Presentation on theme: "Prehabilitation and Preseason Conditioning"— Presentation transcript:
1Prehabilitation and Preseason Conditioning Chapter 7Prehabilitation and Preseason Conditioning
2RehabilitationThe process of restoring function through programmed exercise, to enable return to competitionThis process occurs after an injury has taken place and a diagnoses has been made by a health care professional
3PrehabilitationTrying to prevent injuries before they occur, they occur, through a preventative management programDecreases the chance of injury by addressing areas of concern or deficit identified before participation in a sporting event. A program can be implemented to strengthen and develop these areas, thus reducing the chance of injury during participationPrehabilitation takes place during preseason conditioning. This should begin 6-8 weeks prior to sports participation
4Preseason Conditioning Allows an athlete’s body to gradually adjust to the stresses and demands of their sportTakes place during off-seasonNot necessarily the same as Prehabilitation, although may take place at the same time and involve some of the same activities
5The pre-season conditioning program - Components Type – What kind of exercise or activity? Should be sport specific.Frequency – How often should it be done?Intensity – How hard is it?Duration – How long should the exercise or activity last?
6Strength TrainingA highly adaptive process whereby the body changes in response in increased training loads.Purpose of strength training is adaptation. The systematic application of exercise stress sufficient to stimulate muscle fatigue, but not so severe that breakdown and injury occur.
7HypertrophyIf a muscle is worked beyond its normal limits, it adapts and becomes larger.The muscle then becomes stronger allowing it to handle the increased demands placed on it.
8ReversibilityIf demands are then decreased on a muscle, atrophy will occur. The muscle will become weak and waste away.
9Progressive Resistance Exercise Allows the body to adapt to the increased demand placed upon it by trainingFactors that determine the rate and type of strength gains include:OverloadSpecificityReversibilityIndividual Differences
10Overload Muscles must be overloaded to improve strength. Muscles increase in strength and size when they are forced to contract at tensions close to maximum.If consistent gains are to occur, demands on muscles must be gradually increased at a controlled rate.Ideal number of repetitions for an exercise are between 4-8 and should be done in multiple sets of three or more.Rest period between sets is important and varies per individual
11SpecificityMuscles adapt specifically to the nature of the work that is performed.If hypertrophy of leg muscles is desired, leg muscles must be worked. If hypertrophy of the shoulder muscles is desired, shoulder muscles must be worked, etc.
12Individual Differences Different people vary in the rate which they gain strength.Can be attributed to the predominance of Fast and Slow Twitch Muscle FibersMale vs. FemaleGenetics – Fiber Composition is pre-determined, but training can improve upon thisLevel of fitness the individual is in at the time they begin strength training
14How a muscle worksMotor unit – when a muscle flexes, a motor unit is activated. This is a motor nerve plus all the muscle fibers it stimulates.
15When muscles contract… Recruitment of different types of motor units take place to carry out the contractionThe muscle shortens when it is contracted, then lengthens when it is relaxed.
16Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers Fiber in a motor unit that requires a long time to generate force.Resistant to fatigueJogging, and most other tasks of human motion
17Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers Fiber in a motor unit that produces quick, forceful contractions.Easily fatiguedSprinting, weightlifting
18Isometric ExerciseThere is a muscle contraction with movement of a limbMuscles maintain a constant length throughout the contractionOften used in rehabNo equipment needed-uses body’s own resistanceLow risk of injuryShould be avoided by those with high blood pressure or circulation problems
19Dynamic/Isotonic Exercise A muscle is contracted and causes the muscle to contract and shorten.Movement occurs at the joint that the muscle acts onDumbbells, Barbells, Calisthenics such as push-ups, sit-ups, and chin-ups.Results in increased strength, blood circulation, and endurance
20Manual Resistance Training Form of dynamic exercise accomplished utilizing a training partnerPartner assists by adding resistance to the lift as the lifter works the muscles through the full range of motion. Adds enough resistance to allow the lifter to fatigue the musclesRequires minimal equipmentPartner can help control techniqueTraining can be done anywhere
21Isokinetic ExerciseA type of exercise in which a machine is used to control the speed of contraction within the range of motionProvides muscular overload at a constant, preset speedGenerally used in Physical Therapy settings.Machines are very expensive
22Circuit TrainingThe use of 6-10 strength exercises complete one right after another.Short rest period between sets as well as different exercisesUsually used with machinesImproves strength and endurance
23Stretching and Flexibility Stretching – moving joints beyond their normal range of motionFlexibility – The ability of a joint to move freely throughout its full range of motionUseful for injury prevention and treatment
24Guidelines for Stretching Warm up first. Never stretch a cold muscle!By warming up first, the delivery of oxygen and nutrients are increased thus preparing muscles for strenuous activity.Warming up should not be too tiring, but just enough to begin perspiring.Usually a light jog for 5-7 minutes is sufficient
25Just the Facts PleaseAn active person tends to be more flexible than a non-active personFemales tend to be more flexible than malesAs we get older, we lose flexibilityFlexibility is just as important as strength and enduranceTo achieve flexibility of a joint, the surrounding muscles must be stretched
27PNFProprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation – involves a combination of contraction and relaxation of the muscles.Proprioceptive – refers to stimuli originating in muscles, tendons, and other internal tissues.Neuromuscular – pertains to muscles and nervesFacilitation – is the enhancement of any natural process
28PNF Cont…Requires an initial isometric contraction against maximum resistance at the end range of motion.Position is held for six seconds followed by relaxtion and passive stretchingThis process is repeated several timesRequires a qualified assistantAllows for greater stretch due to fatigue of muscle fibers during the relax phasePNF Video
29Cardiorespiratory Conditioning An activity that puts an increased demand on the lungs, heart, and other body systemsAKA aerobic or endurance trainingUses large muscle groups for activities such as walking, jogging, swimming, or cycling.
30Goals of aerobic conditioning Improve performanceTrain the heart and other muscles to use oxygen more efficientlyThe more efficient the cardiovascular system, the longer the athlete may exercise, therefore improving overall fitnessIncrease muscular endurance. (Ability of muscles to sustain high-intensity aerobic exercise)
31Long-term effectsLike any muscle, the heart increases in size, thereby increasing pumping volume.Resting heart rate decreasesResting blood pressure decreasesIncreased lung capactiy – allows for more oxygen transport to musclesIncrease in metabolism
32Additional benefits Reduced fatigue Improved self-confidence Improved muscle strength and toneIncreased enduranceReduced stress levelsReduced body fatImproved overall physical and mental health
33How do I get started?Check with your physician to make sure there are no limitations to beginning an aerobic exercise program.Talk to your school’s Certified Athletic TrainerConsult with a Certified Personal TrainerRemember! In OK, all personal trainers may not be certified. Look into hiring one who is ACSM certified.