2I. Indigenous Music Largely functional Expressed either instrumentally, vocally, or a combination of bothIndigenous music before the colonial era was largely functional. Expressed either instrumentally or vocally or a combination of both, music was deeply integrated with the activities of the natives. The ancient Filipinos had music practically for all occasions, for every phase of life, from birth to death.
3Indigenous Musical Instruments AerophonesChordophonesIdiophonesMembranophonesA few differences may be noted between the instruments of the Northern and Southern Philippines. These differences lie primarily in the manner of construction, the style of playing them and the sound they produce. By and large, however, instruments found all over the Islands are strikingly similar.
4Aerophonesany musical instrument which produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound best represented by the many types of bamboo flutes that are found all over the country
5Lip Valley Flute paldong, or kaldong of the Kalinga palendag of South Maguindanaopulalu of Manobo
6Lip Valley FluteTwo by two fingerholes. Protruding mouthpiece with a hole. The instrument is decorated with carvings blackened by burning.
8Nose FluteThe northern tribes call this kalleleng (Bontoc and Kankanai), tongali (Ifugao and Kalinga) and baliing (Isneg). In the Central Philippines, it is known as lantuy among the Cuyunin, babarek among the Tagbanua and plawta among the Mangyan.produces soft and soothing sounds heard clearly in quiet late afternoons
9Nose FluteLong bamboo tube, closed at one end by the node in which the blowing hole is burnt. The flute has three finger holes. The blowing hole is placed under an angle against the nose and the player gently blows into the tube.
10Ring Flute Suling of Maguindanao so called because the blowing end is encircled with a rattan ring to create mouthpiece
12Pipe with Reed Sahunay of the Taosug Tube with six fingerholes; mouth piece of bamboo with cut out reed; mouth shield made of coconut shell; bell made of leaf (probably bamboo) and blue plastic ribbon.
13Chordophonesany musical instrument which makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two pointsInclude bamboo zithers, guitars, violins, and lutes
14Zithera stringed instrument made from a single bamboo section, around three to four inches in diameter, with a node at each end. Serving as strings are raised narrow strips of the outer skin fibers of the bamboo itself, with the ends still attached to the body of the instrument.
18Kudyapi/KudlungTwo stringed lute made of wood, one string for the melody, one for the drone. Eight frets originally held in place placed on the neck of the lute by a sticky rubbery substance. The lute is decorated with floral motives; the tail is carved to represent a stylised crocodile head.These long “guitars” or boat lutes are carved in soft wood usually to represent a mythical two-headed animal, the naga (serpent) or crocodile, or perhaps the modified head, body and tail of thesarimanok, a cockerel-like bird. The kudyapi is alos known as a “speaking instrument” because it figures prominently in courtship. It is also used as an accompaniment for dances.
19Idiophonesany musical instrument which creates sound primarily by way of the instrument vibrating itself, without the use of strings or membranesInclude bamboo buzzers, percussion sticks and gongs
20Jaw harp kubing of Maranao kolibauTingguian, arudingTagbanua, kolibauTingguian,a very thin slit of bamboo or brass with a narrow vibrating tongue in the middle longitudinal sectionconsidered a “speaking intrument”Placed between the lips of the player, its tongue is made to vibrate by striking the projecting end of the instrument with the thumb or by pulling a string attached to it. The mouth of the playeracts as the resonator, and as the shape of the mouth cavity changes, the pitch and quality of the sound varies. This enables the player to communicate message with his instrument. For this reason, the jew’s harp is a favorite of lovers and is played by both men and women. It is thus considered a “speaking intrument”.
21Bamboo Buzzerbalingbing, or bunkaka Kalinga; batiwtiw (Central Philippines)a bamboo tube which is open or split at one endThis instrument is played alone or in groups as a form and diversion or to drive away evil spirits along a forest trail.
22Kulintang (Maguindanao and Maranao) consists of eight gongs placed horizontally in a frame and tuned to a flexible pentatonic or five-tone scale The kulintang ensemble is often considered as the most cultivated of the region’s musical expressions. Aside from being a medium of entertainment and hospitality, the kulintang also serves as a vehicle for social interaction and group solidarity and for learning ethical principles
27Vocal FormsLullabies (owiwi, dagdagay, oppia, lagan bata-bata, bua, and kawayanna)didactic/figurativeOccupational dinaweg (boar), the kellangan (shark-fishing), and the didayu (wine-making)Occasional appros, nan-sob-oy, sarongkawit, dikirWarlove ading, sindilEthnomusicologist Jose MacedaSongs mark every stage of human development from birth and infancy to adulthood and death, night and day, and many occasions in the cycle of natural events and the flow of human activities whether personal, social, economic, political, spiritual or cosmic
28Patterns and Characteristics ImprovisationLow and limited range of notesMelodic ornamentationsGreater variety of voice qualityChant-like monotone singing in most groupsRhythmic freedomlarge number of reiterated and marked accents on one vowel
30Haranatraditional form of courtship music in which a man woos a woman by singing underneath her window at nightStructure based on the plosaPananapatan, pasasalamat, pagtumbok, paghilig, pamamaalamstructure of the harana is based on the plosa, the form of Tagalog poetrypananapatan Pasasalamat Pagtumbok Paghilig pamamaalam
31Kundimana lyrical song made popular in the Philippines in the early 19th centuryAlmost all traditional Filipino love songs in this genre are heavy with poetic emotion
32Rondalla patterned after estudiantina and comparasa plucked string ensemblebandurria, laud, octavina, guitar, and bajo de uñas
33III. American influenced Neo-classicismConservatory of Musicpopularity of American rock’n’roll, pop music, dance, and disco“tunog-lata”Low budget films – american culture
34IV. Post liberation Filipino Rock Original Pinoy Music “Killer Joe” by Rocky FellersManila SoundFolk rockOriginal Pinoy MusicFilipino Hip Hop and RnBContemporary Philippine Music