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What is Psychology? zThe science of behavior and the mind ybehavior - observable actions of a person or animal ymind - thoughts, feelings, sensations,

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Presentation on theme: "What is Psychology? zThe science of behavior and the mind ybehavior - observable actions of a person or animal ymind - thoughts, feelings, sensations,"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Psychology? zThe science of behavior and the mind ybehavior - observable actions of a person or animal ymind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences yscience x an objective way to answer questions x based on observable facts / data and well described methods

2 What is Psychology? zA set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions ythe scientific method yevolved over centuries, first in physics zA product of history yphilosophy asked many of the basic questions yphysiology used similar methods

3 What is Psychology? zA set of questions about mental functioning ytrace back to philosophy ySocrates (c B.C.) & Plato (c B.C)viewed mind as separate from the body & continuing after death; some ideas are inborn; x “The unexamined life is not worth living.” yAristotle (c B.C.) viewed mind and body as connected; asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.; established the Lyceum; developed “deductive logic” through a system of “syllogism.”

4 Philosophical Developments zA Question: How are mind and body related? zDualism - body and soul are separate but interrelated yorigins in medieval religion ysoul is seat of intellectual function and will ymind is product of the soul xmind not subject to scientific inquiry yto challenge this was punishable by death

5 Philosophical Developments zA Question: How are mind and body related? zRene Descartes ( ) - modified dualism ysince animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soul ythe body can therefore control much behavior xled him to study reflexes xDissected animals & identified “animal spirits” flowed through the body and provoked movement ythe soul’s main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute

6 Philosophical Developments zEmpiricism: yknowledge and intellect are acquired yJohn Locke ( ) the mind at birth is a “white paper” or blank slate (equal at birth…The Declaration of Independence!) ysensory experiences produce elementary ideas yScience should rely on observation & experimentation zA Question: How are mind and body related?

7 Philosophical Developments zAnother Question: Empiricism vs. Nativism zNativism is the view that elementary ideas are innate zIf knowledge is innate yWhat is the purpose of education? yCan intellect be changed by experience? zAre abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? zThis is known as Nature vs. Nurture yappears throughout modern psychology

8 Foundations of Modern Psychology zCharles Darwin ( ) zTheory of natural selection (1859) yphysical characteristics evolve through natural selection ybehavioral patterns also influence selection yinborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival value are passed on zHuman beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science

9 Foundations of Modern Psychology zDarwin’s theory encouraged scientific inquiry z19th century developments in physiology demonstrated the approach to use ybased on scientific methods, controlled laboratory experiments yinfluential beliefs from early physiology xreflexology - all human behaviors occur through reflexes xlocalization of function - specific structures of the brain serve specific functions in the control of mental experiences and behavior xThe division from physiology begins in the 19 th century, yet connections remain today.

10 The Father of Psychology zWilhelm Wundt ( ) yLeipzig, Germany (1879) ywrote the first psychology textbook yapplied laboratory techniques to study of the mind ystructuralism – identify ‘atoms’ of the mind xfocused on basic sensory and perceptual processes xmeasured reaction times

11 Other Pioneers zEdward Titchener ( ) yWundt’s student, professor at Cornell University yIntrospection- looking inward zWilliam James ( ) ystarted psychology at Harvard in 1870s yopposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach yfunctionalism – how people (animals) adapt to their environment; influenced by Darwin

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13 Gestalt Perception is more than the sum of its parts- it involves a “whole pattern” zMax Wetheimer ( ) zWolfgang Kohler ( ) zDisagreed with structuralism & behaviorism zEx: you recognize a chair, not the individual components

14 Perspectives zPerspective is a way of viewing phenomena zPsychology has multiple perspectives ybiological ypsychoanalytic ycognitive ycross- cultural ysocial

15 Sigmund Freud ( ) Psychoanalytic Psychology y-Austrian physician that focused on illness y-interest in the unconscious mind y-psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders y-free association: list without filter or logic yBelieved dreams are expressions of our unconscious urges

16 Behaviorism zIvan Pavlov ( ) yRussian physiologist ydiscovered conditioned reflexes, Pavlov’s dog zJohn B. Watson ( ) zFocus on observable behavior zAll behavior is conditioned; A-B-C zLittle Albert experiment zB.F. Skinner ( ) yAmerican psychologist at Harvard ystudied learning and effect of reinforcement ybehaviorism

17 Pavlov’s Dog B.F. Skinner

18 Phrenology: examining bumps on the skull to make predictions about behavior & intellect & character (19 th century)

19 Biological Perspective zStudy the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior zFocus may be at various levels yindividual neurons yareas of the brain yspecific functions like eating, emotion or learning zInterest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences

20 Cognitive Perspective zHow is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior ? zInfluences include yPiaget - studied intellectual development yChomsky - studied language yCybernetics - science of information processing

21 zAbraham Maslow & Carl Rogers 1960s xbehavior reflects innate ‘actualization’ xfocus on conscious forces and self perception yMore positive view of basic forces than Freud’s yIndividuals have freedom in directing his/her future and achieving personal growth Humanistic Perspective

22 Sociocultural Psychology zThe study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups (ethnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status, etc…) zHow are people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture? zWhat are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?

23 The Profession of Psychology zAmerican Psychological Association had 52 divisions in 1998 zSome represent areas of training and specialization (e.g., developmental, clinical) zSome are applied (i.e., teaching in psychology, psychology and the law)

24 Areas of Specialization zClinical yabnormal behavior and psychological disorders ypsychologist vs. psychiatrist zHealth psychology ypsychological factors in physical health zCounseling ydealing with normal life situations yprovide guidance Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%

25 Areas of Specialization zDevelopmental ypsychological change over the life span ysocial, cognitive, personality zSchool ycounseling and guidance in school settings zEducational ylearning and teaching Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%

26 Areas of Specialization zPsychobiology ybrain and behavior ystudied at many levels yoften uses animals as research model zExperimental ybasic laboratory focus yanimals or humans ylearning, memory, motivation zCognitive yexperimental yhuman memory, perception, etc. Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%

27 Areas of Specialization zSocial ysocial influences on cognition and emotion yattitudes and beliefs zPersonality yindividual differences yperception by others zIndustrial/organizational ypeople and work yjob satisfaction ytraining and selection Other Psychology 15% Developmental 6% Clinical 36% Biological and Experimental 16% Industrial/Organizational 3% Social and Personality 8% Educational 3% School 3% Counseling 10%

28 Professional Work Settings zColleges and universities zClinical settings zElementary and secondary schools zBusiness zGovernment Private Practice Government Universities & College Business & Industry School Employment Settings of Psychologists


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