2CultureCulture: everything that makes up a person’s entire way of life
37 Elements of Culture Social Organization These are things that all cultures have in common.What might some of those things be?Social Organization-When a culture organize its members into smaller groupsWhat might some smaller groups be in a culture?FamiliesFriendsReligious groupsSocial classesOccupationInterest groups
47 Elements of Culture Social Organization, cont. - family: the most important unit of social organizationNuclear family- husband, wife, childrenExtended family- several generations in one household- respect for elders is usually strong in extended fams.
57 Elements of Culture Social Organization, cont. - social classes: a way to rank people in order of statusWhat can social class be based on?MoneyOccupationEducationRaceEtc.
67 Elements of Culture 2. Customs and Traditions - rules of behavior (written and unwritten)
77 Elements of Culture Language Important for communication and passing on traditions and beliefsThere is some debate about making English the official language of the United States.
87 Elements of Culture 4. Arts and Literature - teach about a culture’s values- promote cultural pride and unity
97 Elements of Culture Religion Major World Religions Monotheism: belief in one godPolytheism: belief in more than one godMajor World ReligionsJudaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism
107 Elements of Culture 6. Forms of Government People form governments to provide for their common needsTypesDemocracy: people have supreme powerRepublic: people choose leaders to represent themDictatorship: a ruler or group holds power by forceWhite HouseGreat Britain’s Houses of Parliament
117 Elements of Culture Economic Systems Four types 1. Traditional: people produce most of what they need to survive2. Market: basic economic questions are answered by buying/selling goods and services3. Command: government controls answers to economic questions4. Mixed: individuals make some economic decisions, the government makes others
12Ways Cultures Change Technology Environment Changes Cars, telephone, computers, TV dinnersEnvironment ChangesNew Ideas (like recycling)4. Diffusion: movement of customs and ideas from one place to another
13Be Careful of…Ethnocentrism: judging other cultures by the standards of your ownAssuming your own culture to be the bestRacism: belief that one racial group is naturally superior to anotherRace is a culture thing. It does not actually, physically exist.