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The Industrial Revolution and its Impact on Political Ideas Socialism and Communism.

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1 The Industrial Revolution and its Impact on Political Ideas Socialism and Communism

2 Fundamental Shift in Lifestyles For thousands of years small farming communities prevailed Major Changes occurred in the mid- 1700’s This period is called the Industrial Revolution

3 What is a Revolution? an overthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacement of an established government or political system by the people governed. Sociology. a radical and pervasive change in society and the social structure, esp. one made suddenly and often accompanied by violence. Compare social evolution.social evolution a sudden, complete or marked change in something: the present revolution in church architecture.

4 A Turning Point in History Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-1700 (1750 ish) Radical shift in lifestyle New inventions Urban dwelling –skyscrapers/cities high rises

5 Three Factors that led to the Industrial Revolution Agricultural Revolution: 300 years ago a second agricultural revolution occurred- (remember the first one changed hunting gathering societies into farming communities) Population Explosion: More food leads to more people New Technologies: Better us of land, fertilizer, new inventions such as the seed drill emerged Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine-pumped coal out of mines James Watt improved on this invention in 1769*

6 Which is not a trigger to the Industrial Revolution A. The Introduction of Farming. B. The Invention of the Steam Engine. C. A population explosion.

7 Why in Britain? The Industrial revolution began in Britain because: Resources: large supplies of coal, iron and population New Technology: Economic conditions: trade from overseas colonies, business class emerges and accumulates capital, takes risks with their capital on new business ventures Political Conditions: Britain had a stable government, navy protected economic interests,

8 How did economic conditions impact the Industrial Revolution? A. Created an working class to its capital in business ventures. B. Business trade with other European nations lead to more capital. C. Business class emerged from trade with colonies, that was willing to risk its capital.

9 Textile Industry-Leader in IR Cotton industry popular in the 1600’s imported clothe from India Putting out system-peasants would be given cotton to process and artisans in the cities would finish the product -Production low and slow New inventions such as the flying shuttle and spinning jenny allowed threads to be spun faster Lead to factories and the end of the putting out system

10 First Factories Manufacturers built long sheds to house these new machines Spinners and weavers came each day to these sheds to work together Increased output

11 What is the putting out system? A. A system designed to increase productivity in the textile industry. B. A System in which cotton was distributed to peasants to spin and then dyed and finished by artisans. C. A system where peasants worked together to spin the cotton in large sheds using new technology

12 New Technologies Population growth spurred on by the agricultural revolution led to new technologies –particularly in the realm of energy (water mills, windmills)

13 Revolution In Transportation Increase in production led to the need for faster and cheaper methods of moving the goods from place to place Turnpikes emerge- Steam locomotive-tracks go places that rivers couldn’t Robert Fulton places James Watt’s steam engine onto a boat- steam boat emerges

14 Hardship of Early Industrial Age Industrial age brought extreme wealth and extreme poverty Urbanization occurs: rapid movement of people to cities This occurred because of changes in farming (enclosure, soaring populations, demand for worker Tenements emerge in the cities-these are multistory buildings divided into crowded apartments

15 Factory System Heart of the new industrial city Long hours, rigid schedules, unsafe conditions Women were preferred over men-easier to control, could be paid less Child Labor: used to fix small equipment –wages were needed to keep families from starving

16 The Working Class Protests as jobs were lost to machine These protest were suppress often with violence

17 The New Middle Class Entrepreneurs were the ones to benefit from the IR Middle Class emerges Families lived in nice homes as compared to the tenements of the working class Valued hard work Thought poor were responsible for the own misery

18 New Ways of Thinking Thomas Malthus wrote Essay on the Principle of Population Predicted that population would outpacefood supply War, disease and famine kept populations low Adam Smith: wrote Wealth of Nations Supported the free market Unregulated goods and services More goods lower prices benefits everyone

19 New Ways of Thinking Ricardo: agreed with Malthus about population- said the poor had too many children Iron law of wages – when wages are high poor have more kids Held no hope that the poor could escape poverty

20 The Utilitarians Jeremy Bentham: goal of society was the greatest happiness for the greatest number of the citizens Supported individual freedom/with some government involvement John Stuart Mill-actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong if they case pain

21 Emergence of Socialism Laissez faire economics focused on individual rights others focused on godd of society Goal of socialism was to end poverty and injustice According to socialism the people own the means of production, not the individual Means of production are the farms, factories and railways that produce and distribute goods

22 Socialism Continued The Utopians: built communities where property and work were shared in common No classes reduces fighting Thomas Moore gave this group its name Robert Owen a successful Welsh mill owner set up such a community called New Lanark

23 Scientific Socialism Karl Marx a German philosopher called the utopians unrealistic put forth the theory of scientific socialism Collaborated with Friedrich Engels Wrote the Communist Manifesto Communism their name for their brand of socialism-sees class struggles between employer and employees as unavoidable

24 Marxism In the Communist Manifesto-Marx believed that economics was the force behind all history History of class struggles Proletariat were the working class Middle class was the bourgeoisie Despised capitalism


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