect at school. (visit before) –Be sure that the child has plenty of rest (earlier bedtime) –Let the child choose a lunch box or backpack and pick out the clothes to wear on the first day of school (helps independence) –Arrange to have the child play with future classmates before the first day of school (helps reassurance) –Share positive feeling about school (tell about how much fun you had)
Expert advice “School readiness involves a child’s social/emotional and physical development as well as his cognitive development” –Ann Barbour, child development expert
Questions Children can learn many skills by helping out around the house. What can a child learn by washing the car? What activities would you suggest to a six year old instead of watching television? Create a poster titled “Ten Things to Do Instead of Watching Television” Why is it important to talk to children about their art? Children love to go to the library and choose their own books. Why should parents help children make their choices? By the age of six, children’s language skills have reached the point where they can understand and enjoy a simple joke. How can telling jokes enhance a child’s language skills? About how many words can a normally developing six year old use and understand? Imagine that you are caring for your five year old niece and six year old nephew who want to play detectives. What materials could you provide for children who want to pretend to be detectives? The first day of school an be exciting, scary or a mixture of both for a young child. How would you prepare a child for the first day of school?
After you read 1. Give examples of how parents can encourage a child’s interest in reading, art and music. 2. Describe types of school activities that might be challenging for a student with a speech difficulty. 3. Explain two steps parents can take to prepare children for kindergarten.
After you read continued… 4. (ELA) What challenges might young children who first language is not English face at school? How can teachers help the child overcome these challenges? Record your ideas in a half page essay. 5. (SS) Think of an experience or activity not mentioned in the chapter that a caregiver could use to teach new skills to a child. Perhaps you remember how you learned a new skill as a child. Describe the activity and explain why you feel it is well suited to a four to six year old.