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Gulf of Mexico 2010.  How Was Oil Formed?  What Fuels Are Made From Crude Oil?

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Presentation on theme: "Gulf of Mexico 2010.  How Was Oil Formed?  What Fuels Are Made From Crude Oil?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gulf of Mexico 2010

2  How Was Oil Formed?

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4  What Fuels Are Made From Crude Oil?

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6  Ink  Crayons  Bubble gum  Dishwashing liquids  Deodorant  Eyeglasses  CDs and DVDs  Tires  Ammonia  Heart valves

7  How Does Oil Impact the Environment?

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9 Nearly all of these byproducts have negative impacts on the environment and human health. What byproducts are you aware of?

10  Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and a source of global warming.

11  SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) causes acid rain, which is harmful to plants and to animals that live in water, and it worsens or causes respiratory illnesses and heart diseases, particularly in children and the elderly.

12  NOX (mono-nitrogen oxides) and VOCs (Volatile organic compounds) contribute to ground-level ozone, which irritates and damages the lungs.

13  PM (particulate matter) results in hazy conditions in cites and scenic areas, and, along with ozone, contributes to asthma and chronic bronchitis, especially in children and the elderly. Very small, or “fine PM” is also thought to cause emphysema and lung cancer.

14  Lead can have severe health impacts, especially for children, and air toxics are known or probable carcinogens.

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16 Sometimes the environment is able to take care of an oil spill by natural processes. However, when a large oil spill occurs, nature can use some assistance in the clean-up process.

17 php/mixtures/water/http://www.mysterycargo.info/sections/index. php/mixtures/water/ page 8 So…what could be used to hold oil in one place so that it is easier to clean?

18  Booms are commonly used to used to hold oil in one place so that it is easier to clean. Once the spread of oil is controlled, environmental scientists can choose from three major methods for oil clean-up: Biological, Chemical, and Physical/Mechanical.

19  Biological In nature, many microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi break down oil into a harmless substance. Biological agents are chemicals or organisms that speed up the rate of the biological breakdown of oil.  These microorganisms and agents are being researched and have the potential to provide clean-up in sensitive areas such as shorelines and wetlands without further harming the environment.

20  Chemical Special chemicals such as soaps, are called dispersants and can be used to break up or dissolve oil. Also, gelling agents are used to react with oil to form a rubbery solid which can then be removed from the water.

21  Chemical  Another chemical method is simply burning the oil off of the surface. However, because burning and special chemicals might hurt the environment and living organisms, these methods are not the best choice along coastlines or populated areas.

22  Physical/Mechanical These methods involve physically removing the oil from the water. Typical examples of this include using large vacuums, skimmers, and substances to soak up or absorb oil. These are often used along with the large booms that keep the oil in one place.

23  Background:  In this activity, you will model three of the most common physical or mechanical methods for cleaning up oil spills: the Vacuum method, the Absorbent method, and the Skimmer method. You will use a medicine dropper to model vacuuming oil off of the surface, cotton balls to model absorbing oil, and a nylon net to model skimming the oil.

24 Predict:  Before you begin, make a prediction for the results of your experiment by answering the following questions.  Rank each method according to the following scale: 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good.

25  1. What is the most effective method? ◦ a. Vacuum 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ b. Absorbent 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ c. Skimmer 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good.  2. What is the easiest method? ◦ a. Vacuum 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ b. Absorbent 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ c. Skimmer 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good.  3. What is the best overall method? ◦ a. Vacuum 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ b. Absorbent 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ c. Skimmer 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good.

26  Follow the instructions on your lab hand-out.  Remember to record your observations and data collected.

27  1. What is the most effective method? ◦ a. Vacuum 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ b. Absorbent 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ c. Skimmer 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good.  2. What is the easiest method? ◦ a. Vacuum 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ b. Absorbent 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ c. Skimmer 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good.  3. What is the best overall method? ◦ a. Vacuum 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ b. Absorbent 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good. ◦ c. Skimmer 1 = Poor, 2 = Fair, 3 = Good.

28  Here is an opportunity for you to use your brainpower to relate your findings to other factors of the different methods of oil removal.  Choose one method of oil removal and research this method on the web. Then write a report how well this method stands up to the following criteria for oil removal:  Environmentally friendly  Cost effective  Is a practical method  Works in different water conditions  Works in different areas/climates  Works fast Leaves no residue/other materials  Safe for humans  Safe for other living organisms

29  The world’s petroleum supply is expected to be in trouble by More energy will be needed to get the remaining petroleum out of the ground than can be obtained from the produced oil. Researchers around the world are looking for alternative sources of energy.  What type of Alternatives are in YOUR future?

30  Investigate the following alternative sources of energy. Decide which options you think are the best for your future and for future generations.  Biodiesel Ethanol Geothermal Energy Hydrogen Methanol Nuclear Energy Ocean Energy Solar Power Wind Energy Biodiesel Ethanol Geothermal Energy Hydrogen Methanol Nuclear Energy Ocean Energy Solar Power Wind Energy

31  Petroleum is a fossil fuel formed millions of years ago that is rapidly being depleted.  Explore the world’s remaining oil resources.  World Oil Resources World Oil Resources  World Petroleum Snapshot World Petroleum Snapshot  Investigate the world’s greatest uses of oil.  Adventures In Energy - The American Petroleum Institute Adventures In Energy - The American Petroleum Institute  A Barrel of Oil A Barrel of Oil  Learn what you can do to conserve petroleum resources.  Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency  Recycling Recycling  Fuel Saving Tips Fuel Saving Tips


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