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What is Psychology? The science of behavior and the mind

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Presentation on theme: "What is Psychology? The science of behavior and the mind"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Psychology? The science of behavior and the mind
behavior - observable actions of a person or animal mind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences science an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts / data and well described methods Keywords: behavior, mind, science

2 What is Psychology? A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions the scientific method evolved over centuries, first in physics A product of history philosophy asked many of the basic questions physiology used similar methods

3 What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning
trace back to philosophy Socrates (c B.C.) & Plato (c B.C)viewed mind as separate from the body & continuing after death; some ideas are inborn; “The unexamined life is not worth living.” Aristotle (c B.C.) viewed mind and body as connected; asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.; established the Lyceum; developed “deductive logic” through a system of “syllogism.”

4 Philosophical Developments
BIG A Question: How are mind and body related? Dualism - body and soul are separate but interrelated origins in medieval religion soul is seat of intellectual function and will mind is product of the soul mind not subject to scientific inquiry to challenge this was punishable by death Keywords: dualism, Rene Descartes Graphic: picture of Descartes pg. 4 of Gray

5 Philosophical Developments
A Question: How are mind and body related? BIG Rene Descartes ( ) - modified dualism since animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soul the body can therefore control much behavior led him to study reflexes Dissected animals & identified “animal spirits” flowed through the body and provoked movement the soul’s main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute Keywords: dualism, Rene Descartes

6 Philosophical Developments
BIG A Question: How are mind and body related? Empiricism: knowledge and intellect are acquired John Locke ( ) the mind at birth is a “white paper” or blank slate (equal at birth…The Declaration of Independence!) sensory experiences produce elementary ideas Science should rely on observation & experimentation Keywords: dualism, Rene Descartes Graphic: picture of Descartes pg. 4 of Gray

7 Philosophical Developments
BIG Another Question: Empiricism vs. Nativism Nativism is the view that elementary ideas are innate If knowledge is innate What is the purpose of education? Can intellect be changed by experience? Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? This is known as Nature vs. Nurture appears throughout modern psychology Keywords: materialism, empiricism, nativism

8 Foundations of Modern Psychology
Charles Darwin ( ) Theory of natural selection (1859) physical characteristics evolve through natural selection behavioral patterns also influence selection inborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival value are passed on Human beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science Keywords: Charles Darwin, natural selection Graphic: picture of Darwin pg. 8 of Gray

9 Foundations of Modern Psychology
Darwin’s theory encouraged scientific inquiry 19th century developments in physiology demonstrated the approach to use based on scientific methods, controlled laboratory experiments influential beliefs from early physiology reflexology - all human behaviors occur through reflexes localization of function - specific structures of the brain serve specific functions in the control of mental experiences and behavior The division from physiology begins in the 19th century, yet connections remain today. Keywords: reflexology, localization of function

10 The Father of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt ( ) Leipzig, Germany (1879) wrote the first psychology textbook applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind structuralism – identify ‘atoms’ of the mind focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes measured reaction times

11 Other Pioneers Edward Titchener (1867-1927) William James (1842-1910)
Wundt’s student, professor at Cornell University Introspection- looking inward William James ( ) started psychology at Harvard in 1870s opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach functionalism – how people (animals) adapt to their environment; influenced by Darwin Keywords: William James, functionalism Graphic: picture of James pg. 11 of Gray

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13 Gestalt Perception is more than the sum of its parts- it involves a “whole pattern”
Max Wetheimer ( ) Wolfgang Kohler ( ) Disagreed with structuralism & behaviorism Ex: you recognize a chair, not the individual components

14 Perspectives Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena
Psychology has multiple perspectives biological psychoanalytic cognitive cross- cultural social

15 Psychoanalytic Psychology
-Austrian physician that focused on illness -interest in the unconscious mind -psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders -free association: list without filter or logic Believed dreams are expressions of our unconscious urges Sigmund Freud ( )

16 Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) John B. Watson (1878-1958)
Russian physiologist discovered conditioned reflexes , Pavlov’s dog John B. Watson ( ) Focus on observable behavior All behavior is conditioned; A-B-C Little Albert experiment B.F. Skinner ( ) American psychologist at Harvard studied learning and effect of reinforcement behaviorism

17 Pavlov’s Dog B.F. Skinner

18 Phrenology: examining bumps on the skull to make predictions about behavior & intellect & character (19th century)

19 Biological Perspective
Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion or learning Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences Keywords: physiological psychology

20 Cognitive Perspective
How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior ? Influences include Piaget - studied intellectual development Chomsky - studied language Cybernetics - science of information processing Keywords: cognitive psychology

21 Humanistic Perspective
Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers 1960s behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’ focus on conscious forces and self perception More positive view of basic forces than Freud’s Individuals have freedom in directing his/her future and achieving personal growth Keywords: psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud Graphic: picture of Freud pg. 18 of Gray

22 Sociocultural Psychology
The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups (ethnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status, etc…) How are people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture? What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate? Keywords: cultural psychology

23 The Profession of Psychology
American Psychological Association had 52 divisions in 1998 Some represent areas of training and specialization (e.g., developmental, clinical) Some are applied (i.e., teaching in psychology, psychology and the law)

24 Areas of Specialization
Clinical abnormal behavior and psychological disorders psychologist vs. psychiatrist Health psychology psychological factors in physical health Counseling dealing with normal life situations provide guidance Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10% Keywords: biological psychology, developmental psychology, personality psychology

25 Areas of Specialization
Developmental psychological change over the life span social, cognitive, personality School counseling and guidance in school settings Educational learning and teaching Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10% Keywords: health psychology, educational psychology, industrial/organizational psychology

26 Areas of Specialization
Psychobiology brain and behavior studied at many levels often uses animals as research model Experimental basic laboratory focus animals or humans learning, memory, motivation Cognitive experimental human memory, perception, etc. Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10% Keywords: clinical psychology, psychiatry

27 Areas of Specialization
Social social influences on cognition and emotion attitudes and beliefs Personality individual differences perception by others Industrial/organizational people and work job satisfaction training and selection Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10% Keywords: clinical psychology, psychiatry

28 Professional Work Settings
Colleges and universities Clinical settings Elementary and secondary schools Business Government Private Practice Government Universities & College Business & Industry School Employment Settings of Psychologists Keywords: psychologists’ work settings


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